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À FIELD LAID DOWN TO PERMANENT third, that successful photographs were obtained with the GRASS

20-inch mirror, but again the development was not comA VALUABLE paper, by Sir J. B. Lawes, on the bote dhat The words corona American signify

most probhistory of a field laid down to permanent grass, has ably that the corona was of the same form as that seen been reprinted, by Messrs. Spottiswoode, from the Journal on January 1, 1889, when a total eclipse was successfully of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. The field

observed in California, and the form was then that now in question forms part of the Rothamsted estate, and was elongated at the sun's equator and radial but short at the

generally ascribed to a period of minimum sun-spots, laid down to permanent grass nearly thirty years ago, Ewy Dr. Gilbert, to whom it was let in 1856.' It has been

poles.” mown for hay every year from the commencement; and in the present pamphlet Sir J. B. Lawes gives full particulars as to the economical results, the constituents supplied In the manures and removed in the crops, the changes

NOTES. within the soil in the formation of the meadow, and the The list of those who received New Year's honours and botany of the meadow. The following are his summary appointments included Brigade-Surgeon George King, F.R.S., and general conclusions :

By the judicious employment of manures, both Bengal Medical Service, Superintendent of the Royal Botanical natural and artificial, arable land has been converted into Gardens, Calcutta. He has been made Companion of the most permanent grass, not only without loss, but with some eminent order of the Indian Empire. profit to the tenant. 2) The important constituents, nitrogen and phosphoric

The seventy-second anniversary of the Institution of Civil acid, were supplied in the manures in larger quantities Engineers occurred last Thursday, when a revised list of the than they were removed in the crops ; but potash in only members of all classes showed that the numbers on the books about the same quantity as it was removed.

amounted to 5904, representing an increase of 35 per cent. in 6) The application of dung, not only compensates for the past twelve months. much of the exhaustion from the removal of hay, but it has a beneficial influence on the botanical character of

The Institution of Electrical Engineers will hold the first chc herbage.

meeting of the current term this evening, when the President, ! 4. Although the grass has been mown every year for Dr. John Hopkinson, F.R.S., will deliver his inaugural Dearly thirty years, there has been a considerable accumu- , address. ation of fertility within the soil. (3) Analysis has shown that there has been an increase

The annual general meeting of the Royal Meteorological of nitrogen in the surface-soil, beyond that which could Society will be held at 25 Great George Street, Westminster, be explained by excess supplied in manure over that re-, on Wednesday, the 15th inst., at 7.15 p.m., when the Report moved in crops, and by the combined nitrogen coming of the Council will be read, the election of Officers and Council down in rain, and the minor deposits from the atmosphere. for the ensuing year will take place, and the President (Dr. W. Part, if not the whole of this increase is probably derived Marcet, F.R.S.) will deliver an address on “Atmospheric from the subsoil by deeply-rooted plants, which after. Dust," which will be illustrated by a number of lantern cards leave a nitrogenous residue within the surface-soil.

slides. LT, possibly, some of it may have its source in the free Titrogen of the atmosphere, brought into combination THE Mining Journal is to be congratulated on the very within the soil, under the influence of micro-organisms, , admirable portait of Dr. Archibald Geikie which appeared in ur other low forms.

its issue of December 28. The portrait was accompanied by a 6) In laying down arable land to permanent grass, short but very good account of Dr. Geikie's life and labours. especially if hay is to be removed, it is essential to supply, not only nitrogenous, but an abundance of mineral DR. RAOUL Gautier has been appointed · Professor of manares, and especially of potash, a large quantity of Astronomy at the University of Geneva, and has at the same which is removed in the crops, and must be returned. time been made director of the Observatory. His father, When the grass is not mown, but fed, the exhaustion is Colonel E. Gautier, retains his connection with the latter much less, but it is greater when consumed for the pro- establishment, with the title of honorary director. duction of milk than when for that of store or fattening increase.

