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THURSDAY, JANUARY 16, 1890.
enced the manifest value of the regulations of 1885 called for the reinstitution of the muzzle, and at the present time the Field, Fancier's Gazette, &c., afford strong proof, in
the earnestness of their expressions of satisfaction at the THE NEJV MUZZLING REGULATIONS.
present muzzling order, of the folly of their contemporary A of being exemplified justerns by the possibility or of course, as before, aprese agitators, trading on the the selfish interests of a few individuals attracting favour- innate selfishness of some natures, and supported by the able attention, in utter opposition to the true interests of money of a small band of individuals whose names should the nation at large.
be for ever preserved as having sought to work harm to A very reprehensible leading article which appeared in their fellow-creatures, recommenced their irresponsible the Standard on the 4th inst., to which we shall presently attacks on the authorities and others for this much-needed refer in fuller detail, has started an agitation in the home' sanitary regulation, and it is a recrudescence of this selfish counties, especially in Kent, in opposition to the valuable | obstruction which the Standard has attempted for some regulations recently issued by Mr. Chaplin against (as yet unknown) reason to revive. hydrophobia or rabies.
An amusing, if degrading feature of such opposition is It is not uninstructive to review the way in which the the constant change of front which the inevitable progress issue of these regulations has been brought about, while of scientific truth forces upon these people, as their mis1 is a matter of painful interest to compare our position statements and ignorance become revealed to the public. in England, as regards the prevalence of rabies, with that At different stages of the agitation, their leaders, Miss of some of the more advanced nations on the Continent. Cobbe, “Ouida," and others, have stated with inexplicable
Before M. Pasteur began his wonderful researches into self-contradiction, that no such disease as rabies existed, rabies, the vast majority, even of the highly instructed that it was wholly imaginary, that it was rare in England, public, regarded hydrophobia as a kind of Divine visita- that the police ran no risks in extirpating it, that the tion, and rabies as a form of canine lunacy. Legislation, muzzle produced this (non-existent) disease, and so on to in the absence of that which has so frequently been called the end of the chapter. But while the logical difficulties with a double meaning "a healthy despotism," necessarily in which these writers involve themselves must excite agged behind in the arrest of what everyone now knows amusement, it is a matter of serious regret that they cannot to be a simple zymotic disease, which, enzootic in Eng- be legally dealt with like other disseminators of false pand, becomes, by steady increase during every few years news, such for instance as those who in the wilderness of of unchecked development, both epizootic and unfortu- the "great gooseberry season” cry “'orrible murder” tely epidemic.
when homicide is pro tem. non-existent. The evil done The first advance towards rational prevention of the by these latter is indeed small, compared with that of the prouble was made in London in 1885-86 by the Chief far graver false statements which we have cited above. Commissioner of Police, first by Sir E. Henderson, after In spite, however, of this flood of misrepresentations wards by Sir Charles Warren.
the muzzling regulations were enforced in London, and The result of their work is well known-namely, the with notable benefit, and by the recent order they have temporary extirpation of rabies in London. In a country been continued and extended by Mr. Chaplin, so as to cut with more respect for scientific fact, such a benefit to the right at the root of the evil, viz. in all the centres of the Community would have been followed by the general disease simultaneously. establishment of preventive legislation throughout the It was with the consciousness that this measure would nestres of the disease, so as to arrest it completely; and be required by the country of the President of the Board thes having been effected, the adoption of proper quaran- of Agriculture, that the anti-muzzlites made a last effort line measures would alone of course have been required against it by holding a public meeting. The real nature to free us for ever from the evil by preventing its re- of this agitation, which had been notorious from the comintroduction from abroad.
