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prevail among the inhabitants of the Soudan and the engraved with straight or circular lines in regular patterns White Nile district.
as in embroidery ; this has caused an entirely different A kind of sign language is occasionally used by the view of their significance, which supposes them to be Australians. It consists of figures scratched on “a merely cards to identify the messenger. This view may message stick” made of wood, about four to seven inches be correct
, but it is not corroborated by my experience on long, and one inch wide. Fig. 4 represents one of these Herbert River.” sticks. It conveys a message from a black woman named Mr. Lumholtz secured a valuable collection of zoological Nowwanjung to her husband Carralinga, of the Woongo specimens, and some of the best passages in his book are tribe. Other message sticks,” says Mr. Lumholtz, “are those relating to this part of his work. Fig. 5 represents
a young cassowary, which the natives one day brought among the trees. The creature “stopped and scanned to him, with two eggs. He at once asked the natives to its surroundings carefully in the dense scrub, but a charge guide him to the nest, near which, in a bed of loose of No. 3 shot, fired from a distance of fifteen paces, laid leaves, he placed the young bird, hoping to attract the old it low." Six natives carried home the prize, which proved one. After the lapse of about ten minutes they suddenly to be an unusually fine specimen of a male. heard the voice of the cassowary. This usually sounds We cordially recommend this book to all who take an like thunder, “but now, when calling its young, it re- interest in anthropology and zoology, or in incidents minded us of the lowing of a cow to its calf.” Soon the of travel through unfamilar scenes. They will find in it beautiful blue and red neck of the bird became visible much that cannot fail to give them genuine pleasure.
gotten. It should, however, by this time be more gener
ally known and accepted that no part of the habitable IT is somewhat remarkable that the ordinary noțion globe is entirely exempt from seismic action, and that earthquake phenomena, still very generally obtains credit. by no means necessarily connected with volcanic disturbAn explanation of this popular fallacy may perhaps be 'ances, as was formerly supposed. When it is duly found in the simple fact that, on the average, few people recognized that, at the lowest computation, 600 disliving at any one time chance to have experienced any connected shocks are known to have taken place in considerable shock; whilst in the case of those few—we this country during the present era, the popular belief except the many who were affected by the disastrous Essex respecting our tight little island” may well be entirely earthquake five years ago—who have felt the censation, shaken. This number includes many earthquakes of conas a momentary mental impression it has been soon for siderable magnitude, and the additional seismological
evidence of modern compilations furnishes the testimony fact which does credit to the caution exercised by that as many as six or eight minor shocks have occurred the daily press writers at the time. Too much, on the annually in recent years. In evidence of the prevalence of other hand, was made of the really slight but widely dissuch phenomena in England, it should be also remem- tributed shock which took place on May 30 in the present bered that it was on this island that Prof. George Darwin year, when no displacement of furniture nor stoppage of first discovered the fact of the continuous microseismic clocks then resulted ; the experience being limited to the vibration of the earth's crust.
rattling of windows and the swaying of walls, as may be The new edition of the late Mr. William Roper's excel- seen on referring to the summary which appeared in lent summary of the principal earthquakes that have NATURE for June 6 (pp. 140-42). been recorded in Great Britain and Ireland during this Covering so considerable a period of history, and inera, which has lately been issued, bears witness both cluding so much subject-matter, Mr. Roper's work certo the frequency of such phenomena, and, even more tainly deserved a more extended treatment than it has strikingly, to the great advance that has taken place within received. An introductory analytical chapter would recent years in the study of seismology in Britain. The have added considerably to the interest of such a cataincreased attention which has been devoted to the subject | logue, while a fuller elaboration and thorough editing is doubtless partly due to the extensive shock which would have advantageously extended the work beyond occurred in this country in 1884.