The Professorship of Agriculture and Rural Economy at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, vacant by the

resignation of Prof. McCracken, has been conferred upon an THE TOTAL ECLIPSE OF DECEMBER 22.

old student and gold medallist of the College, Mr. James Muir. MISFORTUNE has attended the double expedition

The arrangements of the Royal Botanic Society for 1890 sent by the Royal Astronomical Society to observe include exhibitions of spring flowers on March 26 and April 23 ; the total eclipse of December 22. In Africa observations, summer exhibitions of plants, flowers, and fruit, on May 14 were made impossible by bad weather. Observations and June 11; and an evening fåte and exhibition on July 2. were secured off the coast of French Guiana, but at a Botanical lectures will be given on May 9, 16, 23, and 30, and cost which is deeply to be deplored--the death of Father

on June 6 and 13. These lectures will be free to all visitors in Perry.

The telegram received from Demerara is as follows :- the Gardens. * 194 corona American Perry dead dysentery." With On Thursday, January 16, Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., will regard to the part of this telegram which needs explana- begin a course of twelve special evening lectures at the Finsbury tion, the Times of January 7 says :-“ 104 is resolvable Technical College, on coal-tar products. The object of the into the factors 2, 4, and 13, of which the first number course is to describe the technology of the raw materials manu means that the weather was only moderately good; the factured from the tar. The theoretical treatment will serve second that successful exposures were made with the Abrey 4-inch lens, but that the development was not as a general introduction to the chemistry of the aromatic carried out, owing either to unfavourable climatic condi- compounds. A syllabus can be had on application to the tions, or possibly to the illness of Father Perry; and the College.

IN May next, the six hundredth anniversary of the foundation of indicating an excess of gravitation toward the ocean surroundof the University of Montpellier will be celebrated.

ing India. Geographical surveys in Burmah have been made on M. Cosson, member of the French Academy of Sciences, a large scale, the Ruby Mine tract receiving special attention. and the author of many memoirs on the flora of Algeria and A valuable addition to our knowledge of Afghanistan is furnished Tunis , died a few days ago in Paris, and was buried on the Boundary Commission, and succeeded in surveying 4600 miles of

by the report of Yusuf Sharif, who accompanied the Afghan 4th inst.

new country on his return. The statistics of the output of maps We review to-day the volumes which conclude the series of and reproductions at the principal offices show a marked increase Reports on the zoological results of the Challenger Expedition. The value of the Dehra Dan station for purposes of solar photoIn a prefatory note introducing Vol. II. of the Report on 'graphy is forcibly demonstrated by the fact that photographs Physics and Chemistry, just issued, Dr. Murray explains that of the sun were obtained on no less than 327 days, and forwarded with the exception of a volume on deep-sea deposits, which will to the Solar Physics Committee, to complete the Greenwich be issued in March next, and a summary volume, which, it is series. The Report is accompanied by the usual maps and hoped, may be finished in about a year thereafter, the entire ' narratives of the various expeditions. series of Reports is now completed. These Reports have been | issued at intervals during the last nine years, whenever ready,

We owe a new and interesting application of photography to and without any reference to systematic arrangement. They are M. Bertillon, the well-known director of the Identification bound up in forty-seven large quarto volumes, containing 27,650 Department at the Paris Prefecture of Police. M. Bertillon has pages of letterpress, 2662 lithographic and chromo-lithographic been devoting himself for some months to the study of the plates, 413 maps, charts, and diagrams, together with a great physical peculiarities engendered by the pursuit of different many woodcuts.