mencement, was then made most amusingly conspicuous. Partly owing to the fact that, until the most wise estab- We refer to the fact that this variety of obstruction is in lishment by the present Government of a General Board | truth only a branch of the anti-vivisectionist agitation, and of Agriculture, there was no special authority for moving worthy of such a parent stem. It seems that at the meeting in the matter, no such general action was taken. Lord an amendment in strong support of muzzling was carried Cranbrook, however, was earnestly convinced of the im- by a majority of something like 80 per cent. The fact sirtance of the subject, and conferred a lasting benefit on of the origin of the Association which had summoned the all those interested in it by appointing that Select Com- meeting having been alluded to, the Chairman, the Bishop nuttee of the House of Lords whose Report and evidence of Ely, first (we are glad to see) repudiated the idea that not only furnished a complete and exhaustive account of he was an anti-vivisectionist, and then went on to say abies, but also strongly emphasized the necessity of the that the anti-vivisectionists had nothing to do with the doption of thorough legislative measures, especially of anti-muzzling agitation. This repudiation on the Bishop's muzzling, to prevent and eradicate the malady.
part was followed by the resignation of the originators of In the meanwhile, rabies in dogs, and of course con- the movement, Miss Cobbe and others, demonstrating the Currently its fatal attacks on men, steadily increased, until truth of what we have just said and the inaccuracy of the he spring of last year (1889) saw us threatened again in Bishop's second statement. ondon with an epidemic like that of 1885.
The general facts bearing upon the origin and developAll the large dog-owners and breeders who had experi- ment of the agitation were fully exposed at the meeting,
VOL XLI.- So. 1055.
institutes. Its official name (“Trustees of the City with a first-rate governing body we have little fear, Parochial Charities ") is unfortunate; it has too much of Payment by results will lose most of its terrors if those a flavour of Mr. Bumble's “porochial" office. It would in power know the difference between the incompetence require an Act of Parliament to change the name, so the which cannot earn grants, and the independence which best thing to do is to let it be forgotten. The Central prefers real teaching to cram. And we may add that it Governing Body (for so let us call it) is to be representa- is only by associating with the governing body members tive of the Crown, the City Corporation, the County engaged in local industries that the practical character Council, the higher Colleges and University of London, of the trade classes can be assured. the Ecclesiastical Commissioners (temporarily), and the So much for the machinery. We must next say a word Governing Bodies of the Bishopsgate and Cripplegate about the character of the instruction to be aimed at un Foundations. No one can forecast the action of such a the institutions. It is to be mainly technical, and hence hybrid body until we know the actual men who are to be must be adapted to the special needs of each locality, nominated. A very efficient educational body might be it is by this time a truism to say that this adaptation will elected as proposed, and on the other hand it mightn't. not be brought about by allowing a set of science and It is to be hoped that one of the blots on the constitution of art teachers to take the line of least resistance through the the Board—the absence of working-men representatives, South Kensington Directory to the goal of the maximum will be partly corrected by the inclusion of some working- of grant. A lady is reported to have lately obtained a men leaders among the five Crown nominees. But it is silver medal for agriculture at a London institution which impossible to resist the conviction that the suggested the Charity Commissioners are proposing to endow. ls constitution—suitable enough to the time when the Act this adaptation to local needs and industries? was passed and London had no organized system of local We wish sincerely that those responsible for the whole government-has far too little of the popular element, scheme had been able to arrange for exceptional treatand that it would be far better to put the whole manage- ment of the new sinstitutes in the matter of the apparment of the scheme in the hands of the County Council, tionment of the Government grant now paid on results or a joint committee of the County Council and School No better opportunity is likely to present itself for an Board.