its unpretentious limit of fifty pages. The convenient The famous Catalogue compiled by Robert Mallet will method adopted by Mr. Roper of inserting a preliminary ever remain the cyclopædic work of reference upon which list of “principal authorities cited,” is almost compulsory all subsequent earthquake catalogues will necessarily be in such a work, for the purpose of establishing a code of based; and the name of Mallet, as the authority, naturally abbreviations for subsequent use in the columns of the ñigures most extensively in Mr. Roper's list. Until re- list; but the titles are generally given imperfectly or incently, it may, indeed, be said that the work of Mallet, correctly, without the requisite details of publication, and of M. Alexis Perrey, of Dijon, stood almost alone while the dates, where given, are not throughout those as the historical register of seismic force in the world. of the original, as they should be, but of later reprints. Within the last few years, however, the valuable experi- These and similar slight defects are inconvenient in an mental work of Prof. Milne and others in Japan, and of historical treatise, and we hope they may receive attention numerous European and American seismologists, has in the event of another edition of this interesting list being been supplemented by several treatises devoted to British called for. earthquakes alone. Some of these publications--as the The total number of distinct earthquakes included in detailed report of the great Essex earthquake, and Mr. this catalogue-regarding the series of repeated shocks E Parfitt's Devonshire Catalogue-being issued in con- which sometimes take place within a brief period as a nection with particular areas, and by local scientific single record-amounts to 582, and an analysis of these bodies, have had a restricted application ; whilst others, records may be of interest here, as furnishing some slight as Prof. O'Reilly's catalogue, and the one just mentioned, indication of the chronological distribution of the chief have included the entire British Islands in their scope. seismic disturbances which have been accounted in It was the intention of the present writer, when engaged, British annals as having taken place within our area. in conjunction with Prof. Meldola, upon the Report of the They may, for convenience, be arranged as they occurred East Anglian earthquake, to furnish a full list of British during each century, and term of 500 years: thus-earthquakes; but, from the quantity of material accumulated from very many sources, it was found that so ex
6 tensive a catalogue grew entirely out of proportion to
Total during the 1st 500 years 34 the purpose of a special monograph, and only those
4th disturbances which had similarly caused structural damage were included in that memoir. These alone,
6th however, number as many as sixty well-authenticated 7th records, although Mr. Roper, in his catalogue, which,
28 unfortunately, is very scanty in point of detail, omits fully 9th
3 25 per cent of these injurious shocks. But since his roth
5 Catalogue too modestly professes to include only "the 11th
27 more remarkable earthquakes," it is to be expected that 12th
28 aumerous omissions might be noticed, and we could
, 97 readily add to his list over two or three dozen records
14th both mediaval and modern) which fully equalled the
15th Average intensity of those he has included. In fact,
17th while it may be said to form the most comprehensive
, 423 list of British earthquakes that has yet been produced, 19th
(to 1889). 235 I is incomplete, and it is much to be regretted that the compiler did not survive to finish his erudite It may perhaps be fairly assumed from this table that undertaking, as is explained in a prefatory note by no true estimate of the actual number of shocks happen
ing within each period can be arrived at, for the chief Mr. Roper has, in effect, unconsciously erred unduly reason that the records are entirely subject to the irreon the side of moderation, since he includes most of the gularities of the few capable observers of the early cenfabulous stories that belong to mediæval times, while he turies. It is to be observed that 423 shocks, or nearly has omitted many important shocks. This recalls a 75 per cent. of the total number, have occurred since somewhat strange incident in connection with the 1884 1600, which may be considered as the period from which earthquake-namely, that more damage actually occurred the more trustworthy accounts commenced. There is no in the out-of-the-way villages chiefly affected by the shock, reason whatever for supposing that the frequency of than was ever reported in the London newspapers-a seismic shocks has increased since that period ; and the "A List of the more Remarkable Earthquakes in Great Britain and
evidence indicates little more than the activity of the Ireland during the Christian Era Compiled by William Roper, F.S.S.,
observers, who appear to have fallen off considerably at I k. Met. Soc. (Lancaster: Thos, Bell.) 11 Keport on the East Anglian Earthquake of April 22, 1884" By
times, as during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. kaphael Melda, P.R.S. &c., and William White. (Essex Fielä сlub
This point is worth remarking, on account of the misSpecial Memors, vol. i) (London: Macmillan and Co., 1885.)
leading statement that has been more than once made,
that the twelfth century was specially subject to earth- all England with a horrid spectacle, for buildings were quakes.
lifted up and then again settled as before." Again, in Since the development of telegraphy, and the conse- 1177, near Darlington, " the earth swelled up to a gren quent rapid production of daily press news, the means of height from nine in the morning to the setting of the recording such phenomena with prompt accuracy has of sun, and then with a loud noise sank down again: there course been greatly facilitated. This is very apparent was another that took up all the day in 1110: wlule on when the number of shocks which have occurred within September 11, 1275, a great earthquake was felt in Sex. the present century is apportioned into decades of ten castle, with " dreadful thunder and lightning, blazing stars, years. Thus
and a comet, ... with the appearance of a great
dragon, which terrified the people between the first and In 1800-10 there were 9 shocks recorded.