occupations. The police have frequently to deal with portions

of bodies, and it would greatly aid their investigations to be able Some time ago Mr. J. T. Cunningham, Naturalist at the to determine the calling of the murdered person in each parti Plymouth Marine Biological Laboratory, wrote to the Times cular case. The hand is as a rule the part naturally most about the occurrence of anchovies on the south coast of England. affected by the occupation, and M. Bertill on has taken a very In another letter, printed in the Times on Wednesday, he has large series of photographs, each one showing on a large scale given some fresh information about the matter. From Mr. the hands, on a smaller scale the whole figure of the workman Whitehead, of Torquay, he learns that the sprat fishermen at at his work, so that one may see at a glance the position of the that place were catching a number of anchovies in their sprat body, and which are the parts that undergo friction from the nets together with sprats; that about a fifth of their catches tools in use. From the hands of the navvy all the secondary consisted of anchovies. Mr. Dunn has sent him specimens | lines disappear, and a peculiar callosity is developed where from Megavissey. These were caught, as it were, accidentally | the spade handle rubs against the hand; the hands of tin-plate in pilchard nets. Mr. Cunningham has made inquiries among workers are covered with little crevasses produced by the acids the pilchard and herring fishermen at Plymouth, and finds that employed; the hands of lace-makers are smooth, but they have almost every time they shoot their nets they catch a few ancho- blisters full of serum on the back and callosities on the fron vies-from one to a dozen. The mesh of a pilchard net is much part of the shoulder, due to the friction of the straps of the too large to hold an anchovy, and these occasional specimens loom; the thumb and the first joints of the index of metalare caught only in parts of the nets that get entangled ; they are workers show very large blisters, whilst the left hand has scass not meshed in the ordinary way. of the anchovies he has made by the sharp fragments of metal. Experts in forenste obtained from the pilchard fishermen, he says there is no doubt medicine (Vernois among others) have before drawn attention whatever as to their being of the same species (Engraulis en to the subject, but this is the first time that an investigation has crasicholus) as those which we import from France and It aly. been carried out on a large scale, and in M. Bertillon's hands it

A RATHER serious subsidence has occurred near Dane Bridge, should lead to the best results. Northwich. A large hole, nearly 10 feet deep and covering a Shocks of earthquakes continue to be felt in the province space of 50 feet by 30 feet, has been formed near the roadway. Semiryetchensk, Russian Turkestan. After September 12, they The Bridge Inn is now 24 inches out of the perpendicular, or were felt nearly every day, the most severe shocks having been some 5 inches more than it was before the subsidence. The experienced on September 17, at 11.45 a.m. ; on the 22nd, at inn had been securely bolted and the walls secured some time 1.15 p.m. ; on the 23rd, at 4.55 a.m. On September 30, at 6.9 since, otherwise it would probably have collapsed. Some p.m., there was a particularly severe shock, preceded by a loud wooden structures standing on the opposite side of the road underground noise. have been rendered untenantable. The gas and water mains were dislocated, and had to be repaired by the local board. Severe shocks of earthquake were felt on the northern and The General Report of the Survey of India Department for November 19 to December 5. Many chimney-pots in several

north-eastern shores of Lake Issyk-kul nearly every day from 1887-88, which has recently been published, indicates a gradual increase in the annual amount of work done. The triangulation villages were destroyed by the shock of November 19. along the Madras Coast has been extended 370 miles in length; The latest information as to the earthquake which visited and similar operations have been conducted in Baluchistan, one Lake Issyk-kul on July 12 is given in the AkmolinsGarette series along a parallel of 30° N., and another along the meridian It lasted from 3.15 to 3.30 a.m., and destroyed, or rendered on of 67° E., both meeting at Quetta and having an aggregate inhabitable, all buildings in the villages Vital, Saradora, length of 270 miles. The topographical surveys during the Preobrajensk, and Teplyi Klutch, of the Issyk-kul distra. year covered an area of 15,673 square miles. It is gratifying to ' Eight persons were killed, and 43 injured, some of them note that the system, started in the previous year, of employing severely. The greatest disasters, however, appear to have the village patwaris as cadastral surveyors has been continued occurred among the Kirghizes, who camped in the Kungtei with very encouraging results, the aggregate area surveyed ! Alatan, on the northern shore of Lake Issyk-kul. They cadastrally being 5435 square miles. The special telegraphic . had no fewer than 26 killed and 15 injuredi. The number longitude operations were resumed, and 7 arcs of longitude in of cattle killed during the earthquake were: 283 horses, 15 Southern India measured, with the particularly interesting result | horned cattle, and 379 sheep. Several villages of the district

