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by the state. Once more however we admit that the convulsive twitching of the wings and body. On one occasion scope and limits of his work have imposed upon him a leaf fell upon the insect whilst wedged in, causing a very a most insuperable difficulties.

violent convulsion of the whole insect, by which it was jerked quite out of its retreat, when the gyrating movements at once

began again. {"troductory Lessons in Quantitative Analysis. By John I tried stroking the antennae with the point of a pencil, but

Mills and Barker North. (London: Chapman and this had no effect, nor could I obtain cessation of movement Hall, 1889.)

by stroking the body or the wings; on the contrary, when the

insect was wedged in each touch caused a convulsion, varying This book of eighty-five pages is the first part of a larger with the intensity of the stimulus applied. work by the same authors, which will shortly be published. These movements continued without interruption for fully It is designed mainly for the use of “students in evening forty minutes, the insect gyrating in a space about a foot square. "lages who have but little time to spare in acquiring At the end of that time I placed it upon a piece of smooth -uch knowledge," and also to be of service for the Science paper, when the movements became more rapid and the and Art Departinent examination, as well as those of gyrations less ample, it completing a turn in much less time than London University. The descriptions contained in the

on the stones, owing, no doubt, to there being no projections on Ibarre chapters constituting the book, and which treat of the paper to cause the insect to deviate. foreliminary operations, gravimetric analysis, and volu- light, but protected from the wind. In this way the convulsive

I then placed it in a shallow cardboard box in the full sunmetnc analysis, respectively, are meagre in the extreme, movements were less intense and less frequent; the insect, howand lick many details essential to a primer. Slips and

ever, was often jerked over on to its back, then, after a struggle mie statements are numerous. For example, the student or two, would right itself, and begin to go round. When, howz led to infer that the ash of any of Schleicher and Schüll's ever, it managed to press the top of its head against the side of the filter papers is negligible. Lead is estimated by means 'box, so that its antenna were pressed between the head and the sif " bichromate of potash," which is formulated as K,CrOx side of the box, all movement ceased till some external stimulus in p 62 the authors assert that "Normal solutions of again set it in motion. varaient substances like iodine, silver nitrate, sodium

At the end of one hour the insect seemed quite exhausted, a thloride, &c., contain their molecular weight in grams in strong stimulation being required to develop one convulsion. one litre." Whatever be the meaning attached to this,

On examination I found that it had worn away, in its moveIt is in no way confirmed by what follows on p. 63— ments, all its legs with the exception of the left hind leg, which fuamely, that "The atomic weight of iodine being 126-5, a

was apparently pretty intact, and had broken both its wings on acrmnal solution would contain this number of grams in its body.

the right side, so that the greater part of them hung useless over pe litre."

After a few more violent convulsions, the upper wing of the The general scheme of work set out in the lessons is right side was broken off, and the insect now began to revolve satisfactory, and it carefully elaborated might be useful. from left to right, owing, I suppose, to the movements of the i its present condition, however, the effect of the book left leg ; the others being reduced to mere stumps would have on the beginner cannot be other than confusing.

little power of propelling the insect.

About twenty minutes later, during a convulsion, the right hind wing was broken off.

Shortly afterwards I noticed that the convulsive movements LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

of the antennæ, which had been slight up to that time, were

much increased ; indeed, they were moving so rapidly as to have (78e Extor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex

| the appearance of two small black wings. pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake all convulsions had ceased; no stimulus could excite any; the

One hour and fifty-five minutes after I first noticed the insect to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected moth was dead. manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE, No moliti is taken of anonymous communications.]

Conclusion.-The insect, suffering from no apparent injury, and being attacked by no internal or external parasite, was, I

believe, suffering from some nervous lesion. I was unfortunately Note on a Probable Nervous Affection Observed in an

unable to examine the insect microscopically to ascertain if the Insect.

nervous centres exhibited any pathological characters. Whilst walking in the garden one bright September morning,

E. W. CARLIER, say alleation was called to a moth fluttering in a peculiar manner on the ground; it kept going round and round in a circle,

Does the Bulk of Ocean Water increase ? running with its feet on the stones, its wings meanwhile being in rapii mo:ian.