experiment in basing grant on efficient inspection rather Supposing that the Central Body is all that could be than on examination. But what chance is there of such wished, the next thing to ensure is the satisfactory com- a proposal when our Government departments responsable position of the governing bodies of the various institutes, for public education are cut up into air-tight compartments and their organic connection with the Central Body. It without connection among themselves? The Charity is essential that the schemes shall be so arranged that the Commission, the Education Department, and the Science educational programme of all the institutes shall pass and Art Department still form a great circumlocution office. through the hands of competent experts, and the and until this is altered abuses will continue, which it us educational work shall be adequately supervised, in- nobody's business to remedy. Our great hope, therefore, de spected, and revised, from time to time. The Charity pends on the choice of the principals, teachers, secretaries. Commissioners propose two methods of attaining this inspectors, and governing bodies, who will make or mar result. They give three nominations on each governing the institutes through which, for many years, Londoners Board to the Central Governing Body, and these three mem- will derive their technical instruction. Let them be en bers may be experts, though of this there is no guarantee. lightened men, with broad views and sympathies, who Further, the secretary of each institute is required to send know their business, or at least know their limitations. to the secretary of the Central Governing Body a com- and all may be well. But if not, it were better that the plete list of proposed classes a week before each term. whole scheme were put in the fire. This is presumably intended to give a power of sugges What, again, is to be the scope of the instruction? Is it tion, if not revision, to the Central Body, but what is the to be mainly confined to the level of "elementary " science use of suggestions a week before term? What is wanted and “second-grade” art? Or are there to be advanced is a central committee of well-known experts to advise classes in more specialized subjects? Provision is marks the Central Governing Body on educational matters. for such classes in the scheme if they can be arranged The committee should be small-say three scientific and without trenching on the endowment. The Commisthree artistic representatives. They should be paid for missioners are probably afraid of misapplying funds with their services, and should be in touch with the science tended for the poor to the benefit of the middle classes. and art divisions of every institute.
There is justice in their objection, but such instructor There is nothing in the scheme to prevent the appoint- can never be made self-supporting, and it is most in ment of such a Committee, though it would be well if portant that it should be included in the programme si some distinct suggestion of the kind were made. In any the institutes, if only to keep the standard high throughout case it is a matter to be borne in mind and pressed when Here is then an opportunity for the City and Guld the time comes, for it may make all the difference in the Institute. Let it relieve itself of the charge of its exaucAworld to the future of technical education in London. tions, which may now be transferred on equitable terms 19 Let us be frank about the matter. How many men are the Science and Art Department under the provisions likely in any given district to be on the governing body the Technical Instruction Act, and let it also transfer to of the local institute who know the difference between the Government the Central Institution, the geographical good teaching and bad? And yet no scheme, however situation of which marks it out plainly as an adjunts admirably drawn, will produce a good technical school, rather than a rival to the Normal School, and let it apps unless it is worked by such men. On the other hand, the energy thus liberated in establishing in every " Pok
technic" a higher department, providing for the more well calculated to give trustworthy indications as to the specialized wants of each locality. This will be a work quantity and quality of metal obtainable from ores. which no body is so well fitted to undertake as the great These are to be found in well proved “wet” methods of Institute which has been a pioneer in higher technical determining actual copper contained in ores as well as instruction. Such, it appears to us, is the true solution of the components that interfere with the extraction and the question of the relations between the Charity Com- the quality of the metal. In describing these methods, missioners' scheme and the City and Guilds of London. ample information is given for the guidance of the smelter
One word of caution in conclusion. The new institutes under the varying conditions of the metal's occurrence. should be allowed to grow, and not be started on too While passing shortly over the Cornish assay, the authors ambitious a scale at first. Local wants change, and the judiciously omit such clumsy “wet” methods of assay as institutes should develop in harmony with their changes. the direct titration by cyanide of potassium, which is reThis is the lesson of the old Mechanics' Institutes and tained in some recent books of standing, although it has Athenxams. The lesson is repeated in the newer experi- been abandoned by most skilful assayers. On the other mentsof Mr. Hogg's Polytechnic, and the People's Palace. hand, titration by cyanide of potassium after separation We do not want to begin with erecting huge shells of of the copper from interfering metals, and the assay by bricks and mortar, hoping that life will somehow come electrolysis, leave little to be desired in rapidity and into them after a time. The life first, then the buildings, accuracy, and to these due prominence is given. Failing to grow as it expands and deepens-that surely is the law reasonable manipulative skill, no assay can be accurate, of nature. "Several architectural white elephants” is and the expertness demanded by those who conduct the the dismal but suggestive forecast of a writer in the "dry” or Cornish assay is not more easily acquired than Charity Organisation Review, on the supposition that this is the analytical skill needed for better "wet” methods. law is violated. If these warnings are neglected, the pro-In an assay method giving accurately the amount of metal moters of the movement will be merely courting failure, actually present in the ore, the metallurgist has a sure however good their intentions may be. And they will basis for calculation, the results of which can be brought have failed because they were not poets enough to under the control of his experience as to the losses of understand that life develops from within.”