of Vyernyi also suffered very much. At Przevalsk (forinerly whether its centre is approaching or has passed the station, and Karakol, on the southern shore) and the surrounding villages from what quarter high winds are expected. With regard to many houses were destroyed ; while amidst the Taranchis of scientific researches, systematic observations of atmospheric the district of Vyernyi 21 persons were killed and 2 severely electricity have been made, to determine whether these could be injured. At Vyernyi itself (50 miles north of the lake) the made use of in weather forecasting, the result being that negative carthquake was relatively seeble ; but at Jarkend all houses electricity may be observed without being in any way related to were rendered uninhabitable

. In the west of Lake Issyk-kul precipitation, past, present, or future, and that such observations the shocks were feeble, but in the north the wave of the earth- do not promise to be of practical use. Prof. C. Abbe has quake spread as far as Kopal (180 miles from Issyk-kul, as the prepared a popular and non-mathematical exposition of the laws crow flies), and even as far as Sergiopol, which is 380 miles of storms, with a view to their better prediction. The Chief testant from the northern shore of the lake.

Signal Officer states that the Report brings together many new The Council of the Italian Meteorological Society, publishes power of a storm in the absorption by the cloud of solar heat,

results, and that Prof. Abbe finds the source and maintaining an Annuario Metesrologico, in which will be found much useful and in the liberation of heat in the cloud by those particles that information for general readers. The volume for 1890 contains subsequently fall to the ground as rain or snow, and endeavours 270 mall octavo pages, and is divided into four parts :-(I) to show that the movement of the storm centre is principally Ephemerides and astronomical tables. This part also contains a influenced by the location and amount of such precipitation. eral appendix giving the concordance of the calendars and other particulars of the 17 eastern nations. (2) Tables for the REMARKABLE electrical phenomena are witnessed at the new reduction of meteorological observations, by Padre Denza, with observatory on the steep and isolated Säntis (821 5) in Northern melal examples of how the corrections are applied, and also Switzerland. Thunderstorms are extremely frequent; thus in meteorological and magnetical statistics. (3) Geographical and June and July last year, only three days were without them. Topographical elements

, together with an instructive paper on As a rule, thunder peals from midday till evening. The noise is recent electrical terms and measurements. (4) A series of short short, partly owing to shortness of flashes and partly to the articles on various sciences, among which we may specially small amount of echo. The thunderstorms come on quite ention one by Padre Denza, on the mode of determining the suddenly, in a clear sky. One of the surest indications of their meridinn line and time, for the use of observers who have only approach is the bristling of the observer's hair. During hail, <mple instruments. The most recent ideas upon the formation the iron rods of the house give a hissing sound, associated with of hail, by Prof. L. Bombicci. On the types of isobars which luminous effects. favour frosts, by Prof. P, Busin, with suggestions for any obzryers willing to work at this subject

. And, on the cause of tion of a work in two volumes, entitled " Traité Elémentaire

M. E. HOSPITALIER, the electrician, has begun the publicacarthquakes, in which the various theories are discussed, by Dr.

de l'Energie électrique." The first volume, comprising the C. De Giorgi.

definition, principles, and general laws, has been issued. The Deutsche Seewarte has published, in a separate memoir, Vol. II., on industrial applications, will be issued during the be results of the meteorological observations taken at its nine present year. nast stations for the two lustra 1876-80 and 1881-85, together with summaries for the whole decade. The work contains very

In the current number of the American Naturalist Mr. seful information relating to the climate of Northern Germany,

Clement L. Webster gives an interesting account of various sad the hope is expressed that other institutions will publish of three human skeletons found in one of these mounds, the

“mound-builder mounds” near Old Chickasaw, Iowa. Speaking malas results for their respective systems. In Symons's Monthly writer says that the crania show “an extremely low grade of Warnlugwai Nagazine for November it is pointed out that the Panz begro with December, in opposition to the regulations of mental development.” They are smaller than the Neanderthal

skull. the Vienna Congress that the years should begin with January, and an explanation of this is asked for. The explanation is given M. VAYSsière has published the second part of his monograph in the introduction : by this method the Seewarte has been able of the Opisthobranchiate Mollusca of the Gulf of Marseilles. Po give seasonal means, as well as monthly means. The Decem- It contains many fine plates. Izer observations, which precede those for January, are for the same year as all the other months, not for the preceding year.

