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port of their views. They miss, therefore, in this book, THURSDAY, JANUARY 2, 1890

any special exposition on the author's part of the relation of his own views to those of Dr. Rein. They also will

fail to see how Murray's explanation of the origin of the THE BERMUDA ISLANDS.

inner basins of the Bermudas by solution can be met

merely by a statement of contrary conviction unsupported I Contributiou to the Physical History and Zoology of by experimental proof. Nor will they agree with Prof. the Somers Archipelage. With an Examination of the Heilprin's assertion that the recent memoir of Agassiz on Structure of Coral Reefs. By Angelo Heilprin, Curator- the Hawaiian Islands can scarcely be said to contribute 11-Charge and Professor of Invertebrate Paleontology materially towards the solving of the problem. a: the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, The author in this volume treats as absurd my attempt &c. With additions by Prof. J. P. McMurrich, Mr. to show that a true conception of the relative dimensions H A. Pilsbry, Dr. George Marx, Dr. P. R. Uhler, and of an atoll is necessary to understand the nature of the Nr. C. H. Bollman. (Philadelphia : Published by the problem. I was aware that, if my meaning was not underAutiot, 1889.)

stood, I should lay myself open to some curious reflecTHIS SHis work is mainly the outcome of researches con- tions, and therefore the point is further elucidated in my

cerning the physical history, geology, and zoology description of the Keeling Islands, in the Scottish of the Bermudas, which were accomplished under the Geographical Magasine. To Prof. Heilprin's inquiry as **Ispices of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- to how near are we brought to an understanding of the jelpłua in the summer of 1888. The author's principal character of an atoll by a true conception of its relative object was to satisfy his own mind on certain points dimensions, I would answer with the query, “ How far are (Donectal with the structure of coral reefs, and but little we misled from the truth by the woefully-distorted sections soological work was contemplated. Fortunately, how- of atolls that are employed by lecturers and by the authors ever, the collection of zoological material proved more of text-books?” Let me cite a single instance—that of ritensive than was expected, and in this respect Prof. Darwin's section of the Great Chagos Bank, which gives that lletprin was greatly assisted by the students who ac- atoll (which is 76 miles in width and 40 to 50 fathoms deep) impanied him.

the relative dimensions of a soup-plate. Some go further, After a pleasant chapter of "general impressions," the and draw, with a free hand, a deep, saucer-shaped section uthor gives the results of his examination of these of such reefs. Illustrations of this kind practically beg Islands, and then proceeds to make such a vigorous attack the question at the start, if we are arguing in favour of on the views advanced by Agassiz, Murray, and their the theory of subsidence. The mind is at once informed followers, concerning the origin of coral islands, that by the eye that there is a deep basin to be accounted for, those attacked may be pardoned if they regard him as whereas a section on a true scale would exhibit no dhe apostle of the old belief.

appreciable depression. In the exaggeration of the relaComing from the pen of Prof. Heilprin, this volume tive depth of an atoll is concerned the very essence of the will

, however, be welcomed by both sides in the con problem, and a side-note cannot remove the impression troversy, but he must expect from his opponents an made by a false section on the mind. Our conception of energetic reply to some of his criticisms, and an unmis- the problem can scarcely be assisted by a section of an akable dissent from some of his conclusions. Thus atoll representing in the lagoon greater oceanic depths when the author asserts that the existence of an atoll in than the Challenger ever plumbed. the present position of the Bermudas is not demonstrable, Passing from these controversial matters to the zooand that we have yet to learn to what form of coral logical section of this volume, we find a very interesting structure these islands belong, he is at variance with chapter on the relationship of the Bermudian fauna. The most other authorities on the subject ; and it becomes at number of known species of marine Mollusca has been the same time a little difficult to follow him in his conclu- increased from 80 to about 170, none of the eleven spe2100 that the results of his researches go to sustain the cies peculiar to Bermuda having been described before Holl-theory of Darwin. However, laying this difficulty this exploration. Strangely enough, though "overamide

, and accepting the fact, fairly established in this whelmingly Antillean in character,” the marine Mollusca volume, that these islands have undergone recent move- include a Pacific element. The land mollusks have been ments, first of upheaval and then of subsidence, we may increased from about twenty to thirty species, of which isk:"{f what use is this double testimony to any theory, eight appear to be confined to these islands ; but, in whether of upheaval or of subsidence, unless a direct explaining the mode of transport of the non-peculiar Lastnection is first established between the form of a reef species, the author scarcely seems to have laid sufficient 21d the character of the movement?” The direct testi- importance on the transporting agencies of commerce. A mony of a single atoll that can be proved to have grown remarkable fact noted in connection with the Bermudian in a stationary area will, unless this connection be estab- crustaceans is the occurrence of three macruranslished, far outweigh the presumptive evidence derived Palæmonella tenuipes, Palæmon afinis, and Penæus from a slight subsidence of every atoll in the Indian and velutinus-hitherto only recorded from the Pacific. Prof. Pacific Oceans.

