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millions, or £144 per head ; 1845, 4000 millions, or £143 phor and camphorated alcohol produce no effect on the virai, per head; 1865, 6000 millions, or 2200 per head ; 1875, 8500 and that chloroform and hydrated chloral have a more or les millions, or £260 per head; and finally, the present figures of attenuating action, checking the development of the artifaslla 10,000 millions, or £270 per head. There was in fact a steady cultivated microbe, or even in some cases rendering it absolutely increase, with the exception of the interval between 1812 sterile, while camphorated chloral has a decidedly neutralice and 1822, when there was a heavy fall of prices, and this effect on the virus. Other experiments show that when tezana increase, it was believed, represented almost all through a real is once developed in the system iodoform is powerless to arres increase in things, money prices at any rate being at a lower its progress, but is most efficacious in neutralizing the virus rate now than at the beginning of the century. There had also the injured part. The whole series of experiments fully conbeen a remarkable change all through in the proportions of firms the author's previous conclusion that iodoform is the different descriptions of property. Lands, at the commence specific disinfectant of the microbe of tetanus, ment constitute about 60 per cent of the total ; at the be. ginning of the century they are still about 40 per cent. ; at the
Bulletin de l'Académie Royale di Belgique, October 13 present time they are 17 per cent. only. Houses, on the other Jupiter's north equatorial band, by M. F. Terby. The auto? hand, are about 15 per cent. of the total at the beginning,
describes in detail the structure of this remarkable phenomeno: and 19 per cent. at the present time, an increasing percentage
which he has been carelully studying for the last three years of an ever-increasing total ; but the main increase after all with a Grubb 8-inch telescope. -Determination of the invang is in descriptions of property which are neither lands nor functions or forms comprising several series of variants, by M. houses. After referring to the accumulations of capital in Jacques Deruyts. In continuation of his previous communicaforeign countries, Mr. Giffen concluded by giving illustrations tions, the author here extends to forms with several series : of the mode of using such figures, showing the difference of the variants the results already made known for forms with a serupa burden of taxation and national debts in England, France, and
of n variables.-M. C. Vanlair describes the symptoms aad the United States ; the preponderance of England in the United treatment of a new case of bothriocephaly in Belgium, dup, Kingdom as compared with England, Scotland, and Ireland; the presence of Bothriocephalses latus in the patient. the rapid growth of the United States in recent years as compared with the United Kingdom, and especially as compared with France (the national debt in the United States, from amounting twenty years ago to a sum equal to a fifth of the
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. total property, having come to be only equal to a thirtieth of the property); and the small proportion of the annual savings
London. of the country which comes into the public market for invest Royal Society, December 5, 1889. — " Researches on the ment, as compared with the savings invested privately as they Chemistry of the Camphoric Acids." By J. E. Marsh. are made. In passing, a reference was made to the talk of the An account is given of some experiments leading to the per. vast expenditure on military armaments, and the burden they duction, in any desired quantity, of a new camphoric acid, axı impose on certain communities ; and it was suggested that, to the mutual conversion of one acid into the other; as well as heavy as the burdens are, yet the vast amount of property re. to a method of quantitatively separating the two acids whes latively indicated that the point of exhaustion was more remote mixed. The space at our disposal does not permit us to enter than was commonly supposed. In conclusion, the hope was into any details of the experiments, nor into the theoretica expressed that the discussion of recent years would lead in time considerations involved. For this, reference must be made ra to the production of better figures, especially with regard to the the original paper. growth of different descriptions of property: Were trouble taken, results might be arrived at which would be of value to
December 19, 1889.—“On the Steam Calorimeter." Ey !. the Government practically, as well as to economists in their Joly, M.A. Communicated by G. F. Fitzgerald, F.RS, discussions. The progress of revenue was intimately connected
F.T.C.D. with the progress of national resources, and the progress of
The theory of the method of condensation has been previously money revenue with the progress of the money expression of given by the author in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. those resources. The resources theinselves, and the money vol. 41, P: 352, values, must be studied by Chancellors of the Exchequer with
Since the publication of that paper a much more extende almost equal anxiety, and they should both, at any rate, be knowledge of the capabilities of the method has been soju irei, studied together
. Periodical complete valuations of property which has led to the construction of new forms of the apparaini, were
in this view as indispensable as the census of population described and illustrated, one of which is new in principle, itself.
being a differential form of the calorimeter. The accuracy of observation attained by this latter form is so considerable ihan
it has been found possible to estimate directly the specific heala UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL of the gases at constant volume to a close degree of accuracy. INTELLIGENCE.