third hour of the day." This savours somewhat of the , 1811-20 36
Chinese dragon fables, while some others almost match ,, 1821-30 23
the deluge of Noah in their vast extent. In 974, for 1831-40
instance, “a great one shook the whole of England“, 27
while earlier still, in 856, one occurred "over the greates: 1851-60 1861-70
part of the known world." In 1133, "in manie parts of 25 » 1871-80 18
England an earthquake was felt so that it was thouglu 1881-88 34
that the earth would have sunke under the feete of men, Making a total number, " between 1800-88, of 233 shocks. with such a sound as was horrible to heare. In 129
there was one felt in England that was described as Although it appears from this artificially divided list being nearly universal (!) in Europe"; while we are as if a low decade was followed, as a rule, by a high assured, with circumstantial evidence, that, in the year decade, the number being often doubled, no safe compu- | 1426, " on the even of St. Michael the Archangel, in the tation whatever can be inferred; and the more one morning before day, betwixt the hours of one and two of considers the facts accumulated, the more one feels the clocke, beganne a terrible earthquake, with lightnio; that there is no real evidence upon which the various and thunder, which continued the space of two hours: conjectures respecting earthquake periodicity have been and was universal through the world. The unreasonabk made. About a dozen only of the numerous Comrie beasts rored and drewe to the townes with hideous nouse. shocks are included in the above figures, but even also the fowls of the ayre likewise cried out." this number is sufficient to materially affect any such Space does not permit of other equally curious accounts calculation, whilst very many other well-authenticated | as marvellous almost as the more primitive traditions of shocks, as already mentioned, are omitted in Mr. patriarchal times regarding the vindictive forces of Nature Roper's list. With regard to Comrie, in Perthshire, Whatever may be said about the accompaniments and it may further be remarked that, during the month absurd effects which have been ascribed to earthquake of October 1839, as many as sixty-six separate shocks action, the majority of those shocks which are recorded are reported to have taken place; and during the years as having caused damage to buildings may fairly be * 1839-42, altogether upwards of 200 vibrations were ex down as facts, and although they may have occasional perienced in that district (vide NATURE, vol. xxiii. pp. been exaggerated, some of the details are generali 117 and 170).
authentically described. With regard to the trustworthiness of the earlier records, A curious problem may be raised with regard to the it may be generally assumed that some earth vibration did effect of earthquakes upon river courses. That shoats actually take place at the time stated, notwithstanding the have frequently been produced along marine coasts" exaggerations and extraneous notions that were mixed up well known, a striking case being that which happened with such phenomena in superstitious times. But whether early in January 1885, off Malta, to the extent of danger. the occurrence was in every case an earthquake in the ously affecting navigation ; but there are several accounts proper sense of the term is open to doubt. It is, which agree in the assertion that the beds of such nat • indeed, highly probable that such occurrences as that gable streams as the Trent and the Thames have been recorded under the date of June 7, 1750, and other temporarily raised by local earthquakes so as to perait more recent cases, were not earthquakes at all, but the of people "passing over dry-shod. What became of the effect of bursting bolides, similar to the phenomenon river course during the operation is a problem that does which was described very fully in Symons's Meteorological not appear to have required solution. Yet sufficient Magazine for December 1887. Others, again, appear to circumstantial evidence has been produced, in connection have been no more than extensive landslips, or other with the shock in no at Nottingham, and in 1158 st superficial rock displacements resulting from aërial denu- London, to almost warrant the idea that a certain amount dation ; while some others were probably only connected of credence may be given to the stories. Whether it with violent storms, or the frost-cannonadings which are may be inferred from such statements that a change th commonly produced on exposed chalk cliffs during the the bed of the rivers in question
then took place is doubtful, winter season.
as history yields us no information on the point. The absurd statements that were made respecting As a general statement we may safely infer finally the some of the older occurrences are evidently either inten- earthquakes in Great Britain, including the microseism tional or unintentional falsehoods ; but many of them con- disturbances which are now so frequently recorded, were tain so much quaint humour that a few samples are well as common in the past as in the present period of more worth quoting. In the year 132 A.D. there was a terrible scientific observation; though, fortunately, such calamitous earthquake in England, when men and cattle were results as attended the catastrophe in Essex within recent swallowed up”; but this fashion in recording events had times continue to be rare. It is still a matter for regre been set at least twenty-nine years earlier, for in the however, that no steps have yet been taken to establish year 103, “a city is said to have been swallowed up." Seismographs in different parts of this country. L'atul In 418 there was one that was a great and general; then this is done, the chance records of various individuals famine, plague, hail
, snow, cold, and meteors.” In 505 whose impressions, being inevitably affected more or less one lasted for three hours. At about three o'clock on by the personal equation, produce only doubtful dataAugust 11, 1089, there was a terrible one in England, must continue to take the place of precise observation. which caused great scarcity of fruit, and a late harvest; while twelve years later there was another that “terrified
EFFECT OF OIL ON DISTURBED WATER.