The idea was, I think, suggested by myself, and has been I captured the insect, which proved to be a quite fresh speci- referred to with approval by Mr. Jukes-Browne, that much of the porn of a male Orgvia antiqua vapourer moth), of which there water on the surface of the globe was originally occluded in the vis many in the garden.

molten interior, and has been emitted by volcanic action in the 1 replaced the insect without injury on the path, and watched course of ages. Mr. Mellard Reade argues against this, that the d more closely.

moon is covered with volcanic craters, and yet has no water on The movements of the wings were irregular, convulsive, and its surface, and that if the accumulation of surface water has "ITY rapid in character; the feet and body were also in rapid followed volcanic action on the earth, it ought likewise to have tincement, resulting in a circular motion of the whole insect done so on the moon. He concludes :-"At all events, it seems from right to left--that is, in the same direction as the move. a reasonable question to ask why oceans should be supplied with ments of the hands of a watch.

water from the perspiring pores of mother earth, while her off. I again captured the insect, thinking that perhaps one of its spring, the moon, is so dry as to have absorbed into herself all antennz might have been injured ; but on careful examination evidence of any aqueous envelope that may have formerly sith a hand lens, I could detect no lesion nor the presence of any existed.” parasite which might account for the condition.

It is a singular coincidence that one possible answer to this I agam placed the insect on the path, when it immediately objection is suggested by a notice in the "Astronomical Column” tegun to rutale us before. It seemed unable to keep still, of the same number of Nature which contains Mr. Reade's Bengh evidently trying to do so.

letter. Therein Prof. Thury attributes apparent changes in the Occasionally it would wedge itself in between two or more aspect of a lunar crater to the melting of snow or ice around it. small stones, with its head downwards, and the under surface of Neither is he the only selenologist who thinks that those crater113 boly upwards, its wings resting on the stones below; in this rings consist more

or less of frozen water. If they do so, then position it appeared to obtain some relief, as the movements there is water on the moon, although in a solid state. On the were les cominuous, though every breath of wind caused a other hand, Proctor, in his work on the moon, says that her

surface is more nearly black than white, which seems to render able that the settling down of the zero-point of an ordinary ther the existence of snow fields upon it less probable, unless they are mometer into its ultimate position could be very materiali covered with volcanic dust, as the end of a glacier usually is facilitated by the heating and cooling process mentioned above. with rock débris.

HERBERT TOMLINSON But even if we take Mr. Reade's view, it is still conceivable 36 Burghley Road, Highgate Road, that steam may have been the explosive agent in the moon's

December 23, 1889. volcanoes, while her internal temperature was very high, and that the resulting water may have been subsequently absorbed after the body became cool, because the water would occupy

Self-luminous Clouds. less space within the interstices, which this theory of imbibition postulates

, than the equivalent vapour did, when the temperature! Without venturing to call in question the occasional ser was high. The case of the earth would not be a parallel one, rence of self-luminous clouds, I may be permitted to relate an because it has not yet cooled.

observation which seems to reveal a possible source of error in Although not myself a selenologist, I have a suspicion that very the records of such phenomena. little is known about the constitution of the moon; and that it is On June 14, 1887, about 10.45 p.m., I witnessed an not even certain that its enormous craters are all of them really pearance over the north-north-west horizon which struck me volcanic. It has been admitted by Prof. Darwin, in discussing as very remarkable. Amidst the strong glow of twilight a fes the subject with Mr. Nolan, that on his view of the genesis of the fragments of cirrus cloud shone with a pure white light having s* moon it must have originally existed as a "Rock of meteorites.” much the character of phosphorescence that it was difficult to These falling in during the later stages of the building up of its believe the objects were not self-luminous. Looking out agar mass would have produced pits on a viscous surface, much like an hour later, I found no trace of bright clouds, but in their some of the craters.

place were small bands of cirrus showing dark and grey again At any rate it seems unsafe to rely upon arguments respecting the feeble twilight that remained. I could not but cuncinde that the condition of the earth's interior, of which we know little, the clouds in both instances were the same or similar, lit up kv drawn from that of the moon's body, of which we know less. the direct rays of the sun at the time of the first observation, and Harlton, Cambridge.

O. FISHER. having lost his rays at the time of the second observation. Han

they been self-luminous they should have become brighte

instead of darker as the twilight faded. Exact Thermometry.

