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MERCHANT VENTURERS' SCHOOL, LIVING SPECIMENS FOR THE MICROSCOPE . BRISTOL.
GOLD MEDAL awarded at the FISHERIES EXHIBITION to The HEAD-MASTERSHIP of this School of Science, Art, Technology, and Commerce will become VACANT after the Examinations in MÂY THOMAS BOLTON, 83 CAMDEN STREET, BIRMINGHAM, 1890.
The School works in connection with the Department of Science and Art, Who last week sent to his subscribers Volvox globator, with sketch 2 and the Head-Master must be qualified to teach, and superintend teaching, under the conditions laid down by that Department.
description. He also sent out Trout Ova. Philodina roscola, Flocculars He will be required to devote his whole time to the work of the School,
Corethra plumicornis, Limnias ceratophylli, Melicerta ringens. Suchumi
ceros, Argulus foliaceus, also Amoeba, Hydra, Vorticella, Crayfish, Dup and to be responsible personally for the Chemical Branch of it, which has Fish, Amphioxus, and other specimens for Biological Laboratury wari. large and well-appointed Laboratories. There are upwards of 1300 Students now in attendaace.
Weekly Announcements will be made in this place of organism. I 2
is supplying Evening Classes form an important part of the School. Applications for the Head-Mastership must be sent in to the underwritten address before JANUARY 31, 1890, and may be accompanied by Copies of
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some relationship to the previously mentioned species THURSDAY, JANUARY 9, 1890
A great number of new species are added to a genus quite recently described by Verrill, and which is made
the type of the family Dasygorgidæ. The new genus THE ZOOLOGICAL RESULTS OF THE
Acanthoisis, which is nearly related to the well known "CHALLENGER” EXPEDITION,
genus Isis, exhibits an unique condition of its axis, which
consists of alternate horny and calcareous joints, the Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. latter being very beautifully grooved and spined. Keroeides * Challenger" during the Years 1873-76, under the koreni, with a sclerogorgic axis, from Japan, is also a command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S., curious species, with massive spicules. and the late Captain Frank T. Thomson, R.N. Pre
Under the heading of “ Geographical Distribution," a pared under the superintendence of the late Sir C. brief history is given of the distribution of the species of Wyville Thomson, Knt., F.R.S., &c., Director of the most of the well established genera ; while this subject is Civilian Staff on board, and now of John Murray, necessarily very incomplete, yet it would seem as if the LL.D., Ph.D., &c., one of the Naturalists of the West Indian Islands, the Californian shores of America, Expedition Zoology-Vols. XXXI. and XXXII. the Australian seas and especially those of Japan were (Published by Order of Her Majesty's Government. the chief centres of the group. But it cannot be overlooked London: Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, that the record is very imperfect and that the recent and sold by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1889.)
researches of Danielssen have proved that immense numW' VITH these recently published volumes, the series bers of species exist in the seas of Norway.
of Reports on the zoological results of the Chal This Report extends to 386 pages and is illustrated by Penger Expedition, comes to a close. Volume XXXI. 49 lithographic plates, the figures in which have been Lontains three Reports, the first of which is on the drawn by Mr. George West, Jun., and Mr. Armbruster of
Ulcyonaria," by Profs. E. Perceval Wright and Th. Berne. Studer. It would appear that on the first distribution of The second Report is by Dr. Günther, on the pelagic ylie zoological treasures of the Expedition, the Alcyonaria fishes, and comprises an account of the specimens which nere given to Prof. von Kölliker to describe, and the first were obtained in the open ocean by means, chiefly, of the purt of his Report on the Pennatulidæ, forms the Second surface net. Keport published in 1880. From a note of the editor, The specimens were as numerous as those of either ve learn that Prof. Kölliker being unwilling to under the shore or deep-sea fishes, described in the author's Lake the remainder of the group, the fixed forms were first and second Reports on the Challenger fishes, and remmitted to Dr. E. P. Wright for description. After the by far the greater number were of small size ; some, indeed, appearance of the “ Narrative of the Expedition” in had been taken at so early a stage in their development which a few of the more remarkable of the new species as to make it impossible to refer them to their family or arre described by this author, Prof. Studer consented to even order. The pelagic fish fauna, as defined by the jrin Dr. Wright in preparing the Report, and all the details author, consists, first, of the truly pelagic fish--those were worked out in unison.
