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Exact time was a little uncertain, the conditions being far
NOTES. from favourable. Possibly the spot may have effected its passage a little before this time, as from several views of
Dr. ARCHIBALD Geikie, F.R.S., has just received a diploma he following end of this object at about 4h. 3om., I con
of membership of the Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch cluded my estimate might be a trifle late, but in any case Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher, the oldest scientific the error would be small.
Society of Germany. Comparing the observation on November 26 with that recorded on May 21, it will be found that in the interval
Sir John LUBBOCK's name appears in the list of those who of 18864 days the red spot completed 456 rotations, and have received New Year's honours and appointments. He has that its mean period was gh. 55m. 40'155. This is nearly been made a member of the Privy Council. A baronetcy has identical with the rotation period I found for the same been conferred on William Scovell Savory, F.R.S., President object in 1888, when it was 9h. 55m. 40'245. (462 rotations), of the Royal College of Surgeons. and in 1887, when the figures were gh. 55m. 40*5s. It is evident from these several determinations that during the
The Paris municipality proposes to do honour to the memory last three oppositions the motion of the spot has been of Darwin by naming a new street after him. tery consistent and equable. There has been a slight
A COMMITTEE has been formed in Paris for the purpose of acceleration perhaps in velocity, inducing the rotation penod to become a little shorter, but the differences are preparing the way for the erection of a statue of the late M. 50 small that they may well be covered by the observa- Boussingault
. His scientific researches were of so much service tional errors which cannot be altogether eliminated from to industry, especially to agriculture, that the Committee ought work of this character, and particularly at a time when to have little difficulty in obtaining the necessary funds. the object observed is unfavourably placed. In any case the red spot has rotated with more celerity during the last record, is a great loss to geographical science. He died on
The death of Sir Henry Yule, which we regret to have to year or two than in 1886, when its mean period was min. 53114 4115., to which it had gradually increased from Monday, in his seventieth year. His masterpiece was his gh. zzm. 34.25. in 1879-80. These variations of motion splendid edition of the “Book of Ser Marco Polo”—a work may be regularly effected in a cycle, and it will be very to the permanent value of which he added largely by his important if future observations can determine the exact learned and luminous notes. period The white spots near the equator of Jupiter are still
WE regret to announce the death, after an illness which lasted exccasionally visible, but it has not been feasible to secure some months, of M. Eugène Deslongchamps, of the Château views of them of a sufficiently exact nature to deduce Mathieu, Calvados. He was formerly Professor of Zoology and their rotations. In recent years the apparent velocity of Palæontology at the Faculty of Sciences at Caen, and a member these objects has been decreasing, for while in the autumn of the committee of the "Palæontologie Française.” He was the of 1880 their period was 9h. 50m. 6s., it was found, from son of the celebrated French paläontologist, Prof. Eudes-Deslongmany observations of similar markings by Mr. A. Stanley champs, and published several memoirs on the palæontological Williams, of Brighton, in 1887, that it had increased to fauna of Normandy, ranging from Brachiopoda to the Crocodilia. vb gom. 22°45. Since 1884 a number of white spots have been also du Cavaldos " and “ Les Brachiopodes des Terrains Jurassiques.”
His best known memoirs are the “Prodrome des Teléosauriens oluerved on the northern borders of the great northern equatorial belt
. The period of these is but very slightly GERMAN papers announce the death of Dr. Karl Edward less than that of the red spot. On September 12, I ob- Venus, an eminent entomologist, and founder of the Entomoserved one of these situated in a longitude not far pre- logical Society "Iris,” at Dresden. He died on December 13. cerling the west end of the red spot, and it appeared to have divided the equatorial belt with a vein of bright The Congress of Russian men of science and physicians is isterial. There was another object of the same kind now holding its eighth meeting. Work began on December 28, following the red spot, but in this case the continuity of and will go on until January 7. ae belt was not interrupted, the bright matter appearing 24 a slight indentation in its northern side. These mark The general meeting of the Association for the Improvement mas are shown in a drawing of Jupiter made by Mr. of Geometrical Teaching will be held in the Botanical Theatre, heder with the great Lick® refractor, power 315, on University College, London, on Friday, January 17. At the mornseptember 5 last, but they are not delineated in quite ing sitting (11 a.m.) the reports of the Council and the Commitike same characters as seen here. The drawing alluded tees will be read, the new officers will be elected, and various Lo is perlaps the best and the most replete with detail of candidates will be proposed for election as members of the Assoany I have ever seen of this planet, and it furnishes clear ciation. After an adjournment for luncheon at i p. m., members testimony that the defining properties of the 36-inch will reassemble for the afternoon sitting (2 p.m.), at which papers telescope are of the highest order.