Heilprin arrives at some interesting conclusions in this Dr. Rein, in the instance of the Bermudas, was the chapter, and perhaps the most important one is conleader of one of the early skirmishes in this controversy, nected with the large proportion of peculiar forms and it was to his description of these islands that the amongst the land-shells, a circumstance which is pointed opponents of the atoll-theory of Darwin pointed in sup-to as evidence not only of the antiquity of a portion of VOL. XLL-No. 1053.


the fauna, but also of its derivation from some pre-existing The literature of Australian economic botany may be fauna in those islands. Much other zoological matter is said to date from the Great Exhibition of 1851. Owing, to be found in this volume, though only a portion of the however, to the unsettled nomenclature of Australiar collections are here described. We are informed, how- plants previous to the publication of the great "Flora ever, that a great deal of systematic work still remains for Australiensis," by Bentham and Mueller, the properties at the naturalist in the Bermudas, and Dr. Uhler, in respect the same plant were often found described under numerous of the insects, avers that much arduous collecting, botanical names. The publication of the “ Flora," and particularly of the less conspicuous kinds, is still needed. the subsequent issue of Baron Mueller's " Census of Aus

I do not know whether any argument for the consider tralian Plants" (with annual supplements), have now able antiquity of the Bermudas from the character of the rendered species names easily accessible to workers in fauna has been advanced before. At all events, Prof. all parts of Australia, and the ground is well prepared Heilprin's valuable suggestion opens up a line of inquiry for such a publication as that which lies before us. It is in the case of coral islands generally, which might be a bulky volume of 700 pages, well arranged, well got up pursued with profit. From investigations of the coral and furnished with an excellent index of botanical names, phenomena alone, I arrived at the conclusion that Keel- and also one of vernacular names. As Mr. Maiden ing Atoll has a life-history of from 15,000 to 20,000 years, reminds us, this is the first attempt made to grapple with and that it is now in the last quarter of its existence. If the economical botany of Australia. He has wisely this coral island is a type, then atolls must possess a high followed Baron Mueller in all essential details of clase antiquity; and, taking our cue from Prof. Heilprin, we fication, and due credit is given throughout the book t. may ask whether, in the fauna and Alora of a typical this learned and indefatigable worker, now, the greates Pacific or Indian Ocean atoll, there is anything to suggest living authority on all that relates to Australian vegetable that they are derived from a pre-existing order of things. life. The arrangement of subjects has been adopted Confining ourselves to the flora, we find that oceanic as that found most convenient in the Museum. This :atolls are mostly characterized by Hemsley as possessing not, perhaps, the best arrangement for a text-book, as :: no endemic element amongst their plants. Yet some of involves considerable repetition of names and synonyms these large atolls must have once engirt, according to the under each section ; but on that point we are not dis theory of subsidence, a mountainous island possessing posed to quarrel with the author. It opens, with hump an upland flora, and, as in the case of the Fijis, not a foods, and food adjuncts; and these are succeeded bu few peculiar species. The islands formed on the encir- , forage plants, drugs, gums, resins and kinos, oils, per cling reef, just like the coral islands that often front the fumes, dyes, tans, timbers, fibres, and it closes with plants shore of a mountainous island in the Western Pacific, 'having miscellaneous uses not previously enumerated would possess, in addition to the common littoral plants, A glance at the book shows very clearly, that if we except a number of plants derived from the slopes of the ad- timbers, a description of which occupies about one halt

! jacent island. How comes it, then, that, if these large the contents, the economic products of Australia are not groups of oceanic atolls mark the disappearance of moun- , of extraordinary importance. It is noticeable that the tain-ranges, we find no sign of the vanished upland flora northern parts, where the flora is reinforced by represenamongst the common littoral plants that are now brought tatives from the Malayan Archipelago and Southern Asız, by currents, winds, and sea-birds to every atoll? The yield most of the plants possessing medicinal properties Island of Tahiti could hardly disappear beneath the The genus Eucalyptus, comprising more than 130 species, ocean without leaving a Tahitian impress on the flora yields excellent timber, kinos, and essential oils, and prob of the surviving atoll. A similar reflection often occurred ably the chief economic products of Australia derived from to me whilst on the Keeling Islands.