which habitually live on the surface of the ocean, acciThe Report opens with a brief introduction, in which dentally and rarely approaching the shore; the majority an attempt is made to present a more or less complete breed in the open sea and pass through all their phases list of the orders, families, and genera, of the recent of growth without coming into the vicinity of land ; licyonaria; short diagnoses and references to the numerous representatives of these were in the collections. Pibliography are given. While this introduction might Secondly, there are a number of fishes inhabiting the depth with advantage have been greatly expanded, yet we think of the ocean, from a hundred fathoms downwards, which its value will be appreciated by all those working at this seem periodically to ascend to the surface, possibly in group. This is followed by the description of the genera connection with their propagation ; most of these are and species in the Challenger collection. In the earlier found at the surface, only during the early stages of their pages an altempt has been made to include brief notices of growth, but they connect the truly surface fishes with the Ll the known forms, but it was soon found that this would deep-sea fishes, and were fairly well represented in the skcupy too much space, as the forms from large portions collection. Thirdly, the pelagic fauna receives a very of the Indian Ocean and the very rich Alcyonarian fauna considerable contingent from the littoral fauna ; some of the western shores of North America were not repre- shore fishes, when in a young state, are, while floating on sented in the collection,
the surface, driven to sea to great distances by currents One hundred and eighty-nine species are described as and winds ; many such immature forms were found. And, found during the voyage of the Challenger and of this lastly, fully developed specimens of littoral species somenumber no less than one hundred and thirty-three are times stray or are accidentally driven out to the open sea, described as new. Of the more interesting of these, the and several such were in the collection. following may be mentioned, Callosostron mirabilis, a Sixty-seven species are indicated, and several new most extraordinary species taken in the Antarctic Sea, in genera and species are described. A new species of the most soutberly dredging made during the voyage. Branchiostoma is described from the Pacific; it was While there can be no doubt as to its affinities yet this either from the surface or from a depth of 1000 fathoms ; form presents many puzzling features. Another remark the perfect condition of its delicate fin-fringe seemed to able species from the Fiji's, Calypterinus allmani, although militate against the latter idea, and yet it would be even It has a rigid axis, in the arrangement of its polyps shows more extraordinary to find a lancelet living at the surface VOL XLI.-No. 1054
of the open sea. This Report extends to 47 pages, and Reports unless these are contributed by the several authorhas six plates.
thereof. As to a “concluding summary volume," opinions The third Report is by Arthur W. Waters, and is may differ as to the advisability of publishing a summar entitled a “Supplementary Report on the Polyzoa.' of the thirty-two volumes in the same series as the From every point of view we regret that these "notes original volumes. For the scientific worker such : the time for the preparation of which has been limited summary would be quite useless, for any such would have by Mr. Murray,” have been published as part of the recourse to the full details. For the general reader, present series of Reports.
anxious to know something of the facts stored away, If the Reports on the Challenger Polyzoa by the late beyond his reach, in these many ponderous volumes, 1 George Busk, which form Parts XXX. and L. of the summary would no doubt be of interest, and, if fairly well zoological series, bad been defective, say, for example, executed, of value, but the size and cost of a volume like that a number of new or rare species had escaped de- , those already published in this series would place such scription, then it would have been useful and perhaps far beyond the buying powers of most people, and to us excusable to have had a supplemental Report issued, it would seem a waste of public money to undertake sousnoting such ; but out of the 41 pages of which this necessary a labour. If, indeed, the Treasury would pubSupplementary Report consists, not more than one and lish, in a convenient handy volume, a carefully prepared a half are devoted to the record of the three new species sketch of the cruise of the Challenger, with a few chap described, while the rest is simply a series of criticisms ters added giving a summary of the additions to biological on the late Mr. Busk's work.