The curiously curved belt immediately north of the red will be read by the Rev. Dr. C. Taylor, on "A New Treatment pot is still one of the most prominent features on the of the Hyperbola"; by Mr. G. Heppel
, on “The Teaching of Manet's disk. It forms the southern half of the great Trigonometry;" by Mr. E. M. Langley, on “Some Geomesputh equatorial belt which is double. Under the ends trical Theorems"; and by the President (Prof. Minchin), on of the red spot it suddenly dips to the north and runs “Statics and Geometry.” into the other half of the belt. In recent years the Curved belt has been very dark and pronounced in the
The Annual Conference of the Principals of the University region contiguous to the following end of the red spot, Colleges was held on Tuesday at the Durham College of Science, and upon its crest there have been condensations of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Principal Garnett occupying the chair. extremely dark matter. Under the preceding end of the The Principals were subsequently entertained at dinner by the spor this belt is, however, more delicate in tone, and it chairman. Several questions affecting the interests of the lwns like a mere pencil shading,
Colleges collectively were discussed at the meeting, and it was During the few ensuing years these interesting features decided on the invitation of Principal Reichel that the next say be studied to greater effect, as the planet will assume gathering should be held at University College, Bangor. -- more northerly position, and rise above the vaporous indulations which have recently much interfered with THE Paris Municipal Council has lately instituted two new "Oservations of his surface.
W. F. DENNING. scientific chairs in the Hotel de Ville. One of them is devoted
to the study of the history of religions. The other is a Chair of and sextants, and of chronometers and watches rated, is a sul. Biology, and has been entrusted to Prof. Pouchet, of the Natural ficient test of the value set upon the certificates given. The History Museum, who delivers a course of general lectures on death of Mr. De la Rue, the Chairman of the Committee, will the fundamental ideas relating to zoology, anatomy, life, &c. be much felt, as he was one of the most munificent benefactors
of the Observatory, and it was at his suggestion that the firx At a meeting of the Senate of the University of Sydney, on photoheliograph was constructed and brought into use there November 4, 1889, a letter from Dr. Haswell was read, inti: The complete sets of magnetic, meteorological, and elegacal mating his acceptance of the Senate's offer of the Challis Pro- instruments have been kept in perfect working order, and simfessorship of Biology, to take effect from March 1, 1890.
maries of the results for the year's working are given in the At the annual meeting of the Manx Geological Society on appendices to the Report. Sketches of sun-spots have been December 28, in the Peel Grammar School, Dr. Haviland, the made on 173 days, and the collection of solar negatives taken retiring President, referred with pieasure to the fact that early in between 1858 and 1872 have been handed over to the Solar the summer Mr. Robert Russell had been sent to prosecute the Physics Committee, with a view to their utilization. A grande geological survey of the Isle of Man. Dr. Haviland was also whirling machine has been erected, for the purpose of examinin able to congratulate Peel on the prospect of a system of technical the accuracy of small anemometers and of the air-meters ra education being established in Christian's School, under the ployed in measuring air-currents in mine shalts, &c. In accordau pices of the Cloth Workers' Company and Sir Owen Roberts. ance with a resolution of the International Metecrologica!