metal in operations on a large scale. The results of the Cornish assay, with all its inherent uncertainty, have
equally to be judged in the light of the smelter's experience ASSAYING
as to what the final “out-turn” will be. In lead, again, Text-book of Assaying. By C. Beringer and J. J. Beringer. the dry assay is usually treated in books on assaying with (London: Griffin and Co., 1889.)
much elaboration, which is no longer useful, if it ever was. HIS text-book marks an important departure in the It gives results that indicate neither the actual amount of
dreary details of traditionary methods, and attempt with produced by smelting, and like the Cornish assay for success to rationalize the art of the assayer, rather than copper is most unsatisfactory for guidance in smelting. to follow the usual course of reproducing "dry” assay | The wet methods of lead assaying which are described methods and elaborate classifications of processes the are convenient and trustworthy, while the only practically interest of which is only historical. Assaying is here useful methods of dry lead assay are given in sufficient treated, in a broad sense, as the determination, by analy- detail. In the assay of iron ores we find dry methods tical methods, of components of ores and of intermediate entirely omitted. The wisdom of this cannot be doubted, or finished metallurgical products. Such compounds may for the want of exactitude which is characteristic of the be either of value in themselves, or important from being dry assay of copper and lead is still more marked in the dry valuable or injurious in the operations of smelting, or in assay of iron. Processes of wet assay capable of giving adapting the metals for use.
prompt and strictly accurate results are available, and The methods of the authors, and the measure of success these are fully described. which they have attained, may be fairly judged by their The plan of subordinating or ignoring unsatisfactory treatment of copper, ead, and iron. Copper ores and methods of assay, while giving prominence to those furnace materials are still sold in the English market by which have proved to be trustworthy, runs through the the “* Cornish" assay. This antiquated method of assay- treatment of methods of assaying the other metals, as ing has really no claim to retention, now that more well as estimating the components of ores which are not trustworthy methods are well known, and the authors give it usually dealt with in books on assaying. Among the but little prominence. They, however, repeat the fallacious latter are silica, the earths, sulphur, arsenic, and phosargument of its apologists by stating that "it gives the phorus. These demand study by the metallurgist, to purchaser an idea of the quantity and quality of the metal | whom, under either the necessity of “fluxing” them away, that can be got by smelting." The Cornish assay does or of minimizing their interference with the purity of the not deserve even this modified approval, as the results it metals, their ready and accurate determination is a matter affords neither represent the actual amount of copper of the greatest importance. The details of assaying the contained in the ore, nor the proportion of metal which can precious metals, though hardly sufficient for adoption in be produced by smelting, and several expert assayers, the assay of bullion in a mint, are all that is needed in a working on portions of the same samples, will obtain works. results which vary in the most erratic way. Fortunately The authors have clearly not been content to merely for thase who may be guided by this text-book, its authors record published processes, but in order to add to the proceed to describe assaying processes which are really completeness of their work have given unpublished
results of the experience acquired by themselves and more and more aware of the fallacious results yielded by others. The writer notices their description of a process mere microscopical observation when unaccompanied and for the estimation of arsenic in minerals and metals, uncontrolled by those processes of cultivation which have which was devised by himself for use in works under his been developed during the past ten years. Even the work control, that has not hitherto been published. It consists performed under the auspices of the masterly genius in the separation of arsenic from its associations, by and supreme experimental skill of Pasteur has had to be distillation with ferric chloride mixed with calcium revised and brought up to date by Hansen, with the aid chloride, and subsequent titration of the distillate by of the more recent methods of research. Now, although iodine. The authors are mistaken in stating that there is the authors appear fully aware of the great change which a difficulty in obtaining ferric chloride free from arsenic. has taken place since the earlier work of Pasteur, Reess, Even if there were difficulties, it is obvious that the Fitz, and others, they have not sufficiently distinguished process itself affords a ready means of eliminating arsenic between observations which rest upon the surest foundafrom the ferric chloride mixture, before using it in the tion and fulfilling the most modern requirements, and actual assay. In this and one or two other cases, there those which, though possibly correct, require repetition is a tendency to adopt the always undesirable method of and confirmation. "blank” experiments to correct error arising from the The absence of sharp differentiation in this matter use of impure reagents, rather than whenever practicable cannot fail, we believe, to occasion much confusion in to avoid the source of danger by the use of pure materials. , the mind of the ordinary practical student who depends These are, however, hardly noticeable blemishes in a upon text-books and manuals for his guidance and inreally meritorious work, that may safely be depended formation, and it is, in our opinion, quite unnecessary upon by those using it either for systematic instruction that he should be burdened with the microscopic de or for reference.