native plants. Mr. Maiden has brought together practiIn conclusion, I would remark that partisanship in cally all that is known about the industrial application of matters of scientific dispute cannot affect the value of “gum”-trees, but we cannot now attempt to follow him. this work by an American naturalist on one of the oldest Eucalyptus Gunnii (a large plant of which grows in of British possessions. The book is illustrated with the open air at Kew) yields a sweetish sap converted by several beautiful phototypes of general views in the settlers into an excellent cider. This, and manna. islands, as well as of the æolian formations and of the from E. viminalis and E. dumosa are probably the coast scenery; and seventeen lithographic plates accom- only food products derived from Eucalyptus trees. pany the zoological descriptions. H. B. GUPPY. In the production of Eucalyptus oil (from E. amygdalin

and E. globulus), Australia, it appears, has powerful

competitors in Algeria and California, where gum-trees THE USEFUL PLANTS OF AUSTRALIA.

have been largely planted during the last twenty years The Useful Plants of Australia (including Tasmania). In the latter country, a large quantity is available as a

By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., F.C.S., &c. (London : by-product in the manufacture of anti-calcaire preparaTrübner and Co. Sydney: Turner and Henderson. tions for boilers. 1889.)

The widely-spread Acacias of Australia, locally known

hand-book to the specimens in the Technological to the immense number destroyed for the sake of the Museum at Sydney, this work in its present form is really bark used in tanning, the wattles in some districts are a concise text-book treating of “all Australian plants said to be threatened with extinction. Some whose lewe which, up to the present, are known to be of economic are eaten by stock are also becoming scarce. To counvalue, or injurious to man and domestic animals.” teract these influences, systematic attempts have been

made to plant wattles on a large scale. It is doubtful, years of careful study on the spot will hardly qualify him fowever, whether, except in South Australia, such planta- to produce even a short description. This leads us to 3ons will be ultimately successful. Gum arabic, of good the main defects of the work, which spring from the quality, is yielded by various species of Acacia, but owing author's want of personal observation, and the necessity ** to the great cost of unskilled labour in Australia, and of his obtaining information second-hand. Many recent the impossibility of utilizing the services of the aborigi- authorities do not seem to have been consulted by Prof. als, it will never find its way into the world's market to Lobley. In consequence, he constantly makes statements any very great extent." Australian indigenous edible fruits, that are incorrect or only partially accurate. Another roots and leaves and stems, are apparently wisely left fault to be found is the very incorrect and old-fashioned to the appreciation of “school-boys and aboriginals." illustrations which would much bother a new-comer to Almost more important than food in a dry country is a the district with this work as a guide. Many of the constant supply of water. The aboriginal method of crystal forms are incorrectly drawn, and in Plate xiv. obtaining water from the fleshy roots of certain trees dykes should not be represented as pipes branching out such as Hakea leucoptera, and from the stem of Vitis from the main chimney, but principally as radial sheets. áypuglauca, is similar to that adopted in other countries, The accounts of the Phlegrean Fields, so far as they go, laut Mr. Maiden has wisely given prominence to the fact, are very attractive, but lack that accuracy that a recent is the knowledge of it may be the means of saving the visit would have conferred. In describing Vesuvius, lives of many lost in the bush. Very few native Aus- he mentions the library of vulcanology collected in the tralian plants yield valuable fibres. The aboriginals Naples section of the Italian Alpine Club, stating that uppear to prepare their fishing-nets by chewing fibrous 25,000 volumes are there preserved, which is more than plants, and this practice causes their teeth to be worn three times the number. Neither will most people have down to a dead level.” In the same manner, we may had such a favourable experience of Vesuvian guides as add, the natives of Formosa prepare certain fibres for Prof. Lobley. Yet altogether, the chapters on Vesuvius making clothes.

are the best part of the work, and are quite as much as a The best fodder grass of Australia is said to be An- visitor with a couple of days to give to the mountain can skistiria ciliata, known as the "common kangaroo grass.” comfortably absorb. The chapter on the geology of the There are several poison bushes (species of Gastrolo volcano is clear and well written. www, Swainsonia, and Sarcostemma) dangerous to stock Unfortunately the book is spoiled-more perhaps than $0 widely distributed as to render extensive tracts of by anything else-by the author's views as to the causes Loantry unoccupiable. These of late years have been of volcanic action. In the first place, the class of readers reinforced by noxious weeds from other countries. to whom the rest of the book appeals are not likely to