The origin of the very extensive pampas-formation in South The greatest annual range of temperature is 107°'1 at Neufahr

America, a humus-covered loess of fine dust-like material, from ner. The greatest daily rainfall occurred at Hamburg-viz.

100 to 160 feet thick, with limestone concretions, and numerous 3 37 inches. The annual percentage of rainy days varies from

fine passages, has attracted the attention of several geologists.

From an important recent contribution to the subject by Roth 416 to 59*7.

(German Geological Society), it would appear that wind, river, THL Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer of the United lagoon, and coast deposits may all be distinguished in the state, for the year 1889, sets forth the extended and important pampas. The coast deposits are chiefly recognized by sand and character of the meteorological work that is carried on. Apart marine shells. The lagoon formations are darker in colour and from weather forecasts, and storm warnings, the duties include of small extent and thickness. The deposits from rivers are the gauging and reporting of rivers, the reporting of temperature either from those rising in the mountains, or from those rising in and rainfall conditions for the cotton interests, frost warnings in the pampas themselves. The former contain, near the mounthe interest of agriculture, and the notification of advancing cold , tains, blocks of stone rolled down, and the granular nature of waves for the benefit of the general public. The Chief Signal the deposit grows ever finer in the course of the rivers, which Officer estimates that the gratuitous distribution of meteorological lose themselves in the pampas, in a region rich in lagoons, with dala in the United States in a single week is greater than in all a pretty abundant vegetation under recurrent rains. The deposits Europe in the entire year. The weather forecasts are issued from the poor streams rising in the pampas have round, smooth, twice daily, at 81. m. and 8 p.m., for a period of twenty-four lime concretions, with smooth bone fragments of mammals. hours, and the percentage of success shows a general average of But most extensive are the æolic or air formntions, of which the 81. The present system of flag signals gives clear and definite vertical root-like tubes and irregularly-formed lime concretions saformation as to whether a storm is to be light or severe, are characteristic. Violent winds carry the fine water-deposited

material in all directions over the plains till vegetation comes cent. being heated in a current of dry oxygen gas, it readily took fire and retains it. The uniform character of the pampas loess arises, and burnt brilliantly. The products of combustion, which were according to Roth, not from the material and mode of deposi. allowed to pass through the usual absorption inbes containing tion, but chiefly from its transformation under the influence of pumice and sulphuric acid and potash, showed that the meteoritvegetation. The roots taking up the matters they need, decom-contained nearly 5 per cent of organic matter. In order pose the soil, and the humus arising from the decay of the plants obtain some idea as to the nature of the carbonaceous substance acts on the new material spread over the surface by wind and present, a quantity of the rock was powdered and then digestr: rain, along with fresh plants, by way of decomposition. A with alcohol ; on evaporation the alcoholic extract yieldol a further metamorphosis occurs by water carrying down matter bright yellow resin, which was readily precipitaled from the through the porous layers, with the result of new combinations, alcoholic solution by water, and much resembled the kalaite si and a harder, more compact loess in the lower parts. From Wöhler. The most curious chemical properties of the metennie. observations of marine Tertiary beds of (probably) Miocene age however, are exhibited with a cold aqueous extract of the in Entre Rios, over typical pampas loess, Roth infers that the powdered rock. The filtered liquid is quite colourless, t: formation of loess began some time in the Eocene period; in exhales a faint odour due to an organic salt which carbutur diluvial times it grew in intensity, and has gone on till now on evaporation to dryness, and may be burnt upon platinus without interruption.