Committee, a thermometer of very low range has been oc MR. A. V. Garratt, Secretary of the American National structed, to be used as a standard spirit thermometer for Electric Light Association, has sent to the members a circular temperatures ranging from zero to about - 70° C. letter, asking them to state briefly the hardest electrical problems they meet in their investigations or in the conduct of their elec- permission, a shilling volume, containing “ The Story of Enia's
Messrs. SAMPSON Low have issued, with Mr. Stanley's trical business. He asks them also to state what feature of their Rescue as told in Stanley's Letters." It has been edited Is business is the least economical or efficient, and why, and where the greatest economy could be effected if the difficulty could be
Mr. Keltie, who contributes an introduction bringing the na overcome. The answers to these queries will be digested, and
tive of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition up to the date the results submitted to Prof. Henry A. Rowland, of Johns showing Mr. Stanley's routes and discoveries, is included in the
which the first of Mr. Stanley's letters was received. A map. Hopkins University. Prof. Rowland has con-ented to address the next Electric Light Convention at Kansas City in February,
volume. basing his remarks upon the problems suggested by the members, and pointing out the direction in which their solution must be Mr. G. M. Whipple read an interesting and valuable paper to
Ar the meeting of the Photographic Society on December it, sought.
photography in relation to meteorology. There are now 33 M. Victor Giraud, the African explorer, has just published observatories—8 in this country, 7 in the colonies, and r the narrative of his explorations in the African Lake Region abroad—in which photographic apparatus is used for meteortom from 1883 to 1889. The work contains many illustrations.
logical observations. The fourth volume of M. Grandeau's " Études Agrono
At the meeting of the French Meteorological Society of miques," just issued, contains a review of British and American December 3, 1889, M. Wada gave an account of the cyclose agriculture, as represented at the Paris Exhibition.
which ravaged the southern and eastern part of Japan on Sept
ember 11 and 12 last. The centre of the storm followed » An historical sketch of the geographical works relating to course towards N. 35° E., progressing at a rate of 30 to 60 Russia has been compiled by Baron Kaulbars under the auspices miles an hour, the velocity of the wind reaching 65 mild an of the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia, in which the hour. The barometer fell to 28-23 inches--a reading which a author endeavours to show the respective parts played by the only known to have occurred once before in Japan. This stor army and navy, with various scientific societies, in the exploration raised an enormous wave, said to have been nearly 20 feet above and representation of the Empire. Beginning with the map high-water mark, and which carried away 3000 houses. U found by Dr. Michof in St. Mark’s library, Venice, only five Ritter explained his experiments upon the artificial productica years ago, and dating back to 1525, he traces all the labours, of clouds in liquids and gases. With regard to the clouds an geographic and geodetic, referring to Russia. The astronomer the atmosphere, the author distinguishes two principal kindsStruve figures well among the latter workers in the measure- viz. (1) the “stratus” and semi-transparent mist, and (2) the orments of various meridian arcs and the determination of dinary forms, such as "cumulus,” &c., and he deals with thes, differences of longitude, whilst few can speak with more authority from two points of view: the diffusion of vapour according ? than Colonel Baron Kaulbars himself on the geographical portion. Dalton's law, and the transference of clouds by the movement Hydrographical labours began with Peter the Great, and all of the air. He referred to the different results produced from similar undertakings completed by the Russian navy have been these conditions, with regard to suspension in the atmosphere. brought together ; the bibliographical sketch commencing with &c. The details of the paper will be published in the Annua the Baltic Sea, as being the most important in the history of the of the Society. navy. In the chapter chronicling the works of scientific societies, accounts are given of the many explorations into Siberia and
Tile Jaarboek of the Royal Meteorological Institute of the Arctic regions. A long and complete list of all maps due Netherlands for 1888 is the fortieth of the series, and contars, to Russian topographers is also given in historical sequence, in addition to the daily observations and summaries at varnsus together with the various scales used.