An error incidental to the use of the method arising from the UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, Liverpool.—The Sheridan Mus
| radiation of the substance, when surrounded by steam, to the pratt Chemical Scholarship, of the value of £50
per annum for walls of the calorimeter, is inquired into. It is shown that para two years, has been awarded to Mr. J. T. Conroy, who has
affects the accuracy of the result to a very small degree, and been a student in the chemical laboratories during the past two
capable of easy estimation and elimination. years. Mr. Conroy has recently taken the degree of B.Sc.
, with in a comparison of experiments made in different forms of the
Further confirmation of the accuracy of the method is affonde! honours in chemistry, at the University of London. intended to enable the holder to continue work in the higher the method, and the results of experiments on the density". Scholarship, which is the gift of Mrs. Sheridan Muspratt, is steam calorimeter.
Various tables of constants are given to facilitate the use 74 branches of chemistry. The Sheridan Muspratt Exhibition of £25 has been awarded to Mr. A. Carey, of Widnes, who has saturated steam at atmospheric pres-ures, made directly in e been a student of the College during the last two and a half calorimeter, are included. These are concordant with the years, and is now in the final stage of preparation in the honours deductions of Zeuner, based on Regnault's observations on the school of chemistry of Victoria University.
properties of steam, and were undertaken in the hope of affording reliable data on which to calculate the displacement effect on the apparent weight of the substance transferred from
air to steam. SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.
The communication is intended to provide a fall account il Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo, November.-On the mode of application of the steam calorimeter. the antidotes of the virus of tetanus, and on its prophylactic sur Royal Meteorological Society, December 18, 1889. -Dr. gical treatment, by Prof. G. Sormani. In continuation of his w. Marcet, F.R.S., President, in the chair. The followm, previous paper on this subject, the author here describes some papers were read :-Report of the Wind Force Committee on further experiments with alcohol, chloroform, and various pre the factor of the Kew pattern Rubinson anemometer. This parations of camphor, chloral, and iodine. He finds that cam has been drawn up by Mr. W. H. Dines, who has made :
Farge number of experiments with various anemoneters on the solid particles and facilitate condensation. Mr. Richardson in whirling machine at Hersham. Twelve of these were made quired whether a red-hot iron had any effect. Dr. Fison said he 4th the friction of the Kew anemometer artificially increased, had made experiments on the electrification of flame, and found seven with a variable velocity, and fourteen with the plane of that potentials varying from + 2 volts to - il volts could be the caps inclined at an angle to the direction of motion. In dis obtained in the region within and surrounding a Bunsen flame. casing the results the following points are taken into considera Prof. S. P. Thompson commented on the contrast between Mr. Wu, viz the possibility of the existence of induced eddies, the Bidwell's experiments and those of Dr. Lodge on the dissipation rifect of the incrensed friction due to the centrifugal force and of fogs by electricity, and also asked whether the colour of the prestopic action, and the action of the natural wind. The jet depended on the length of the spark produced by the conclusion that the instrament is greatly affected by the vari- machine. Prof. Forbes thought a crucial test between the two ability of the wind to which it is exposed seems to be irresistible, hypotheses of Helmholtz could be ohtained by trying the experiand if so, the exact value of the factor must depend upon the ment in a germless globe. The President said he had recently aluse of the wind as well as upon the mean velocity.' There noticed that gas flames were electrified. Mr. Bidwell in reply
evidence to show that during a gale the variations of velocity said he ought to have mentioned that the effect of flames on jets. are sometimes of great extent and frequency, and there can be may be due to dirt, for if soap or milk be added to the water in lai liile loubt that in such a case the factor is less than 2'15the steam generator, no effect is produced by electrification or The one point which does seem clear is, that for anemometers flame. As to change of colour with spark-length, little (if any) of the Kew pattern the value 3 is far too high, and consequently variation is caused thereby. He had not tried whether a red-hot hat the registered wind velocities are considerably in excess of iron produced any effect on a steam jet.-Notes on geometrical se true amount.--On testing anemometers, by Mr. W. H. optics, Part 2, by Prof. S. P. Thompson. Three notes were Dines
. The author describes the various methods employed presented, the first of which dealt with the geometrical use of in the testing of anemometers, points out the difficulties that have focal circles" in problems relating to lenses and mirrors, and In he cacuuntered, and explains how they can be overcome. - to single refracting surfaces. By "focal circles" the author On the rainfall of the Riviera, by Mr. G. J. Symons, F.R.S. means the circles having the principal foci as centres, and whose The satba has collected all the available information respecting i radii are equal to the focal lengths. By their use the point con3a12]) is this district, which is very scanty. He believes that jugate to any point on the principal axis is readily determined. se stal angsal fall along the Riviera from Cannes to San One construction for a mirror is to draw a tangent to the focal Reus is about 31 inches, and that any difference between circle from a point P on the axis ; the foot of the perpendicular the several towns has yet to be proved. --Report on the pheno- 'to the axis drawn through the point of contact gives the point logical observations for 1889, by Mr. E. Mawley. This is a conjugate to P. When applied to a thin lens, a tangent is drawn discussion of observations on the flowering of plants, the appear as above to one focal circle, and the line joining the point of ance of insects, the song and nesting of birds, &c. Taken as I contact with the centre of the lens is produced to meet the other 3 whole, 1889 was an unusually gay and bountiful year.