mault, encountered a gale accompanied by tremendous
seas. A bag, punctured with the point of a knife, was ENERALLY speaking, proverbs are the resultant filled with oil and rigged out on the weather side of the
expression of observed facts, but the efficacy of vessel. This had such a marked effect, that the vessel onlapon troubled waters would appear to be a proverb rode bravely through the gale, and reached her destinawinch, instead of being preceded by and founded upon tion in perfect safety. On October 8, 1880, a Mr. Fondasrial and experiment, has rather led to the scientific de- caro left Monte Video for Naples in a three-ton boat. monstration and establishment of the truth it asserts. He arrived at Malaga on February 4, 1881. On his From the very earliest ages the effect of oil when poured voyage across the Atlantic, he had repeatedly to lay-to upon disturbed water appears to have been widely known. during stress of weather, and reports that he considered Aristotle mentions it, and accounts for the phenomenon his safe arrival entirely due to his use of oil. A gallon of by askinning that the thin film of oleaginous matter into olive-oil would last him, when hove-to, for twenty-four which oil resolves itself when poured upon water pre- hours. He gives it as his experience that oil does not sents the wind from obtaining a hold upon the water, diminish the size of the waves, but renders them comparaind so checks the wave formations which are the usual tively harmless by preventing their breaking. There is results of wind at sea. Pliny, too, observes that among a consensus of opinion among those who have tested 1.ae officers of his fleet the soothing influence of oil was the use of oil, that a small quantity is quite as efficacious matter of common knowledge, and that the Assyrian as a larger one, a consumption of one pint per hour divers were in the habit of sprinkling the surface water being sufficient. Small as this quantity is, the exwitis oil when they wished to smooth down ripples, and treme expansibility of oil when floating upon the water so obtain a better light for prosecuting their work below. renders it quite adequate. Thus a ship running 10 knots Coming down to more recent times, the custom of oiling an hour will leave behind her a wake some to knots by the waves with a view to facilitate navigation would ap- 40 feet, covered with a thin film of oil. pear to have fallen into desuetude. Benjamin Franklin, The Dunkirk Chamber of Commerce, fully alive to however, seems to have been led, from observing the the vast importance of the use of oil as materially conoffect of pouring overboard some greasy water, to test ducing to safe navigation, have just reported on the als potency in a thoroughly scientific manner, when on a results of some tests made at their direction among koyage across the Atlantic. Having experimented with the French fishing fleet off Iceland. One master reports reat success upon the surface of a pond near London, that by its use he was enabled to ride out successfully a be tested the effects of oil upon the sea itself. A prolonged and severe spell of bad weather, which comatommy day was chosen, and from a boat, some half a pelled his confrères to run to port until the weather mile from the beach at Portsmouth, oil was poured moderated. The Chamber rewarded him with 100 francs. upon the sea The experiment met with a very small Other captains who have reported in detail the result of share of success, for, while a greasy patch of water their experiments, agree with him in stating that, for 1735 discernible right to the shore, 'the surf con- small vessels experiencing stress of weather in deep 'moed to break upon the beach with unabated vigour. water, the use of oil cannot be too highly recomSuissequent and recent investigation has confirmed mended. Franklin's finding, and proved that the greatest benefit Nor is the utility of oil confined alone to this branch derived from the use of oil is obtainable in deep water, of marine navigation. Advices just received from New where wive-motion is merely undulatory. When a shore York furnish some interesting particulars relative to the approaching wave ceases to find enough depth to impart towage of the disabled steamship Italia of the Hamfu its neighbour its peculiar undulatory motion, it is no burg American Company. The Italia broke her shaft honger a wave pure and simple, but becomes an actual whilst proceeding from Havre to New York. In this moving body of water which moves rapidly forward, condition she was taken in tow by the Gellert, of the until it breaks with great violence upon the shore ; upon same company. The towing hawsers-6-inch steel wiresuch waves as these, oil has little or no effect.