It is not to be supposed, however, that our knowledge possess sufficient physical and geological knowledge to of the economic uses of Australian plants is yet com be able to enter into the question, and to them chapter plete, and we are glad to learn that the author is actively viii. is likely to prove a bore, and should they begin to paigaged in observations that no doubt will be incor- peruse the book at this point, the effect will probably be forated in a later edition. In the meantime, however, that they will read no more. Even if it be supposed that ne cannot do better than commend this work as a most the questions regarding the mechanics of the extrusion of trustworthy guide in a handy form to the useful plants igneous matter on the earth's surface are an easy matter of lustralia

D. M. of comprehension, the method of putting the subject into

numbered paragraphs is much to be deprecated when the

reader is not a specialist. JOUNT VESUVIUS.

In the same way it is doubtful whether a description of munt Vesuvius. A Descriptive, Historical, and Geologi rocks not occurring in the district is likely to be of use. cal Account of the Volcano and its Surroundings. By Why mention the rare local rocks, “analcimite," "haüy1. Logan Lobley, F.G.S., &c. (London: Roper and nophyre," "tholeite," &c., while "gabbro," "diorite, Drowley, 1889.)

"syenite," are neglected ? MI TANY people have been puzzled by the fact that The chapter on the minerals of Vesuvius is little more

there are so few English books on Vesuvius, than a catalogue of every one that can possibly be raised especially of the descriptive type. The appearance of to a species; some being obtained by dissolving saline his work was looked forward to with ardent expecta- crust in water, and allowing the solution to crystallize-a ions, but it is doubtful whether it will fulfil them. method that is hardly justifiable. Of far greater interest irof. Phillip's work was a remarkable one considering i would have been a chapter on the general mode of occur"he short stay he made in Naples, but possessed rence, origin, &c., of the principal species, their characters those defects that all books must have which are written being left to the systematic treatises on mineralogy. from little experience. Prof. Phillips wrote immediately The book is neatly got up and well-divided into separate after his visit. The first book of Prof. Lobley was pre chapters, so that the traveller, who will make most use of pared under similar circumstances, but apparently he has it, can easily turn up to a short account of any particular not re-examined the district for twenty years. Nearly locality or subject. The language is clear, and not overevery reologist on his visit to the type volcano of the burdened by petrological or other very learned words. world is attacked by a fever to write something about it Altogether, putting aside the above-mentioned blemishes, --witness the 1300 or more books and articles in all the work is likely to be of much use in leading travellers to languages referring to it-but a few months bring him observe for themselves one of the most interesting of afely through his complaint, and leave him satisfied that geological phenomena.


is poor and obscure, and the above quotations may be one

sidered as fair samples of it. For instance, the eye falls Index of British Plants, arranged according to the chance on the following passage (p: 70) :-* The results

London Catalogue (Eighth Edition), including the my observations have led me to the same conclusion Synonyms used by the Principal Authors, &c. By Mr. Sinclair--am of opinion that a mixture of it (sic) Robert Turnbull. Pp. 98. (London : George Bell and dry soil would prove satisfactory, but should not be soat Son, 1889.)

on clay moist soil." That this work should have reached This alphabetical synonymic list of British flowering a second edition is certainly strange, and appears to indplants and vascular Cryptogamia is similar in general cate that the agricultural palate is, as yet, particularis plan to that which was published about a year ago by Mr. fresh. It must require a good deal of open-air exercise Egerton-Warburton, which we noticed at the time of its to enable a reader to digest Mr. Wilson's crudities. issue (NATURE, vol. xl. p. 306). The author uses as a basis the last edition of the London Catalogue, and gives The State. Elements of Historical and Practiv al Politi. the synonyms of all the species that are described under different names in "English Botany," Bentham's “ Hand

By Woodrow Wilson, Ph.D., LL.D. Boston, C.S.A.:

Heath and Co., 1889.) book,”. Babington's “Manual,” Hooker's “Student's Flora,” “ British Wild Flowers,” Lindley's “Synopsis," This work may be regarded partly as a text-book Hooker and Arnott's “British Flora,” Withering's "Ar- political science adapted to the education of the your : rangement,” Notcutt's “ Hand-book," and Hayward's partly as a repertory of what the writer calls "govert: “ Pocket-book.” The author has carried out his task mental facts,” useful to readers of all ages. In the first very carefully, and has added an English name for each part of his task Mr. Wilson has encountered great diff: species, and given at the end a list of English names culties. He has no predecessors in whose steps to follow: in alphabetical order. Two things lately have com- Also the loose mass of facts and opinions which make up bined to cause considerable change in plant-names, what is called political science does not admit of beurs the revision and redescription of the genera by Bentham compressed with safety. Again the class to whom W:: and Hooker, and the increased attention which has been Wilson offers a highly concentrated intellectual pabulore paid in tracing out priority by Mr. Daydon Jackson and are little able to assimilate this species of nutrimezi Mr. Britten in England, and by Ascherson, Nyman, and even in its most digestible form. The young man, 5219 many other writers on the Continent. We have noted a Aristotle is not fit to be a student of political science few slips in turning over the pages. For instance, there These difficulties appear to have been surmounted by Mr. are only two native species of Achillea, not five-decolorans, Wilson better than inight have been expected. He avoide serrata, and tanacetifolia, being manifest introductions. the dogmatism to which short catechisms are liable. For No wonder the author has not been able to refer some instance in his section on the probable origin of goverof the older

bramble names to their London Catalogue ment he does not rule that the earliest constitution of the synonyms. Guntheri, Bab., and saltnum, Foche, are both family was patriarchal, or "matriarchal," as we believe it synonyms of the plant called flexuosus in the London is now the fashion to say. While inclining to the Catalogue. The book will be found useful to many former view he presents also the latter; and gives refer collecting botanists scattered up and down the country ences by the aid of which the enquiry can be pursued. who have been puzzled to understand what was intended He stimulates curiosity and affords the means of gratify

. by many of the newly-introduced names. J. G. B.

ing it. The "evolution of government" is traced from

the origin of the Aryan family through the changing types Practical Observations on Agricultural Grasses and other of Greek and Roman governments. This " institutiona

Pasture Plants. By William Wilson, Jun. (London: history” is somewhat dry; but the writer expects that the Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1889.)

topical skeleton furnished by him will be clothed upon by

the lessons of the intelligent teacher. Coming to modero MR. Wilson tells us that “ agriculturists have allowed times, we find a description of the principal pieces of themselves to run too much after a channel of indoor in political machinery which are now in use in the civilizei vestigations." We do not know that this has been a fault world. This compilation seems to serve the purpose of a in agriculturists, and are not convinced of the fact. Mr. sort of magnified'" Whittaker." If anyone who has no Wilson appears to have omitted to acquire one important exhausted the subject of Home Rule wishes to refresh has accomplishment in a writer on any subject-namely, the memory as to the relations between Austria and Hungary power of writing intelligibly. He tells us that "soil may be or Sweden and Norway, he can here look out, as in a described as earthy matter on the surface of the globe”; political dictionary, the main facts. We come nearest to that “climate has been described as a very complex the practical politics” announced in the title in the matter, depending on a great variety of conditions"; chapter which discusses what are the proper objects but he does not say by whom it has been so lucidly government. “This," says Mr. Wilson with much your "described.” We are told that "sweet-scented vernal sense, “is one of those difficult problems upon which grass is one which most writers on grasses give a it is possible for many sharply opposed views to be held place as a useful grass, but not very definite as to what apparently with almost equal weight of reason . . ! place it belongs, as it is not very readily eaten in some is a question which can be answered, if answered at all. parts where there is a considerable quantity of it." | only by aid of a broad and careful wisdom whose conda Speaking of rough-stalked meadow-grass, he says : sions are based upon the widest possible inductions from "The Rev. J. Farquharson, F.R.S., mentions in his paper, the facts of political experience in all its phases." Mr. which I have previously spoken of, as having cultivated Wilson's solution of what Burke has called the " fines it successfully on such soil, testifies as to the fondness problem in legislation "is thus stated :-" It should be the of animals, both cattle and horses-for it, both as pasture end of government to accomplish the objects of organiz! and hay.”. Again, he informs us that “the fact has been society.... Not licence of interference on the part of govers pretty well borne out that a great fault has been to look at ment, only strength and adaptation of regulation. The cultivation too much in the light of a matter which has regulation which I mean is not interference, it is the equat been thoroughly investigated, when in reality it has little ization of conditions, so far as is possible, in all branches more than reached its infancy.” Now, with all respect to of endeavour.” Perhaps this teaching would have been Mr. Wilson, it appears to us to be mere cant to talk of the more impressive if the writer, condescending to particular most ancient of all arts as having only reached its infancy. had discussed pretty fully any one question such as whether The style in which this little eighteen-penny book is written in any assigned country, the railways ought to be managed

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