foil. The aqueous extract further contains nearly 2 per cen' An interesting study has been lately made by Herr Tarchenoff of mineral matter possessing properties of a novel character. (Pflüger's Archiv) of electric currents in the skin from mental Barium chloride solution gives a heavy white precipitate, which excitation. Unpolarizable clay-electrodes, connected with a however, is not barium sulphate. Silver nitrate gives a volumino.. delicate galvanometer, were applied to various parts--hands, curdy reddish-violet precipitate, reminding one of silver chiru fingers, feet, toes, nose, ear, and back ; and, after compensation ate, but of quite a distinct and peculiar tint, and which blackers of any currents which occurred during rest, the effects of mental | in a very few minutes in daylight. The substance which exhibis stimulation were noted. Light tickling with a brush causes, these reactions is unchanged by evaporation to dryness and ign after a few seconds' period of latency, a gradually increasing tion to redness, readily dissolving in water again on cooling 22: strong deflection. Hot water has a like effect ; cold, or the giving the above reactions. The silver nitrate precipitate, whe pain from a needle-prick, a less. Sound, light, taste, and smell allowed to stand for some time undisturbed in the liquid, != stimuli act similarly. If the eyes have been closed some time, comes converted into colourless but brilliantly refractive crystals mere opening of them causes a considerable deflection from the which polarize brightly between crossed Nicols under the micr:skin of the hand. Different colours here acted unequally. It scope, and which are insoluble in boiling water. The propertie is remarkable that these skin-currents also arise when the sen of this new substance contained in the water extract appear iv sations are merely imagined. One vividly imagines, e.g., he is approximate most closely to those of certain metallic tellurate, suffering intense heat, and a strong current occurs, which goes but the new compound appears also to differ in certain teada down when the idea of cold is substituted. Mental effort pro

from those terrestrial salts. duces currents varying with its amount. Thus, multiplication The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the of small figures gives hardly any current ; that of large, a strong past week include a Brown Capuchin (Cebus fatuellus from one. If a person is in tense expectation, the galvanometer | Guiana, presented by J. H. Bostock ; a Common Gull (L. mirror makes irregular oscillations. When the electrodes are canus), a Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), British, freon hand or arm, a voluntary movement, such as contraction of sented by Mr. E. Keilich ; two Schlegel's Doves (Chalconi: a toe or convergence of the eyes, gives a strong current. In all puella) from West Africa, presented by Major C. M. MacDonal the experiments it appeared that, with equal nerve excitation,

a Common Barn Owl (Strix flammea), British, presente! the strength of the skin-currents depended on the degree to by Mr. H. Craig ; two Swainson's Lorikeets (Trichayao which the part of the skin bearing the electrodes was furnished novu-hollandia) from Australia, deposited. with sweat-glands. Thus some parts of the back, and upper leg and arm, having few of these, gave hardly any current. OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUM.V. Herr Tarchenoff considers that the course of nearly every kind

OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE, of nerve-activity is accompanied by increased action of the skin

Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m., January 9 = gh. glands. Every nerve-function, it is known, causes a rise of 17m. 325. temperature, and accumulation of the products of exchange of


Mag Colour. material in the body. Increase of sweat-excretion favours

R.A. 1&go Ded relia cooling, and the getting rid of those products. A METEORITE of special interest to chemists has been exa (1) Nebula in Orion ...

Greenish mined by M. Stanislas Meunier. It fell at Mighei, in Russia,

(2) 20 Leporis U. A.

Reddish-yellow. (3) , Orionis

Whitish-yellow. on June 9, 1889, and it was evident, from a cursory inspection, (4) B Tauri ...

White, that it was of a carbonaceous nature. In external appearance it

(5) 99 Birm.


(6) U Canis Minoris ...Var. Reddish: exhibited a deep greenish-black colour, relieved by numerous (7) T Arietis

Yellow. small brilliant white crystals; the surface was considerably wrinkled, and blown out into swellings. The material was very

Remarks. friable, and readily soiled the fingers. A section under the (1) The bright lines so far recorded in the visible part of the microscope was observed to consist largely of opaque matter spectrum of the Great Nebula in Orion are as follows .interspersed with crystals of a magnesian pyroxene and peridote.