stations a summary of phenological observations for 1874-88
and observations at Parimaribo, Jeddah, and from the Ciper The Report of the Kew Committee for the year ending Congo. The preface contains an explanation of the conventional October 31 last contains an interesting account of the experi- signs used in this long series, and of the curious errors which ments carried on at the Kew Observatory; the list of instru- have occurred from time to time; a reference to this volumes ments verified, especially clinical thermometers, Navy telescopes therefore necessary to anyone who wishes to make use of the
bbservations of previous years, as the errors are not all typo of many kinds, and of the remains of fires and feasts. One paphical; for instance, the wind is given during a year and large lock of long hair-evidently a woman's—was discovered in fight months in kilometres per hour instead of 1 kilometres. the midden tied up with great care at both ends with plaited But, notwithstanding certain defects and peculiarities of methods, flax, and incased in a plaited flax pocket. Some very fine bone de Institute has been consistent in keeping to one and the needles also were come upon, but little thicker than steel atrae plan, from a period at which the publication of systematic needles, with an eye exquisitely drilled. There were, besides ( -ervations was in its infancy.
Moa bones, those of many other species of birds, of dogs, THL trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden, in accord- of fish, of seals (both fur and hair), and sea elephants 1.22 with the intention of its founder, have set a good example .--all of which had been used for food, but no human by establishing six scholarships for garden pupils, the object bones. Of the ornithic remains, some apparently belong to being to provide theoretical and practical instruction for young species now extinct in New Zealand, and not yet described. men desirous of becoming gardeners. The course of instruction The bones and egg-shells of the Moa show incontestably will extend over six years, and will include thorough training in ' that the Maori and it were contemporaneous. The geological Every department of work in which practical gardeners are
evidence would seem to indicate that this cave was of considerutcreted.
able antiquity, and was inhabited at intervals for a long period
of time. Several fire-places occur interstratified with bands of From the latest Report of the School of Mines and Industries
silt, as if the cave had been inhabited and then flooded many ar Tienstigo, Victoria, we are glad to learn that this institution walimues to make steady progress. In 1883-84, it had 324 not yet been arrived at. The swan bones discovered consist of
times. Definite conclusions on the geological evidence have talents. The number in 1888-89 was 799. This shows, as Hve Council fairly claim, that the efforts of the school to supply i the humerus sufficient to complete the whole bone. They differ
: three complete coracoids, the proximal and distal portions of -zentific and technical education to miners, engineers, assayers, very little from those of the Chenopis atrata of Australia, except ardisterts
, pharmacists, artisans, art students, and others are horoughly appreciated in Australia. Some of the students sumnerensis. It is smaller, however
, than a species of swan
in their greater size. The new species has been named Chenopis al from Queensland, South Australia, and other distant parts. discovered—as a complete skeleton-many years ago in Otago,
Tue vsih part of the second volume of the Internationales some 18 feet below the surface of the ground, when the foundation dir far Ethnographie has been issued. It maintains in for a house was being dug in Dunedin. This Sumner cave has ali respects the high level reached by previous numbers. been closed since before the introduction of the Chenopis atrata Imong the contributions are an article in German, by F. ! into New Zealand. The extension, therefore, of the Cygnidæ to Gratuwaky, on death, burial, and the funeral festival among the New Zealand is a very interesting fact in ornithology. A l'raks, and one in English, by Prof. H. H. Giglioli, on a similar cave, but far distant from the present one, was excavated sirgelar obedian scraper used at present by some of the Galla and examined by Sir Julius von Haast (Mr. Forbes's predecessor) rile in southern Shoa
many years ago. Of the bones found in it, the Moa remains At a meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, were fully described by their discoverer, but none belongNew Zealan i, on October 3, Mr. H. O. Forbes, Director of the ing to the smaller birds have as yet been described. These Cantertuary Museum, Christchurch, described an extinct species and Hamilton swamps, and from the Earnscleugh Cave, will