It has been suggested to me that the bright clouds geen 2'

10.45 p.m. may have owed their brightness, not to the sun's rase The interesting experiments of Dr. Sydney Young, recorded falling on them at the time, but to a temporary phosphorescence in NATURE of December 19 (p. 152), seem to leave no doubt

the result of exposure to the sun's rays in the day-time, and tiar that the main part of the permanent ascent of the zero-point of this temporary quality had died out in the interval between the a mecurial thermometer, after prolonged heating to a high tem- , two observations. perature, is not due to compression of the bulb-rendered more

I think this explanation is unnecessary for the following plastic by the high temperature—by the external atmospheric , reasons. In the first place, it is certain that if a cirrus cloo: pressure. Researches on the effects of stress on the physical were present in the atmosphere at a sufficient height to catch the properties of matter have convinced me that the molecules, not sun's rays at 10.45 p.m. of a midsummer day, it would appear only of glass, but of all solids which have been heated to a as a bright object amidst the surrounding gloom. And, secindly. temperature at all near their melting-point, are, immediately

there can be nothing incredible in the presence of a cirrus cloud as after cooling, in a state of constraint, and that this state can that height, when the persistence of twilight proves the presence be more or less abolished by repeatedly heating the solid tp of atmospheric particles of some kind at a greater elevation a temperature not exceeding a certain limit, and then allowing

still.

GEORGE F. BURDAL it to cool again (it is not only the heating but the cooling also

Clifton, December 19, 1889. that is efficacious). It appears that the shifting backwards and forwards of the molecules, produced by this treatment, enables them to settle more readily into positions in which the elasticity is greatest and the potential energy is least.

Duchayla's Proof, This “accommodation" of the molecules, as Prof. G. i I HAVE read with much interest the new proof given by Nr. Wiedemann and others have called it, is, as one might suppose, W. E. Johnson of "the parallelogram of forces," in NATURE attended with alterations of the dimensions and other physical December 19 (p: 153), and regard it as deserving a place anus properties of solids, and is not confined to the release of mole the best proofs that have been given. cular strain set up by thermal stress, but is extended to the I think, however, that, in his criticism of Duchayla's proot, Mr. strain set up by any stress whatever. As years roll on, the Johnson runs to excess, when he says, " To base the fanda time of vibration of a metal pendulum gradually alters (and so, mental principle of the equilibrium of a particie upon the no doubt, do the lengths of our standard measures), the bulb of transmissibility of force, and thus to introduce the conception ! a thermometer diminishes in volume, a steel magnet parts with a rigid body, is certainly the reverse of logical procedure." more or less of its magnetism, a coil of German-silver wire gains Duchayla's proof only requires us to suppose the transmissix in electrical conductivity, &c. The changes in all these cases of force by strings. A particle is unthinkable. In preseating would probably be far less than they actually are if the tempera to a learner the conception of three equilibrating forces acting ture throughout the whole time could be maintained constant ; on a particle, we cannot do better than represent the force but this last is not the case--heating and cooling goes on more by pulls in strings, and the particle itself by the knot where the or less every day. We may assist the effect of time by artificially three strings are tied together. All the steps of Duchayla increasing the range of temperature, but it would appear that demonstration that the resultant force is directed along the we must not exceed a certain limit of temperature, which limit diagonal of the parallelogram can be presented in tangible form depends partly upon the nature of the substance and partly upon with the aid of strings. I do not think this is an illogical .-* the stresses that are acting upon it at the time. Thus, the in- unnatural procedure.

J. D. EVERETT. ternal friction of a torsionally oscillating iron wire which has been Belfast, December 23, 1889, previously well annealed may be enormously diminished by repeatedly raising the temperature to 100°C., keeping it there for several hours, and then allowing it to fall again. The amount of diminution of internal friction depends upon the nature of the

The Satellite of Algol, wire, and on the load which there is at the end of it (if the load The results of Vogel's photographs as to the satellite of Algu exceeds a certain amount, the friction is increased instead of are of great interest to your astronomical readers. The oh diminished). In attempting to “accommodate " the molecules servations made at Greenwich tended to the same result, but wer in this manner the heating must, at any rate in some cases, be unfortunately intermitted before anything approaching certwnty prolonged for several hours, and the substance should then be was arrived at. allowed to remain cold for a still longer period.