knowledge, which were the immediate results of the The very heading of the Report contains an implied Expedition, such a volume would be acceptable to the piece of criticism, “The term Polyzoa is used for sake of general public, and would let them know more than the uniformity.” Into the argument pro and con for the use, at present do of the most important voyage of discovers of this term it is not needful for us here to enter, but of this century. remembering what Mr. Busk had written to justify its use, The first Report in Volume XXXII. is on the Antipaththis uncalled-for remark might have been omitted. We aria by George Brook, and we believe it to be one of the read :
most praiseworthy of all the Reports; the time at the “Shortly after the death of Mr. George Busk, who disposal of the author was of necessity very short, and prepared the Report on the Challenger Polyzoa, i had, perhaps no group of marine animals had been so little through the kindness of his daughter, Miss Busk, an attended to. Our Museums no doubt possessed numerous opportunity of examining some of the duplicate speci- specimens, but these being in the great majority of casta. mens, and I desire to thank her for sending me those only the dried skeletons, presented little upon which tv which, from published criticism, were most interesting to work, there were therefore many and serious drawbacks me. I have also to thank Mr. John Murray, the director of the Challenger publications, for allowing me to examine to a determination of the species or to a knowledge of their the whole of the duplicate material in Edinburgh. I anatomy. In spite of all this Mr. Brook has succeeded is communicated to Mr. Murray some valuable results making this Report an excellent contribution to our knowarising from an examination of sections of the Challenger ledge of the classification, distribution, and anatomy 11 specimens prepared by a method similar to that employed the group. There was one fortunate circumstance about in the examination of fossil Polyzoa, and at his request I the Challenger specimens, most of them had the polyps have drawn up the following supplementary notes on the well preserved, so that their structure could be fairin Challenger species.”
well made out. Making the most of the material at ha We have been careful to quote the author's own disposal, the author has attempted a partial revision of account of his work, which would have formed an in the group, and has placed the classification for the first teresting communication to any of our scientific Societies, time on a natural basis. The study of the fine collections but which seems to us to be quite out of place where it is made by Pourtales and during the voyages of the Bled. now published. There is probably not one of the eighty- would have greatly assisted Mr. Brook's labours, but as two Reports published on the zoological results of the in the case of the Alcyonaria, the specimens were nie Challenger Expedition that could not be added to and available. emended, and no one would wish that they should escape Nearly all the forms collected by the Challenger were every just criticism, but this is quite a different thing from new, which is to be largely accounted for, by the fact employing the funds placed by the Treasury for the pub- that almost all the collections were made in localtis lication of these Reports on the printing and illustrating from which no Antipatharia had been previously recorded of critical notes on the already published ones. This The collection is remarkably deficient in littoral forma, supplementary Report is illustrated by three plates from but a number of species are now for the first titar drawings of the author.
described from great depths. In this monograph not onl In the editorial notes to Vol. XXXII. we are told :
are all the Challenger species described but a number of “This volume concludes the zoological series of Reports new species in the British Museum are also described, w on the scientific results of the Expedition, with the pos- that the Report forms quite a monograph of the group. sible exception of a few supplementary notes to some of The Report opens with a bibliography, not a ren the memoirs and Prof. Huxley's Report on the genus extensive one, and one which up to the time of Pallas, Spirula, which may appear as an appendix to the con- possesses little interest. Botanists like Bauhin, Tournefort, cluding summary volume.”
and Breynius are among the pre-Linnaan writers who We must content ourselves with protesting against the refer to these corals, and it is worthy of note that the las? publication of any further“ supplementary notes" on the mentioned of these authors, describes and gives an