with the osteological collections disinterred from the Glenmark of swan fram ostcological remains which he had discovered while form the subject of a future paper by Mr. Forbes before the raving a cave recently exposed at Sumner, on the estuary of
Institute. the Heathcote and Avon Rivers, a few miles distant from Christcsurch. The cave had been entirely concealed by the falling in
IN a previous paper before the Philosophical Institute of 15 the bazaltic rock overhanging the entrance. This great heap Canterbury, Mr. Forbes pointed out that the bone figured by of lors had been there since the arrival of the first settlers at Prof. Owen on plate ciii. of his “Extinct Birds of New Zealand” Lanterbury, and had been quarried from for twenty-five years for as the coracoid of the Cnemiornis, belongs with little doubt to the making of roads, without any trace of a cave being exposed Aptornis. The coracoid of Cnemiornis, of which there are till ahzur the beginning of September. When the cave was first numerous specimens in the Christchurch and Otago Museums, is ettered, there were found on the surface a few Moa bones, and of the typical anserine form, and closely resembles that of 12:001: Nagri implements—a well-made paddle, an ornamental Cereopsis
. The coraco-clavicular angle in Aptornis approached baler, numerous greeastone adzes, obsidian Aake scrapers, stell-openers, and ornaments carefully polished. In sorne of the
The following curious instance of inheritance of an acquired latter, small holes for suspending them round the neck were mental peculiarity is given by Pastor Handtmann, of Seedorf by irilled in the most beautiful manner. It is difficult to conjecture Lenzen on the Elbe, in the Korrespondenzblatt of the German 35w the Maoris had accomplished this when European workers Anthropological Society. When acting as substitute for a few af greenstone find it a laborious process even with, and im- months in 1868, in the parish of Groben, in Brandenburg, he feresitle without, a diamond drill. Besides these greenstone
there met a farmer named Löwendorf, who, when he signed his bests, there was a great quantity of fishing paraphernalia- name officially in connection with the school, always wrote his store suckers, fish-books of all sizes made out of Moa and other Christian name “ Austug" instead of “August.” Some years Senes-all carefully and elaborately fashioned. Some of the later, the writer was inspecting this school, and heard a little harger fish-books were carved out of bones which must have girl read “ Leneb ” for “Leben,” “Naled” for “Nadel,” and danged to a Dinornis of great size. On the floor of the cave so on.' On inquiry, he found her name was Löwendorf, and walso found a well-carved representation in wood of a dog, she was a daughter of this farmer. The father (then dead) had which seems to have formed the terminating ornament of a in talk with his neighbours occasioned much amusement by the paddle-handle-evidence that the Maoris were well acquainted peculiar habit, which appeared to be the result of a fall from the with this animal. The femur of the Maori rat and a portion of upper story of a barn, some time before the birth of this girl. the skin covered with dense reddish fur in perfect preservation she wrote, as well as spoke, in the peculiar way referred to. were also obtainei. A quantity of human hair was scattered shout, both on the floor and in the kitchen midden in front of
PROF. LEUMANN is of opinion (Phil. Studien) that the influence the cave. This midden was composed chiefly of marine shells of blood circulation and breathing, on mind-life, has been too little
5 27 52
considered. He notices the parallelism between pulse accelera
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. tion and passion, the rush of ideas in fever, and so on. The
OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. differences of pulse and breathing in different persons are no less significant, and should be regarded in all psychometric deter
Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m., January 1 = sh. minations. The author noticed in boys of a Strasburg 49m. 56s. gymnasium, that in scanning verse, the number of feet spoken in
Name. Mag Colour. RA 1890. De ilye a minute rose with the pulse-frequency. Even in one person, experimented on from midday till evening, the dependence of normal reading of metrical compositions un pulse-frequency was
(1) G. C. 1957 proved ; the rhythmic intervals in scanning corresponded to the (2) 5 Orionis
Yellowish-red. (3) Aurigæ
Orange pulse-intervals. Leumann supposes that to be the most general and
7 36 38
2 14 59
4 58 23 normal song-metre, whose feet correspond to the pulsations, and (5) şi Schi.