(observers, 5872 (13)

Dr. Copeland. Fine particles of metallic iron and nickeliserous iron were readily


Mr. Taylor. collected by a magnet from the powdered rock, having all the

520 characteristics of meteoric iron. The density of the meteorite


Dr. Ħaggins. was not very high, 2'495. About 85 per cent of the rock was

495 found to be attacked by acids, the portion so attacked being

486 (F)

470 shown by analysis to consist mainly of a silicate of magnesium and

Mr. Taylor. 447

Dr. Copeland. iron having the composition of peridote. On the remaining 15 per

434 (G)

Dr. Huggins.

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52 53
5 6 14
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S 19 18
5 4 25







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The principal line in the photographic spectrum is near wave OBSERVATIONS OF SOME SUSPECTED VARIABLES.-Observalength 373, and this seems to be special to certain parts of the tions of Lalande 26980 = 14h. 42'7m. + 6° 28'-9 (1875), by nebula, according to Dr. Huggins's researches.

Rev. John G. Hagen, of Georgetown College, give the negative Although so much admirable work has already been done, result that there is no proof of variation between the years 1884there is still abundant scope for further investigations. One of 89, and although an average of 15 observations a year have been the chief points requiring attention at present is the character made, the extreme range of magnitude is less than 0'2. if the brightest line, near A 500. Researches on the spectra of Three stars were found that showed rather a large difference meteorites, coupled with previous records of the line as having from the Bonn D.M. magnitudes, and were watched from 1886 a fringe on its more refrangible side, led Prof. Lockyer to sng to 1889. No variation, however, was noticed during these gesi, m 1887, that it was the remnant of the fluting near A 500 three years. The following are the three stars and the magni. seen in the spectrum of burning magnesium. Observations tudes found compared with Argelander's :have since been made by Prof. Lockyer, Mr. Taylor, and myself, and all agree that the line is not sharp on the more re D.M. 55.2587 7.8 £ol; D.M. 8.8. frangible side. Further observations are suggested, High dis

D.M. 44'3368

76 £ oI; D.M. 7'0. perion is not necessary, or indeed desirable.

D.M. 44*3402

77 # oo; D.M. = 8.1. Direct comparisons of the chief nebula line with the magnesium flating are also required, but this is an observation of

SPECTRUM OF A METALLIC PROMINENCE.-Prof. Vogel in creat delicacy, requiring high dispersion. It must also be a letter to Prof Tacchini (Mem. Società Spettroscopisti Italiani, demonstrated tbar under the same conditions of comparison the November 1889) observes that the positions of the lines

fine of hydrogen is coincident with the third nebula line. measured in a metallic prominence on June 28 were incorrectly

It has been suggested that the line near 559 recorded by Mr. given by Prof. Spoerer in the Memorie for October (see NATURE, Taylor is the remnant of the brightest manganese futing ; this vol. xli. p. 115), and that the following should be substituted :an only be decided by direct comparisons.

Origin. Wave-length

Origin. In my own observations I noted that the F line is not seen 6676


| 5534 ... Ba, Fe, Sr. in all parts of the nebula, and in this respect it resembles the


Ceronium. altra violet line. This localization of the lines opens up a new 649.6

526 9

Ca, Fe. feld of work.



Ca, Fe. 12) This is one of the finest examples of stars of Group II. Di


bi The hands 1 to 9 are perfectly well seen, but there is no DE


b. reound of the presence or absence of linc absorptions. Observa D

Helium. bg

... Fe, Ni. tions of the carbon Autings are suggested, a spirit-lamp flame

be ... Mg, Fe. being convenient for comparisons. The two flutings to be examined, hoth for position and compound structure, are those lines seen in this eruption.