focal circle; a perpendicular to the axis from the remote point of
intersection gives ihe conjugate point. Modifications applicable Physical Society, Dec. 6, 1889. --- Prof. Reinold, President, to thick lenses and single refracting surfaces were also given. In in the chair -- The following communications were read :-On his second note the author treated similar problems by the aid *he electrification of a steam jet, by Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S. of squares drawn on the principal focal distances, the construcTee author showed that the opacity of steam issuing from a
tions being remarkably simple, as will be seen from the figure, in erile is greatly increased by bringing electrified points near it, 3sd that its colour is changed to orange brown. Electrified balls
M M2 uri duks when placed in the steam produce similar effects, and when these are connected with an influence machine at work,
decoloration of the jet rapidly responds to each spark. examining the absorption spectrum of the unelectrified jet, little si sclective absorption was detected, but on electrification, the talet disappeared, the blue and green were diminished, and the
QF mange and red remained unchanged. From these results the -thor concludes that electrification causes an increase in the
of the water particles in the steam, from something small vapared with the wave-length of light, to about 1/50000 of an inch in diameter. Allied phenomena with water jets have been which m; M, represent the principal planes of a thick lens, Fux overved by Lord Rayleigh, who found that a straggling water jet Fy, its principal foci, and p and q are conjugate points. The a rendered much more coherent by bringing a rubbed stick of seal line BC is drawn parallel to PA. In the third note, the paths of LXw2x near it. These observations are of considerable meteoro- rays through prisms are determined by the aid of imaginary gal interest, for the steam jet phenomena go far towards ex- planes representing the apparent position of the plane bisecting ating the cause of the intense darkness of thunderclouds, and of the dihedral angle of the prism when viewed through its two
lorid yellow light with which that darkness is frequently faces. Just as in problems on thick lenses in which the part beapered. After making his experiments the author learnt that tween the principal planes may be supposed removed, so when sulla observations had recently been made by the late Robert dealing with prisms, the part between the imaginary planes Helmholtz
, who viewed the steam jets by reflected light against above referred to may be supposed non-existent. In another dark background. Oa electrification the jets became much method of treatment, the apparent positions of points outside the better defined, and presented diffraction colours. Luminous prism when viewed from inside the prism are made use of, and Alume also produced similar effects, and Mr. Bidwell has found their application to illustrate dispersion was pointed out. Mr. thu glowing touch paper is equally efficient. Helmholtz con. c. v. Boys asked whether the latter construction could be used sctures that the sudden condensation may be due to molecular : to show why the slit of a spectroscope appears curved. ---On the tremora or shuck imparted by the electrification upsetting the behaviour of steel under mechanical stress, by Mr. C. H. Carusunstable equilibriun of the supersaturated vapour, just as a Wilson. This is an inquiry into the properties of steel as illussupersaturated saline solution is suddenly crystallized when dis trated by the stress-strain curves given in automatic diagrams
urteed. Another hypothesis suggests that condensation is caused from testing machines, and by magnetic changes which take buy the introduction of solid matter into the jet by the exciting place during testing. After pointing out that the permanent stuse
, thus producing nuclei upon which the vapour may con- elongation of a bar under longitudinal stress consists of a sliding denise. On reading Helmholiz's paper, the author tried the combined with an increase of volume, the author showed that fect of gas-fames on water jets, and found that when luminous the yield” is caused by the limit of elastic resistance (p) they influenced the jet considerably, whereas non-luminous parallel to one particular direction in the bar (generally at 45 dures are positively electrified, and demonstrated this before the lower limit is reached, sliding takes place in this direction until meeting, Prof. Rucker thought
the surface tension of the films the hardening of the bar caused thereby raises the limit of Furrounding the water jets might be lowered by the presence of elastic resistance in the direction referred to) to that of the rest a surning substance, and that the smoke from the touch paper of
the bar, after which the stress must be increased to produce 220d in some of the experiments on steam jets would introduce further permanent set. From considerations based on the stress