Regarding it as certain that the variations of Algoi are due to I have not had much experience with glass, but I think it prob- the interposition of a satellite, the question of the slight change

in its period and the much larger change observed in the period placed in five times their bulk of this solution retain the natural of another variable of the same class in Cygnus becomes Aexibility of all the tissues ; the peculiar look of nerve-tendon important. Besides the possibility of a third disturbing body it and blood-vessel against muscle is retained; the tint of muscle may be remarked that the existence of the solar corona and is faded somewhat by the solution of hæmoglobin from the blood, perhaps other appendages of the sun suggests that a resisting but it is still distinctly reddish; there is no putrefactive odour ; medium may exist in the entire space traversed by Algol and its all of this after four weeks standing in the laboratory. satellite at each revolution. Also if the influence of gravitation This is so simple a preservative that I wonder that it is not is propagated in time (with whatever degree of velocity) the very in common use.

H. LESLIE OSBORN, rapid angular motion of a satellite which performs a complete Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota, revolution in less than three days and in another variable of

December 7, 1889. this class in twenty hours) could hardly fail to exhibit traces of this time-propagation. The attractive force, in fact, would never act in the line joining the centres of the principal star and satellite, and the deviation would probably be per

The Evolution of Sex. ceptible. I hope some mathematical astronomer will take up It is a fact well known to pigeon fanciers that the two eggs laid the problem, and show what the effects of each of these supposed by pigeons almost invariably produce male and female. But no causes would be.

W. H. S. MONCK. attempt appears to have been made to ascertain which of the 16 Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin, December 21, 1889.

two eggs produces the male, and which the female. The second egg is laid about twenty-four hours after the first. I have kept

pigeons for seven or eight years, and have only met with one or Maltese Butterflies.

two instances of the young birds, produced from the two eggs, In reading Mr. Wallace's " Darwinism" I am reminded by ments to ascertain if any relation exists between the order in

being of the same sex. Recently I have made several experihis observations on Island fauna (p. 106) of the impressions which the eggs are laid and the sexes of the young birds made upon me by the natural productions of Malta. My time produced. The results show that the egg first laid produces the Fas so fully occupied that I had little opportunity of exploring female, the second egg the male. It may, perhaps, be well to the cruntry districts. I paid one visit to the extraordinary ruins

give the experiments. ut a Phoenician temple at Hagiar Kim, and one to the curious iet in St. Paul's Bay. On the latter I noticed several strange

(i) Egg 1 of pair A produced a female ; egg 2 was bad. thistles and a beautiful flower-something like a large pink or (ii) Egg 1 of pair B produced a female ; egg 2 a male. purplish Tutsan. On the barren wastes round Hagiar Kim (iii) Egg 1 of pair B produced a female ; egg 2 a male. many familiar wild flowers grew, but all seemed shrunk and (iv) Egg 2 of pair B produced a male ; egg I was bad. sonvelled as compared with those of Britain. The only un (v) Egg 1 of pair C produced a female ; egg 2 was bad. familiar one was called by the natives "the English flower. It (vi) Egg 2 of pair D produced a male ; egg I was broken. was a tall trefoil with a drooping yellow trumpet-flower (not at These experiments were made on white fantail shakers. A all papilionaceous in form), and grew plentifully by the edges of large number of experiments must be made to prove if this the dustiest roads-unlike anything I know in England.

relation does exist ; should it be found correct, an examination I lived for some time at the Imperial Hotel, at Sliema, which of the eggs and of the ovary of the parent might throw some has a somewhat extensive garden, in which I used to spend about light upon the "evolution of sex.”

M. S. PEMBREY. half an hour every morning. During April and May it was very Oxford, December 14, 1889. lovely. The oleanders were then in their richest bloom; a thrub like a gigantic heliotrope, both in flower and leaf, was frequented by myriads of humming-bird moths; there were a few strawberry plants, the fruit of which was delicious, although

Fighting for the Belt. even smaller than that of our own wild kind; but most attractive A fight has been going on in my verandah for the last halfco me were the clumps of valerian and scabious which were hour between two young birds-minas--with four birds of last haunted, just as at home, by crowds of butterflies. These in- season looking on. dadei blues, coppers, wood-ladies, painted-ladies, red-admirals, Now the fight is just over. I have watched it throughout, and portose-shells, and swallow-tails. All of these were smaller am positive that one of the on-lookers walked often round the comthan their English relatives are, and much less brilliant in colour. batants without interfering; and that another on-looker came, The swallowtails were especially dwarfed in their proportions. when he (or she ?) could, and attacked one of the fighters. I say I am puzzled to account for their presence in Malta, as there is " came when he could," because the other on-looker prevented zothing like a marsh or a fen in the whole island, whilst in him if possible-even fighting to that end. It seemed to me England they are only to be found in the district of the meres. very much as if two youngsters from different nests were fighting 1 ao any of your readers throw light on this mystery? I saw for the belt, and the parents looking on-the one complacently at cveral of the larger hawk-moths. They did not seem to suffer her offspring's success, the other angry and breaking the rules of 36 size, brat even they were dimmer in their colours.

the ring to help the weaker.