The above table only contains a small number of the bright RcAr A 517 and 474. The latter is a group of five flutings, estending bom about a 468 to 1 474, and under some conditions COMET Swift (f 1889, NOVEMBER 17).- The following the point of maximum brightness of the group is shifted from corrected elements are given by Dr. Zelbr (Astr. Nachr., 4*10 468. Comparisons of bands 4 and 5 with the brightest 2944) :lotings of manganese and lead should also be made. (3) This is a star with a spectrum of the solar type, of which

T = 1889 November 29-66411 Berlin Mean Time. the usual differential observations are required. The relative

40 55 52.8 thucknesses of the hydrogen and other lines should also be

331 26 40-1 Mean Eq. 1889'0. noted.

193 211 (4) Gothard describes this star as belonging to Group IV, The usual observations are required.

39 8 23'1

log a = 0*559784 15 This is a star of Group VI., in which band 9 is dark, and

log u = 2"-710331 kand 6 pale. Dunér does not record any of the secondary

Period = 6'91 years. lands. These and absorption lines should be looked for.

b) This variable has a period of 423 days, and ranges from Dr. Lamp has computed the ephemeris given below from 5 at maximum to 13'5 at minimum (Gore). The spectrum these elements :has not yet been recorded. Maximum on January 9.



Decl. 17) This is a variable with a spectrum of the Group II. type. The serial is 324 days, and the magnitude varies from about 8 Jan. 8... I 19 48 ... +25 50'9 Jan. 19 I 59 43 ... + 27 46'2 s! maximum to 9 5 at minimum. The maximum will not occur 9.. 23 25

26 2.8

2 3 21 27 55.0 until January 17, but observations for the bright lines of hy.

27 2 ... drogen, &c, may be commenced at once. Variations of the

30 39

10 36 . 28 IT'8 withs and intensities of the bands before and after maximum

34 17

23. 14 14

28 1998 may also be looked for.


37 54

24 17 51
14. 41 32

21 28

28 34:8 IDENTITY OF COMET VICO (1844) with Brooks's (1889).


25 4 Io a note on some comets of short period (Bulletin Astronomique,

48 48


28 487

h. m. S.

h. m. S.


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6 59

28 35

21 ... 22...

II ... 12

26 14'4 26 257 26 367 26 47-5 26 580

28 274

45 10


28 41'9

16 ...

27 82
27 18.1

28 40

17. Suvemter 1889), M, L. Schulhof observes that a comparison

52 27 .. 27 277

28 2 32 15 of the elements of Vico's comet (1844) given by Le Verrier with

18 I 56 5... 27 37'1 thue of Brooks's comet (1889, shows a striking similarity. The brightness on Jan. 8 = 0.48 and on Jan. 28 = 0-30, According to Mr. Chandler (Astronomicai Journal, No. 205, that at discovery being taken as unity. Eroks's comet in May 1886 was at a distance 0064 from M. Schulhof 'notes (Bulletin Astronomique, November 1889) Jupiter, and in heliocentric longitude 185", whilst Vico's come that, according to the elements of this comet, it is probably loand itself about 1885-86, according to the elements of M. identical with Blanpain's comet (1819), which M. Clausen has hiruanow in heliocentric longitude 162, and approximately 0:4 shown to be identical with Grischow's comet (1743). from Jupiter. M. Schulhof adds, however, that the only objection to the hypothesis is that the ac:ion of Jupiter at a distance SOLAR SPOTS AND PROMINENCES.- In the November 04 would hardly have been sufficient to change so considerably Memorie della Società degli Spettroscopisti Italiani, Prof. Tacchini the perihelion distance and the time of revolution. It will be contributes a note on spots and faculæ observed from July to sufficient to calculate back the perturbations of Brooks's comet as September of this year. A comparison of these observations far as 1885 to definitely settle this question.

with those of the preceding quarter shows an augmentation of An investigation of the elements of Comets Lexell and Finlay the phenomena described and a diminution of the frequency of has led to the conclusion that they are not identical, but the days without spots. cults found are not to be taken as conclusive, a farther and Spectroscopic observations made by Prof. Tacchini during the mute exact determination of the elements of Finlay's comet same period as the above show the mean daily number of kaving been undertaken.

prominences to have been 2-93, with an average altitude of

28 55'3

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