strain curves of the same material when hardened to different ment introduced for the purpose of remedying a serious dele: degrees by heating and immersion, &c., it was concluded that in the original design. It has now the advantage of giving a the increase of (p) during "yield " is the same for all the speci- good results as any of the systems in general use, while superva mens, and that the "yield” is a measure of the “hardness." to them in simplicity and economy.-On the production of films The question of discontinuity of the curves about the “yield of ice on the surface of the alburnum of certain species of plani point” was next discussed, and evidence to the contrary given by M. D. Clos. Early in December, after a hard frost, whes by specimens which show conclusively that the yield does not the glass fell to -6° C. at night, Verbesina virginia, Hezertake place simultaneously at all parts of the bar, but travels thus orgyalis, and several other plants exhibited the same phe along the bar as a strain wave. In these specimens the load had nomenon of glaciation at the Toulouse Botanical Garden at been removed before the wave had traversed the whole length; was observed and described by Dunal at Montpellier in 1848. and the line between the strained and unstrained portions could An explanation is here given of the phenomenon, which occurred be easily recognized. As additional evidence of continuity, the on a much larger scale on the present than on the previous close analogy between the stress-strain curves of steel of various occasion.-Observations of Borrelly's new comet ( 1889), muude degrees of hardness, and the isothermals of condensible gases at at the Paris Observatory with the equatorial of the west toves, different temperatures when near their point of liquefaction, was by M. G. Bigourdan. The observations were taken on Decem", pointed out; the apparent discontinuity in the latter probably ber 15, when the comet presented the appearance of a netrally
, being due to the change from gas to liquid taking place piece indistinctly round, of 2' diameter, slightly more brilliant in the meal throughout the substance (see Prof. J. Thomson, Proc. central region, but without notable condensation. In its expene Roy. Soc., 71, No. 130). In seeking for an explanation of the were clearly visible two stellar points, and the presence hardening of steel by permanent strain, the author was led to molecules of the substance. To test this hypothesis, experiments André Markoff. From the nature of these series the authe. believe this due to the displacement of the atoms within the several others suspected. —On the series is by M on magnetization by stretching a bar in a magnetic field were establishes a formula which yields the equationmade; these show that the magnetization increases with the stress up to the "yield point," and is wholly permanent when
1 + approaching that point. On comparing his results with Joule's
.. = 1*202 056 903 159 394 285 40
3 experiments on the elongation of loaded wires produced by magnetization, the author infers that there are two kinds of correct to 20 decimals. M. Markoff's paper forms a sequel w elongation—firstly, that produced by relative motion of the mole. Stirling's memoir “De Summatione et Interpolatione Serierum cules, and secondly, an elongation resulting from a straining of Infinitarum."-On magnetic potential energy and the measure the molecules themselves. To this latter straining the hardening ment of the coefficients of magnetization, by M. Gouy. The by permanent strain is attributed, and this view seems com- mechanical action of magnets on isotropous substances, dispatible with the results of Osmond's researches on the hardening magnetic or feebly magnetic isotropous bodies, has often ben of steel.- Mr. F. C. Hawe's paper was postponed,
utilized for measuring or comparing the coefficients af magnetisa
tion assumed to be constants. On this hypothesis has been Mathematical Society, Dec. 12, 1889. —Mr. J. J. Walker, established the expression of the potential energy which serva F.R.S., President, in the chair.—The following papers were to calculate the mechanical action in question. Here M. Gre read :-On the radial vibrations of a cylindrical elastic shell
, by proposes to supply a somewhat more complete theory by regardA. B. Basset, F.R.S. --Note on the 51840 group, Dr. G. G. ing these coefficients, not as constants, but as variable with the Morrice. — The President then vacated the chair, which was magnetizing force, and utilizing the experimental data lor taken by Mr. E. B. Elliott, Vice-President.--Complex multi- measuring the variations.-On the colour and spectrum plication moduli of elliptic functions for the determinants - 53 Auorine, by M. Henri Moissan. The colour of Aporine as her
: and - 61, by Prof. G. B. Mathews (communicated by Prof. determined is a greenish -yellow, much fainter than that ol Greenhill, F.R.S.).-On the flexure of an elastic plate, by Prof. chlorine under like conditions, and inclining more to the yellow H. Lamb, F.R.S.-Notes on a plane cubic and a conic, by R. tint. Thirteen rays have been determined in the red region A. Roberts (communicated by the Secretary). - Dr. Larmor and the spectrum. With hydrofluoric acid several bands have been Mr. Curran Sharp made brief communications.