were lengthened by heavy chain cables until the distance The knowledge of the influence of oil upon a rough sea between the two vessels was increased to 1000 feet. bas long been known to those engaged in the whale and Unfortunately, a heavy gale from the north-west caused sal fisheries, and its application is of common occurrence. a dangerous sea to arise, and it was feared that When their vessels or boats are overtaken by a storm, the Italia would have to be abandoned. As a last they usually
, by means of a drogue or sea anchor, make resort, a can of oil with a small hole in the bottom was out is náutically termed a dead drift, i.e. they suffer set over the stern of the Gellert. The effect, according to Themselves to be slowly drifted before the wind. In such the master, Captain Kampf, was magical. The seas broke Crecumstances as these, the application of oil to the waves over the bows of the Italia with much less fury, merely Insures that the area into which the boat drifts is one of surging past in a heavy swell, while the tension on the 111m, as the oil spreads more rapidly than the boat cable was immediately relieved, and the Gellert was MOVS, and consequently prepares a smooth patch for enabled, in spite of continued bad weather, to reach New the vessel to drift into. If the captain, however, prefers York in safety, having towed her charge continuously for to run his vessel before the wind, then she ranges ahead the distance of 750 miles. Possibly many cases of abanof the viled patch, and thus the effect of oiling the waves doned towages in bad weather might be averted did the every materially discounted,
masters of tugs but try the effect of a little oil prior to The native Eskimo, when engaged in transporting casting the vessel adrift
. kurs family from place to place, always insures a smooth The true part played by this oleaginous film in pasige for the comiuk, or women's boat, by trailing a diminishing the disturbance of the sea seems to be that of punctured skin filled with oil from the stern of his kayak, a lubricant. Waves are formed by the friction of wind which he propels at some considerable distance ahead of and water. Any force, therefore, that tends to lessen the the boat containing his wife and children.
friction reduces the violence of the waves. As far as is Within the last twenty years many well-authenticated at present known, animal or the heavier vegetable oils stances have been placed on record as to the potency form the best lubricant between the two elements. auf cul as a water-soother, but unfortunately the value of Mineral or fossil oils, which possess less viscosity and auch reports is very much diminished by the ship-master's are less oleaginous in their mechanical properties, exert neglecting to explain the relative position of their vessel much less influence upon the water. This anti-frictional in regard to the wind and sea. The British warship force of oil can hardly be over-estimated. The Atlantic Swiftsure, when on a voyage from Honolulu to Esqui. waves have been calculated to exert an average pressure
during the winter months of 2086 pounds per square foot. in carrying in small boats the fish from the smacks to the During a heavy gale this pressure is increased to 6983 steam despatch-boats, is very great. Their boats might be pounds; yet the thin oil blanket is sufficient, when applied equipped, at a very low cost, with oil-tanks or oil-bags to be under certain conditions, to enable a vessel to navigate used when trans-shipments are being effected in hein through them in perfect safety, their oiled summits raising weather. Already the Governments of the United States themselves in sullen grandeur, but never breaking aboard. and Germany have realized the vast importance of this subWhat the exact coefficient of friction between air in ject, and have instituted an exhaustive series of experiments motion and water is, and the proportion of its reduction with the view of rendering compulsory the carrying al by oil or other lubricants, are questions that open up a oil for use as a life-saving equipment. When that commost interesting subject of inquiry, the resolution of plex and overburdened instrument of government, the which will prove highly beneficial to the whole nautical Board of Trade, was asked in Parliament to cause experiand mercantile world.