F. C. CONSTABLE. Hapring to get a general idea of Maltese entomology, I visited Karachi, December 1, 1889. the t'niversity Museum--only to find a few cases of insects in which every specimen had been devoured by mites !

GEORGE FRASER.

The British Museum Reading-Room. Leigtade, Tunbridge Wells, December 22, 1889.

The proper ventilation of this spacious room is a problem,

surely not insoluble, but still awaiting solution. Is it not a A Preservative.

serious grievance that to make use of one of the finest libraries in

existence, means, for many, injury to health? Bad headaches I have been very much troubled in conducting classes in and other ills, due to the stuffy and impure atmosphere which mammalian anatomy by the want of a preservative medium collects about the desks, are a common experience; and I know which would retain the natural colour and texture of tissues, men who have given up going to the place on that account. would impart to them no offensive smell

, would be inexpensive, For readers who live by work which can only be done there and easily handled. Various experiments with freezing, alco (some of whom are women), the matter is especially grave. holic, glycerine, and other media have all proven failures, and Officials, again, will tell you that they often feel thoroughly done this fall I turned to experimentation upon the simplest and out after their day's work, which in itself is not generally severe. cheapest of all chemical reagents—water and table-salt. My It seems to me the atmosphere improves after the lamps are lit ; entire success with these was so satisfactory that I shall, at the possibly owing to the upward current of heated air. If this were nk of telling sa old story, state the experiments here.

verified, it might offer a clue to improvement. The whole I tried preäerving suirrels in three strengths of salt solution, matter calls for thorough scientific investigation; and I would se or 5 parts hy weight of salt to 95 of water, a second of suggest, as a preliminary step, that analysis be made of the air 10 per cent. salt, and a third of 15 per cent. All gave satisfac- (say) on a Saturday afternoon, with regard not only to its gaseous time, but the 10 per cent. seems best, because the weakest constituents, but also to micro-organisms, which are no doubt olution in which putrefaction could not take place. Specimens | plentiful.

A. B. M.

AMONG CANNIBALS.1

It is to the period spent by him in the camps of the

northern aborigines that Mr. Lumholtz chiefly devotes IN N the year 1880, Mr. Carl Lumholtz-as he explains in attention in the present volume, and it would hardly be

the preface to the work the title of which is given possible to praise too highly the manner in which he has below-undertook an expedition to Australia, partly at the recorded his experiences. In every part of his narrative expense of the University of Christiania, with the object he displays a remarkable power of keen and accurate of making collections for the zoological and zootomical observation, and he presents his facts in a style at once museums of the University, and of instituting researches so fresh and so simple that from beginning to end the into the customs and anthropology of the Australian reader's interest is maintained. Hitherto students of aborigines. His travels occupied four years, and the first anthropology in Australia have derived their materials part of that time he spent in the south-eastern colonies, mainly from the southern part of the continent. Mr. South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales. From Lumholtz may almost be said, therefore, to have broken November 1880 to August 1881 he was in Central Queens- ' new ground, and it is ground which it was well worth land, and at the latter date he began his first journey of while to break, for the northern aborigines-from an discovery, in the course of which he penetrated about 800 anthropological point of view-are even more interesting miles in Western Queensland-the results, he says, in no than the southern tribes. They are decidedly at an wise corresponding to the hardships he had to endure. I earlier stage of development, and many of them have been He then went to Northern Queensland, where he spent only slightly and indirectly influenced by the ideas of fourteen months in constant travel and study, his head- | European settlers. quarters from August 1882 to July 1883 being in the valley If there are any survivors of the school of Rousseau, of what he describes as "the short but comparatively who attributed so many fine qualities to "the noble broad and deep Herbert River," which flows into the savage," it would be wholesome for them to study what Pacific at about 18° S. lat. From his base on this river Mr. Lumholtz has to tell about the savages of Northern he made expeditions in various directions, extending in Queensland. A more unlovely picture than his descripsome instances to nearly 100 miles, and he repeatedly tion of these poor people it would hardly be possible to came in contact with savages who had never before been imagine. He went to Australia full of sympathy with the visited by a white man.