obtained in the yellow and violet, but very wide and not sati
ciently distinct to fix their position with accuracy. -Action of EDINBURGH.
ammonia on the combinations of the cyanide with the chloris Royal Society, December 16, 1889.Sir Arthur Mitchell, with the action of ammonia on the cyanochloride of merowy,
of mercury, by M. Raoul Varet. The paper deals severally Vice-President, in the chair. - Dr. Thomas Muir read a note on the action of absolute ammoniacal alcohol ; the action al Cayley's demonstration of Pascal's theorem. He has succeeded ammoniac gas; the cyanochloride of mercury and zinc ; and the in simplifying the proof. Dr. Muir also read a paper on self- cyanochloride of mercury and copper.-On an adulteration i conjugate permutations, and one on a rapidly converging series the
essence of French turpentine, by M. A. Aignan. The for the extraction of the square root. - Prof. Tait read a note fraud, which consists in the addition of a small quantity of the on some quaternion integrals, and also a note on the glissette of oil of resin, is not easily detected, but may be discovered by a hyperbola. When a given ellipse slides on rectangular axes, studying the rotatory power of the liquid, as is here show. any point in its plane traces out a definite curve, and the same Papers were submitted by M. Besson, on the temperature of -curve can be similarly obtained as the trace of a definite point solidification of the chlorides of tin and arsenic, and on the in the
plane of a certain hyperbola sliding between axes in faculty of absorbing chlorine at a low temperature; by . general 'inclined 10 the former.-Dr. Woodhead communi- Seyewitz, on the synthesis of dioxidiphenylamine and of a rest cated a paper, written by Dr. Herbert Ashdown, on certain brown colouring substance ; by M. Pierre Mercier, on a genera! substances, formed in the urine, which reduce the oxide of method of colouring photographic proofs with the salts of silver, copper upon boiling in the presence of an alkali. Dr. Ashdown platinum, and the metals of the platinum group: and by MN was led to search for these substances in the human subject as G. Pouchet and Biétrix, on the egg and first development of the the result of observations made upon lower animals. ---Dr. G. E. alose, a fish allied to the sardine. Cartwright Wood discussed enzyme action in the lower organisms. -Dr. Woodhead communicated a paper, by Mr. Frank E. December 23.-M. Hermite in the chair.-On the discovery Beddard, on the structure of a genus of Oligochætæ belonging of a fossil ape, by M. Albert Gaudry. On presenting to its to the Limnicoline section.
Academy the skull of an ape recently discovered by Di PARIS.
Donnezan at Serrat d'en Vaquer, M. Gaudry remarked tha:
except those from Pikermi in Greece, these are the only canal Academy of Sciences, December 16, 1889. ---M. Hermite remains of a fossil Simian hitherto brought to light. May in the chair.
--Note on the eclipse of December 22, by M. J. other fossils have been found in the same place, which evidently Janssen. The arrangements are described which were made contains large accumulations, especially of extinet vertebrate at the Observatory of Meudon for observing this event. - animals.-Observations of the comet discovered by M. Torrelly On the effects of a new hydraulic engine used for irrigation pur at the Observatory of Marseilles, on December 12, by XL. poses, by M. Anatole de Caligny. The general disposition of Stephan. The observations are for December 12, 13, and 14. this apparatus was fully described in the Comptes rendus, Novem during which period the comet steadily increased in hrightness ber 19, 1887. The present note has reference to an improve and assumed 'more distinct outlines. On the 12th it 123
scured for a few minutes by a star of the tenth or eleventh variations may be. By comparisons based on a long series of wynitude. -Determination of the difference of longitude be observations, it appeared that a series extending over ten years een Paris and Leyden, hy M. Bassot. This international suffices to give a reliable monthly mean. From this it appears rasation, executed by MM. Van de Sande Bakhuyzen and that at most stations the maximal amount of mist occurs in the sot, presents a special geodetic interest, Leyden being the months of November and December, the maximum occurring in obertimoat station of the meridian of Sedan which now passes November in the eastern provinces of Prussia, and falling probugt Helgium far into the Netherlands. From the observa. gressively later the further the stations lie towards the west.