ments to be made relative to the use of oil at sea, the reph Numerous experiments have been made with a view to was, that there were no funds available for the purtesting the utility of oil in smoothing the approaches to pose; that the Board could not spend money or become exposed harbours in rough weather. The tests undertaken investors in such schemes. The Consultative Committee at Peterhead have met with unqualified success. The appointed under the Life-saving Appliances Act of lav modus operandi has been to lay leaden pipes along the year have, however, suggested oil-bags, among othe" bottom of the harbour, taking care to keep the pipes equipments, to be carried by boats and rafts. At the stationary by means of concrete. The pipe is provided International Maritime Conference at Washington, ('.S. with numerous roses for disseminating the oil. When this subject has received the attention its importance rough weather comes on, oil is forced along the pipes, merits. Further, the National Life-boat Institution ahu and it escapes into the water through the apertures the National Sea Fisheries Protection Association bare provided, and then, its specific gravity being less than amalgamated their forces with a view to testing the efficaa that of water, it rises to the surface and quickly renders of oil, but as yet the results of their investigations hare the sea less turbulent and the passage into the harbour not been published. While it is very gratifying to know quite safe. Another method employed to render safe that the man of science and the philanthropist are ready ingress into harbours in bad weather is that of firing out to explore the practical utility of this question, ve to sea an oil-carrying projectile. This consists of a heavy cannot hope for any satisfying material results until the tin tube weighted with lead at one end. The tube is Board of Trade sees its way to take administrative filled with two or three quarts of oil, and the aperture action in the matter, and to deal in a fitting manner with stopped. When the projectile is fired from a gun or a question that is so indissolubly connected with te mortar, it reverses, and, the time-fuse exploding, the interests of all classes of this great mercantile communit
: powder blows out the plug, and the liberated oil falls
RICHARD BEYXOX into the sea. A series of experiments, conducted by a Committee appointed by the United States Life-saving Service to inquire into the practical utility of oil-carrying
RECENT OBSERVATIONS OF JUPITER. projectiles, goes to confirm the statement made above, viz
. OBSERVATIONS of Jupiter have been condariage shoal water, or to prevent the waves breaking in surf, is in consequence of the low altitude of the planet
. Hu very small 'indeed. There is one point, however, upon elevation, even at meridian passage, has only been abuz. which all authorities who have tested the use of oil at 16', as observed in this country, so that the study of sea are agreed. As an adjunct to the equipment of ships' his surface markings has been much interrupted by the boats it is simply invaluable. Many a shipwrecked crew bad definition which usually affects objects not far re have been enabled to keep their frail craft afloat until moved from the haze and vapours on the horizon. It is land was reached or a rescue effected, solely by its use. however, important that planetary features, especial Nothing is more common among the records of ship- those which exhibit changes of form and motion, shouls
, wrecks than to read of the small boats either being be watched as persistently as circumstances allow, znú swamped while at the vessel's side, or capsizing through with this purpose in view jupiter has been submited to stress of weather. In January 1884 the Cambria emi- telescopic scrutiny whenever the atmosphere offers grant ship was run into by the Sultan in the North Sea, facilities for such' work during the past summer and and, out of 522 on board, 416 were drowned. Of the autumn. Few opportunities occurred, however, during the four starboard boats, no less than three capsized, and all latter season owing to the great prevalence of clouds, an. their occupants perished. In the collision in the Channel on the several nights sufficiently clear for the purpose, ile between the Forest and Avalanche, two out of three boats atmosphere was unsteady and the definition indifferen!. which left the Forest were swamped, and all on board thus the more delicate lineaments of the planet's surfac: lost their lives. These are but two instances out of many could be rarely observed with satisfactory distinctness where lives might have been saved by the use of a little The great red spot was visible on the night of May 2%. oil.
1889, and it was estimated to be on the central meridir" The subject of saving endangered life at sea is one that at 12h. 3im. Further views of the same object stem always enlists the deepest sympathies of all sorts and secured in June, July, and later months. In appearance conditions of men. The perusal of the "Annual Wreck and form it presented much the same aspect as in pre Chart," published by the Board of Trade, or of the ceding years. Its elliptical outline is still preserved, and lamentable records of personal sorrows and destitution there seems to have occurred no perceptible change in 15 consequent upon the disasters around our coasts, sug- size. It is somewhat faint relatively to the very fire gests the possibility that the loss of life might be conspicuous belts north of it, and it is only on a good night siderably reduced by a practical knowledge of the best that it can be well recognized as a complete ellipse with! methods of applying oil during storms at sea. We think dusky interior. On the evening of September 12 lesi, i that much might be done by its use to facilitate the obtained an excellent view of it with my 10-inch retfeder launching of boats from distressed vessels, and their safe power 252. The spot was central at 6h. 33m., and 4 subsequent navigation. Harbours of refuge on exposed following end
was seen to be much the darkest. This bar coasts might be established at a very small cost.
usually been the case, and I have often noticed a vein In one department alone of our maritime industry, small, black spot at this extremity. Another observation deep-sea fishing, many lives might be saved. At pre I was effected on the early evening of November 26, whes sent, the mortality among the carriers, i.e. those engaged the spot crossed the planet's centre at 3h. 54m., but the