(6) $ Geminorum Var Yellowish-red. its lines to respiration. And, in fact, the Indo-Germanic original
(7) S Persei
Yellowish-red. metre consists of four times four trochees, an arrangement agreeing with that view ; from it arose the Nibelungen strophe and the
(1) Described as " very bright, very large, very gradually In the Legislative Council of India recently, Mr. R. J. brighter in the middle ; barely resolvable." The spectrum eu Crosthwaite in introducing the amended Land Revenue (Central observed at Harvard College in 1869. The continuous spectrus
extended from about 450 to 607. Two bright lines appear to Provinces) Bill, said that many objections had been raised,
have been observed, less refrangible than those of other nebu.r. chiefly by the Malguzars' Association of Nagpore, to the powers but no reliable measures were made, owing to errors in the macro given by the Bill to the Chief Commissioner to make rules for meter (Harvard College Observations, vol. xiii
. part i, p. 04 the management of forests. To show that such powers were Further observations are required, as all departures from the necessary, Mr. Crosthwaite instanced two cases of the wanton ordinary spectrum of bright lines are especially interesting 1 destruction of forests which is so common in India. In 1885 the connection with the question of the variation of spectrum w! Deputy Commissioner of Nagpore reported that the malguzar
temperature. Comparisons with the carbon flutings seen in the
flame of a spirit-lamp, and the brightest flatings of mangane of Munsar had given a contract for the cutting and removal of and lead, conveniently obtained by burning the chlorides ir te the wood in the forest land of his mahal. The villagers had flame, are suggested. rights in this forest-land, and those rights were intersered with (2) In this star of Group II, the bands are very weak, only : by the cutting of the wood; but, in spite of the Chief Com 3, 7, 8 being well seen. The star falls in species 3 of the sb
division of the group, the manganese fluting (band 4) beim missioner, the malguzar continued the cutting, and the hills were
absent because it is masked by the fluting of carbon near A ge4 completely stripped of all timber and brushwood. In another
and 5 and 6 being absent because the temperature is low. The case a zemindar had sold the right to collect resin from his forest. carbon flutings appear to be brightest in the earlier species, and The resin is obtained by girdling the trees, and it was found that it seems probable that band 9 is also present but has been ove in about four square miles of particularly fine forest every sab tree
looked. This band is the dark space lying between the brigt: was killed outright. That is, four square miles of forest were
fluting of carbon 468-474 and 'the end of the continues
spectrum. Comparisons with the spectrum of the spirit-lamp destroyed to produce about 1200 rupees. Sir Charles Elliott, speak
flame, with special reference to the presence of the carbon Ruzir ing on the same occasion, said that if some such provision as that 468-474 are suggested. Dunér's mean value for the end of the now proposed had existed in the past, the forest clearances round band in other stars is 1 476. Simla and along the southern slopes of the Himalayas abutting (3) This is classed by Gothard with stars of the solar type.
The usual observations are suggested. the Punjab plain could never have taken place.
(4) Gothard describes the spectrum of this star as Group IV., Messrs. DULAU AND Co. have issued a catalogue of works star of Group III. or Group V., as in either case the hydmge
but is somewhat doubtful about it. It is probably either a fale on chemistry and physics.
lines would be moderately thick. In some copies of NATURE, last week, the following sentence
(5) This is a good example of stars of Group VI., in which
Dunér records the bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10. The le appeared in the first paragraph of the Duke of Argyll's letter three are carbon absorption flotings, and the only point to be on “Acquired Characters and Congenital Variation": "But noted in connection with these is the intensity of band 6 (nez: it implies the denial of congenital'causes.” It ought to have
^ 564), relatively to the other bands. The first four a'u been : “But it implies no denial of congenital 'causes."
secondary bands, possibly produced by vapours similar to those
which produce the telluric hands in the solar spectrum. Other The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during absorptions may also be looked for. the past two weeks include a Malbrouck Monkey (Cercopithecus recorded. The range of variation is from about 8'5 at maximum
(6) This is another variable of which no spectrum has been cynosurus 3) from South Africa, presented by Mr. William F.
to < 13 at minimum, and the period is 294 days. The mari Hughes ; a Lesser White-nosed Monkey (Cercopithecus pelaurista) mum occurs on January 2. from West Africa, presented by Mr. Lawson N. Peregrine ; (7) This is a variable star of Group II., of the same type 33 two Viscachas (Lagostomus trichodactylus 8P) from the those in which Espin has found bright lines of hydrogen 21 Argentine Republic, presented by Mr. Thomas Taylor ; two
maximum. The number and character of the bands and the Crimson-winged Parrakeets (Aprosmictus erythropterus 8 ) intensity of the bright carbon flutings and their fading away,
presence or absence of bright lines should be noted. The from Australia, presented by Mrs. G. Byng-Payne ; a Bonnet any, as the maximum (January 7) is passed should also be noted Monkey (Macacus sinicus ) from India, presented by Mr. The magnitude at maximum is stated by Gore as 76 and that et James Entwistle ; a Malabar Parrakeet (Palvornis columboides)
minimum as <97.