the difference of longitude between Paris and Leyden On the coasts of the North Sea and on the adjacent islands the pear to be Sm. 35'6025., with probable error = ooris., maximum is observed in January, while it occurs on mountains
sich, reduced to the official meridians, gives 8m. 35-2135. - as early as September and October. At the latter stations the In the degree of accuracy attained by thermometers in the minimum is, met with as early as May, and is progressively mesurement of temperatures, by M. Ch. Ed. Guillaume. On later (June and July) at the other stations according to the
resenting to the Academy his Traité pratique de la Thermo. lateness of the maximum. On the islands, as, for instance, Teprie de precision," the author took occasion to reply to M. Heligoland, the minimum does not occur before September Pienu's recent remarks on the accuracy of the mercury ther or October. As a general rule, 70 per cent. falls in autumn meter. Reviewing the whole question, and comparing the and winter, 20 per cent. in spring, and 10 per cent. in perums and experiences of the most distinguished physicists summer. The amplitude of the yearly differences is greatest lining late years, M. Guillaume considers it placed beyond on the plains and least on mountains. The number of dodh that mercury thermometers with glass of varying qualities days on which mist occurs is greatest at mountain stations, y ell varying results. But these differences, formerly supposed amounting on the average to 200 per annum, falling in the low lo le forintous, are now known to be systematic, so that any lands to as few as 40 or less. The material at hand for deterquruler of instruments giving identical results may be constructed mining the variations in the amount of mist per diem was exHry judicrous selection of glass and careful manipulation. tremely scanty; still it was possible to make out that, in winter, - B-inosite, by M. Maquenne. In a previous note mist is most frequent in the morning, diminishing considerably b impea rendus, vol. cix. p. 812) the author showed that towards midday, and being in the evening at times as frequent Bente may be decomposed into a molecule of methyl iodide and as at midday, at times somewhat more frequent. In summer, A molecule of a new sugar called by him B-inosite. The analysis mist is observed only in the morning, and then disappears com
these two bodies leading to identical results, he inferred that pletely. In the discussion which followed the above communi*hey were isomerous, presenting relations of the same order as cation it was pointed out how essential it is to distinguish in existing between the two known hexachlorides of benzine. between clouds and mist, as also many other factors, such as the ? Len byļothesis fias been fully confirmed by his further study of frequency of purely local mists, the absence of wind, the diffi. s-rudite, communicated in the present memoir.-On a new culty of determining the density of mists, the differences of altirises of diacetones, by MM. A. Behal and V. Auger. The tude, &c. - Dr. Sprung spoke on some new self-recording appacathers have already shown that the chlorides of malonyl
, ratus of various kinds made by Richard of Paris, and described præbyłmalonyl, and ethylmalonyl react on the aromatic car fully his actinometer and anemocinometer. sol yielding diacetones, BR-00-CHX-CO-R. They Physical Society, Dec. 6, 1889. - Prof. Kundt, President, Barve also determined the formation of compounds having the in the chair.-Prof. Planck spoke on the development of elecir aderatic property of yielding with the alkalies and alkaline tricity and heat in dilute electrolytic solutions. From the 28 unates blood-red solutions. A further series of researches experiments of Kohlrausch and Hittorf, and the theoretical au nou enabled them to prepare several of these compounds in considerations of Van t' Hoff, Arrhenius, and Nernst, all that urge uantities, and thus study their constitution as here de- takes place in dilute electrolytic solutions during the passage of Tiled The best results were yielded by metaxylene and the a current is very accurately known, especially in the cases where
role of ethylmalonyl.-Optical properties of the polychroic the solution is very dilute and the electrolyte is very uniformly samlas present in certain minerals, by M. A. Michel Lévy, distributed in it. It has become possible to subject the cccurwide raridus phenomenon is traced mainly to the presence of rences in electrolytic solutions to mathematical investigation,
! crystals of zircon widely disseminated throughout granitic owing to the existing conceptions of the osmotic pressure s' ottier rocks. In some cases it may also be due to the in such solutions, of the more or less complete dissociation We sice of fumortierite and allanite. These aureolas offer an of the electrolyte when in dilute solution, of the applicability
Teing example of a simultaneous modification of birefraction of the gaseous laws to such solutions, and owing to the experiFull forlyctroism, a modification, however, which is not per- mental determination of the rate at which the ions travel. The -Sem, or 2 least which may disappear, without involving any speaker had submitted the general case, in which the solution is range in the properties of the mineral itself.-Analysis of the not quite uniform, to a mathematical analysis, and deduced the shiny meteorite, by M. Stanislas Meunier. This meteorite, formulæ which represent that which is taking place in each unit sie fell on June 9, 1889, at Mighiei, in Russia, yielded be- of volume of the highly diluted solutions in which dissociation is ale the usual constituents, a new element, which M. Meunier complete. These formulæ correspond exactly to those arrived - - ** yet socceeded in identifying. ---Papers were contributed at by Nernst for the development of electricity. Up to the present
1. Y. Wada, on the earthquake of July 28 at Kiushu Island, time the thermal phenomena in dilute electrolytic solutions 1va: by M. Ch. Contejean, on the circulation of the blood in have not been fully dealt with. The speaker showed that heat
moals as the moment of birth ; by M. Ferré, on the semeio; is the most important form of energy existing in the solution. It logic and pathologic study of rabies; and by Messrs. Woodhead is only possible to arrive at a complete understanding of the heat and Cartwright Wood, on the antidotic action exercised by production if, when drawing parallels between dilute solutions e procyanic liquids on the development of the anthracite and gases, a further step is taken, and it is assumed that just as
gases become warmer by compression and colder by a fall of BERLIN.