natives; when he left it, he found that his interest in

Fig. 1.-Brow-band from Central Queensland (1 size).

them was as deep as ever, but that his sympathy had, takes good care that they shall not earn his approval too nearly vanished." That they are cannibals is beyond easily. All the hard, disagreeable work has to be done doubt. Luckily, they do not take to white flesh; it has by women, and when they excite the displeasure of their too salt a flavour for their taste. But native flesh, when lords they may think themselves well off if they are not they can get it, provides them with the meal they like severely beaten. best, and they are quite willing to talk freely about the In every way these savages are creatures of impulse. It parts which they consider the most delicious morsels. is difficult for them to fix their attention on anything, and They are not only treacherous, but seem to have not the they can look ahead only a very short way. Fortunately faintest idea that treachery is anything to be ashamed of. for themselves, they have no intoxicating stimulants, but If anyone is kind to them, they at once mistake his tobacco gives them intense delight, and it was chiefly by motive: they fancy that his generosity springs from fear, promising to reward them with small quantities of it that and if this notion gets into their minds, it is time for their Mr. Lumholtz was able to secure their services. When benefactor to look about him, for they will not scruple to they have a chance, they gorge themselves with food; kill him in order to obtain possession of his goods. Mr. and on a hot day they plunge like dogs into water they Lumholtz found that, when accompanied by a party of may happen to pass. At the approach of night they benatives, it was unsafe for him to walk in front; he had come timid, trembling at every sound they hear in the always to bring up the rear, and to keep every one well bush ; but with sunrise all their fears are dispelled, and in view. At night, before going to sleep in his tent, he after they have become thoroughly awake-a rather slow had to fire his gun as a reminder that he had the means process, they are ready for any pleasure that may come of defending himself. For this weapon they had the in their way.' It is a happy moment for them when they most profound respect; also for his revolver," the baby discover a tree in which there is honey. This they eat of the gun.” The supreme ambition of the native is to with rapture ; and Mr. Lumholtz says he has known cases have as many wives as possible, their number being re- in which they have lived upon it for three days in succesgarded as a test of bis wealth and importance. And he sion. If a savage finds such a tree, and is not able at

once to take possession of its treasure, he marks the tree. I“Among Cannibals: an Account of Four Years' Travel in Australia, and the mark will be respected by members of his own and of Camp Life with the Aborigines of Queensland." By Carl Luniholtz, family or clan. There is, however, no conception corMurray, 1889.) We are indebted to the kindness of the publisher for the use responding to the idea of property, so far as anything of the cuts reproduced in this article.

claimed by strangers is concerned.

As the people live in small groups, they have, of course, scarcely be said to possess. But they have aptitudes the germs of social life ; but more than this they can which have been naturally developed in the circumstances

[graphic]

Fig. 2.-Wallaby Hunt. in which they spend their lives. They display extra- | they have considerable skill. Fig. 1 represents a browordinary cleverness in climbing trees, and their sense of band of native workmanship (} size). This specimen

however, comes from Central Queensland. The Australians are generally supposed to throw the spear well, but Mr. Lumholtz never discovered any remarkable ability of this sort among the blacks of Herbert River. Fig. 2, represents a wallaby hunt, which he had an opportunity of seeing. He says :

“Soon those who had remained behind spread themselves out, set fire to the grass simultaneously at different points, and then quickly joined the rest. The dry grass rapidly blazed up, tongues of fire licked the air, dense

[graphic]

Carralinga

come here to-morrow

and take Nowwanjung. FIG. 4.-Message stick, with interpretation of inscription.

clouds of smoke rose, and the whole landscape was soon enveloped as in a fog. I fastened up my horse and went into this semi-darkness, watching the blacks, who ran about like shadows, casting their spears after the animals that fled from the flames. But though many spears whizzed through the air, and though a large field was burned, not a single wallaby was slain.”

Mr. Lumholtz often noticed natives resting in a most FIG. 3.-Peculiar position of natives resting.

peculiar position, represented in Fig. 3. "They stood

on one foot, and placed the sole of the other on the inside smell is so keen that it is invaluable to them when they of the thigh, a little above the knee. The whole person are tracking wild animals. In various kinds of handiwork was easily supported by a spear.” This custom is said to

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