A. FOWLER from Southern India, presented by Mr. J. E. Godfrey ; three Dr. Peter's STAR CATALOGUE.—The case of Dr. Peten Common Bluebirds (Sialia wilsoni) from North America, pre against Mr. Borst, with reference to the possession of the Clinton sented by Commander W. M. Latham, R.N., F.Z.S. ; a Black catalogue, containing over 30,000 stars arranged in the order of Wallaby (Halmaturus walabatus :) from New South Wales,
their right ascension, has been definitely settled. It will two Black and White Geese (Anseranas melanoleuca) from that most of the computations had been made by him odtside o
remembered that Mr. Borst claimed the catalogue on the ground Australia, a Ring-tailed Coati (Nasua rufa) from South his labours at the Observatory, and not under the direction of America, deposited.
Dr. Peters, who, however, devised the work, and regarded it all
= 211 4 23
along as his own, since it included his observations extending the growth of societies in wealth, and on the relations of different brer very many years. The court held, firstly, that the manu societies in that respect, with reference to such questions as the erupt could not belong to Hamilton College, of which Dr. relative burden of taxation and national debts, the rate of saving Peters is Professor, nor to Litchfield Observatory, of which he in communities at different times, and the like. Exact figures
Director, but to the authors and to them alone ; and secondly, were impossible, but approximate figures were still useful. The that the whole of the manuscript, numbering 3572 pages, held method he followed was to take the income-tax returns, capitalise ing Mr. Horst, had been wrongfully detained, and would have the different descriptions of income from property there mentioned wy be delivered to Dr. Peters, with compensation for the at so many years' purchase, and make an estimate for property Ketention.
of other kinds not coming into the income tax returns. Formerly, LUNGITUDE OF MOUNT HAMILTON.-A telegraphic de
in comparing 1865 and 1875, he had capitalised at the same termination of the longitude of Mount Hamilton has been made
number of years' purchase in each year, but between 1875 and by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the result
1885 there were changes in capital value irrespective of changes found for the transit house meridian (Fauth transit instrument)
in income which it was important to take notice of, at least as of the Lick Observatory is
between different descriptions of property, though the results in
the aggregate would not be much different from what they are $b, ómn. 34*8073., or 121° 38' 42"-10 W. of Greenwich, is no change in the number of years' purchase were made. In with an estimated probable error o'ls, or 1"15.
1885, then, the total valuation of the property of the United
Kingdom, according to the method followed in the paper, came COMET BORELLY, g 1889 (DECEMBER 12).— The following
to 10,000 millions sterling in round figures, equal to about £270 siements and ephemeris have been computed for this comet by
The principal items were : Lands, 1691 millions ; Tors Zelbr and Froebe (Astr, Nach., 2943) :
houses, £1,927,000 ; railways in United Kingdom, 932 millions ; T = 1890 January 27*7438 Berlin Mean Time. miscellaneous public companies in Schedule D, 696 millions ;
trades and professions in Schedule D, 542 millions : farmers'
profits, &c., in Schedule B, 522 millions ; public funds (excluding Q = 16 59 17 Mean Eq. 1889'0.
bome funds), 528 millions ; gasworks, 126 millions; water1 = 59 56 56
works, 65 millions ; canals, docks, &c., 71 millions ; mines and log y = 945755
ironworks, 39 millions. These were all based on the method AA cOS B = 4":1
of capitalising income in the income-tax returns, and the principal: AB = + 107
item of other property, for which an estimate was made in a Ephemeris for Berlin Midnight.
different way, was that of movable property not yielding income,
1.8. furniture of houses, works of art, &c., which was taken at RA. Decl.