pressure, so also heat is developed in electrolytic solutions when
the ions are increased in number, and disappears when they are Meteorological Society, Dec. 3, 1889. —Dr. Vettin, Presi- diminished per unit of volume. Hence the mere diffusive prodere, in the chair. --Ur. Kremser spoke on the frequency of cesses in an electrolytic solution whose composition is not scarrence of mist, a subject whose investigation he had recently uniform must develop an osmotic heat, which makes its appearandertaken. Cp to the present time the
material derived from ance, and can be calculated in the absence of any electrical current. Ilservation is extremely scanty, as shown by the extremely This osmotic heat must be taken into account, along with the Nergent mean values obtained for different places in close two already known sources of heat production, during the pasprimity to each other, as, for instance, Hamburg and Altona, sage of an electric current through a solution, before it is possible le even different parts of the one city, Berlin. It seems scarcely to calculate all the relationships of energy in a dilute, nonpowible to attribute the differences to local conditions in all uniform, electrolytic solution during the passage of a current bases for the mean annual values resulting from the observations through'it. -The President exhibited the air-pump constructed
Attierent observers in one and the same place show an equally by Oito von Guericke in 1675, which had recently been acquired priking discordaney. This is undoubtedly due to the want of by the Physical Society. This pump is still in a thoroughly sable units for estimating and measuring mists. From the workable condition, with the exception of the glass vessel, which bure it follows that it is impossible to determine any secular has been renewed.' The pressure in this receiver could be reFlanges on the basis of existing observations, although the yearly duced to 20 mm. of mercury, by means of the pump. The
celebrated Magdeburg hemispheres have also come into the BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED, possession of the Society, and were exhibited at the same time;
Challenger Report ; Physics and Chemistry, vol. i. (Eyre and Sprite they are perfect except in the want of the leather packing.
woode).- Manuel de l'Analyse des Vins : E. Barlint (Paris, Gauthiet-Vular
- Traité de Photographie par les Procédés Pelliculaires, tome premte
second : G. Balagny (Paris, Gauthier-Villars). -Leçons sur la Tere AMSTERDAM.
Mathématique de l'Electricité : J. Bertrand (Pans. Gauthier Villars.
Sundevall's Tentamen, translated by F. Nicholsan (Porter). - The Nesr! Royal Academy of Sciences, November 30, 1889.-Dr. Esgs of Indian Birds, vol. i., 2nd edition : A O Hume, edited bye Hoek read a paper on the Zuyder Zee herring, showing that it Wiley). -Old Age: Dr. G. H. Humphry (Cambridge, Macmillan 24 belongs to a race of spring herrings (herrings spawning in spring) Bowes). -A Hand-book of Quantitative Analysis: J. Mills and R X. closely related to the spring herrings of the Baltic, as described
(Chapman and Hall). - Alternate Elementary Physics : J. Mills (Chaux
and Hall). --Solutions to the Questions set at the May Examinations of the by Heincke. But whereas, in the Baltic, two races of herrings
Science and Art Department, 1881 to 1886: Pure Mathematics, Stags : -an autumn or winter herring, and a spring herring-can be 2: T. T. Rankin (Chapman and Hall). Perspective Charts for Use in Cakes distinguished, all the herrings which enter the Zuyder Zee-both teaching: H. A. James (Chapman and Hall). – Theoretische Meches those which enter it in autumn and those which are caught in
Starrer Systeme: Sir R. S. Ball, herausgeben von H Gravelius (Ber.