Bright about half the value of houses, or 960 millions. Comparing h. m s. 18 31 40 + 2i 36-2
these figures with those of 1875, when the valuation was 8500 35 45
millions, the apparent increase was 1500 millions, or about 171 15 22'9
per cent. ; but there were important changes in detail, lands 40 25 16 + 019*7
having declined considerably, mines and ironworks having also 56 31
declined, and there being a great increase in houses and some The lightness at discovery has been taken as unity.
other items. It appeared also that the increase in the decade
1875-85 was considerably less than in the previous decade dealt COMET BROOKS, d 1889 JULY 6).—The following ephe neris with in the former paper. In 1865-75, in fact, the increase was 13 lo miltuation of that previously given (NATURE, vol. xli. from about 6100 millions to 8500 millions, or no less than 2400 115:
millions, and 40 per cent. in ten years, and 240 millions per RA Decl.
annum ; whereas in 1875-85 the increase was only 1500 millions, Bright
or 174 per cent. in ten years, and only 150 millions per annum. 0 45 54
+ 7 526 06 The difference in the rate of growth was ascribed very largely to 52 5 8 376 05
a difference in the rate of growth of money values only, reasons 9 227
being given for the belief that in real prosperity, in the multiplicaIn 14 53
tion of useful things, and not merely money values, the improveII 29 IO 527
ment in the later period was not less than in the first.' The 18 12
distribution of this great property between England, Scotland, 12 219
and Ireland, could not be exactly shown, part of the income Brightness at discovery = I.
belonging to the community of the United Kingdom in a way
which did not permit of a distinction being made ; but upon a THE SOLAR ECLIPSE.-Intelligence has been received by rough estimate it appeared that England was considered to Mr. Turner, Secretary of the Eclipse Committee, from Mr. have 8617 millions, or 86 per cent. of the total ; Scotland, 973 Taylor
, statised at Loanda, announcing that he has obtained millions, or 9*7 per cent. ; and Ireland, 447 millions, or 4:3 per by utrervations
cent. These figures worked out about £308, £243, and 293 per head respectively, as compared with the average of 6270
for the United Kingdom. The small relative amount of property ACCUMULATIONS OF CAPITAL IN THE
in Ireland was commented upon, and the difference between it
and Great Britain was ascribed very largely to the political UVITED KINGDOM IN 1875-85.
agitation in Ireland, which depreciated property, and the excess AT a meeting of the Royal Statistical Society on December 17, of population on the land, which had the same effect ; these
Mr. Robert Giffen read a paper on accumulations of two causes together making a difference of 200 millions in the apital in the United Kingdom. He began by stating that he apparent capital of Ireland. Measured by property, Ireland proposed to continue and expand the paper which he read to the was enormously over-represented in the Imperial Parliament. Furcely I years ago, on " Recent Accumulations of Capital in | Looking at the subject historically, they found that there had the United Kingdom," which dealt specially
with the increase of been an enormous and continuous advance in the course of the apa:al between 1865 and 1875: He would now deal with
the past three centuries, during which at different times there had scamulations between 1875 and 1885, another ten years' period, been contemporary estimates on the subject
. In 1600 the and 1885 also being practically the present time, there being very property estimate was for England only 100 millions, or £22 luule change in the income tax assessments since 1885,
though it per head ; 1680, 250 millions, or £46 per head ; 1690, 320 appeared likely enough there would be considerable changes in millions, or £58 per head ; 1720, 370 millions, or 57 per berrime a book, which
would be published immediately by millions, or £167 per head. The estimate for Great Britain in Xar. George Bell and Sons, under the title of " The Growth the latter year being about one-eighth more in the aggregate than Capital," and the paper he now proposed to read consisted of for England only, and £160 per head. Since 1800 there are zyracts from that book. It must be understood that the com figures for the United Kingdom, and these show : 1812, 2700
ulations were necesarily very rough and approximate only, and millions, or £160 per head ; 1822, 2500 millions, or £120 per inly designed, in the absence of better figures, to throw light on head (a reduction largely due to fall of prices); 1833, 3600