Reimer). - Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, decade xix.: F. MOCK spring-belong to one variety: they all spawn in the spring (Trūbner) - The Garden's Story, and edition : G. H. Ellwanger (Apple months only; they are reproduced only in water that is rather -New Light from Old Eclipses: W. M. Page (St. Louisi --A Trs brackish (nearly fresh) ; and their fry is very small in comparison through the Eastern Caucasus: Hon. John Abercromby (Stanfordwith that of open-sea herrings. Considering that the Zuyder Lydekker (Blackwood). A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Sky Zee herring is a variety which has sprung from the open North States: H. s. Hallett (Blackwood). -Descriptions of Eighi New Spears i Sea herring, it furnishes a striking instance of the formation of Fossils, &c. : J. F. Whiteaves (Montreal). -Victoria Water Supply, That a variety under changed conditions in the course of a few cen
Annual General Report (Melbourne). - Studies from the Biological Labor
tory, Johns Hopkins University. vol 4, No. 5 (Baltimore). - Jurnal of Is turies. --Prof. van de Sanden Bakhuyzen gave an account of the
Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 58, Part 2, Nos, 1 and 2 (Calcutta) - Jimms.al meeting of the Committee for the Construction of the Photo of the Anthropological Institute, November 1889 ( f'rübner).-Journal of the graphic Map of the Heavens, held at Paris in September last,
Royal Microscopical Society, December (Williams and Vorgate) - Pro and spoke about the share of the Dutch astronomers in that
ceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 1880, vol. 6, Pan 5( Br.sbs.
-Zahl und Vertheilung der Markhaligen Fasern im Froschrückert undertaking.
No. 9 (Leipzig, Hirzel). -Notes from the Leyden Museum, vol 2, No. (Leyden, Brill).--The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, Decome (Churchill).
DIARY OF SOCIETIES,
The Bermuda Islands. By Dr. H. B. Guppy . . . 195
The Useful Plants of Australia. By D. M.
Our Book Shelf:-
Turnbull: “Index of British Plants."--J. G. B. , GEOLOGISTS' AssoCIATION, at 8.-On the Fossil Fishes of the English
Wilson : “ Practical Observations on Agricultural Lower Oslites (illustrated by Specimeas from the Collection of Tass.
Grasses and other Plants."-W.
Wilson : “The State"
Mills and North : "Introductory Lessons in Quanti
tative Analysis" SATURDAY, JANUARY 4.
Letters to the Editor :ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Electricity (adapted to a Juvenile Auditory): Note on a Probable Nervous Affection observed in an Prof. A. W. Rücker, F.R.S.
Insect.--E, W. Carlier.
197 SUNDAY, JANUARY 5.
Does the Bulk of Ocean Water Increase ?-Rev. O.
Fisher ... S'NDAY LECTURE Society, at 4.–Ballooning in the Service of Science
Exact Thermometry.--Herbert Tomlinson, F.R.S. 108 (with Oxyhydrogen Lantern Illustrations) : Eric S. Bruce.
Self-luminous Clouds.-George F. Burder
Duchayla's Proof.-Prof. J. D. Everett, F.R.S.
The Satellite of Algol.-W. H. S. Monck SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.--Peroxide of Hydrogen, its
Maltese Butterflies. —George Fraser
101 Preservation and Commercial Uses: C. T. Kingzett.
A Preservative.-H. Leslie Osborn
199 ARISTOTELIAN Society, at 8.-Practical Certainty the Highest Certainty : R. E. Mitcheson.
The Evolution of Sex.—M. S. Pembrey
1g TUESDAY, JANUARY 7,
The British Museum Reading-Room.-A. B. M. 1000 . ROTAL INSTITUTION, at 3:--Electricity (adapted to a Juvenile Auditory): British Earthquakes. By William White
“Among Cannibals.” (Illustrated.) Prof. A. W. Rücker, F.R.S. WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 8.
Effect of Oil on Disturbed Water. By Richard
Beynon .... GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On some British Jurassic Fish-remains refer. able to the Genera Eurycormus and Hypsocormus : A. Smith Woodward.
Recent Observations of Jupiter. By W. F. Denning 20 -On the Pebidian Volcanic Series of St. Davids : Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan. Notes...
207 The Variolitic Rocks of Mount Genèvre : Grenville A. J. Cole and J. W. Gregory
Our Astronomical Column:-
Reproductive Organs, especially the Vestibule, in Different Species of Dr. Peters's Star Catalogue.
Uropoda : A. D. Michael. SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 7.
Longitude of Mount Hamilton
Comet Borelly, & 1889 (December 12)
Comet Brooks, d 1889 (July 6).
The Solar Eclipse . .
Accumulations of Capital in the United Kingdom in
Scientific Serials ....
Societies and Academies
Diary of Societies . .. the Cauvery Delta : Alfred Chatterton.
Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received