THOMAS GIBB. scriptions of the various forms of yeast given by the older
observers, who were almost certainly dealing with impure
cultures, but on the contrary he should rather devote his BREWING MICROSCOPY.
whole attention to the characters of such undoubtedly pure
forms of yeast as have been obtained by the most recent The Microscope in the Brewery and Malt House. By methods. Moreover, unless the necessity of resorting to
Chas. Geo. Mathews, F.C.S., F.I.C., &c., and Francis | these cultivation experiments for obtaining accurate inEdw. Lott, F.I.C., A.R.S.M., &c. (London and Derby: formation is duly impressed upon the student, he will Bemrose and Sons, 1889.)
naturally be inclined to shirk these far more laborious THI CHERE are certainly few industries the growth and 1 and difficult observations, and place undue reliance upon
development of which have been more influenced microscopic features. by the progress of pure scientific discovery than those of These remarks apply, perhaps, with even greater force to the brewer and distiller. These industries, formerly the manner in which the authors have dealt with the carried on upon purely empirical lines, handed down schizomycetes; in this part of the book we find much from father to son through countless generations, have space devoted to microscopic descriptions of bacteria of in recent years, through the advances in chemical and uncertain purity, whilst there is little or nothing said biological science, been so transformed that their suc- about the methods by which these organisms can be cessful conduct at the present time requires a most really identified, and their characters defined. We alsu thorough acquaintance with the leading principles of miss any adequate account of the staining-processes these sciences. As a consequence of this change, we which are so invaluable in obtaining a correct idea of the find an increasing tendency for these industries to be microscopic forms and dimensions of bacteria. As an come concentrated in a smaller number of hands each instance of the unsatisfactory present condition of brex. producing on a larger and larger scale. The small ' ing microscopy, we may quote the following sentence : brewer himself lacking the necessary scientific training, “ Bact. lactis, as seen in beers, is generally in the form and not able to afford the requisite skilled assistance, i of small rods, 2 to 3 u in length, and sometimes in threads gives way before the larger breweries employing a com- containing from 2 to 5 individuals; it is not certain. plete scientific staff and provided with the latest im however, that this form is B. lactis." Thus, in respect of provements.
the bacterium which is perhaps of most consequence to The present work is, we understand, intended to bring the brewer, as being the most commonly occurring before those connected with brewing a concise account , disease-organism encountered in the brewing process of the assistance which may be derived in the conduct of there is this absolute lack of all precise information. their business from the use of the microscope. We are What may be called the more purely scientific part of of opinion that the authors have been unfortunate already the work is succeeded by a chapter of "general remarks in the choice of their title, as one of the most conspicuous on the brewing process," which, embodying as it does results of modern scientific research in this direction is that some of the practical experience of the authors themthe use of the microscope alone is of comparatively little selves, we would have gladly seen enlarged. value in the study of micro-organisms in general, whether The book, which is printed on excellent paper and connected with fermentation or other processes. This in- elegantly got up, is illustrated with a number of admiradequacy of microscopic study per se the authors in ably executed plates, many of the best of which are various parts of their work indeed frankly admit. Modern original. students of these low forms of life have, in fact, become A full index and glossary are appended.
OUR BOOK SHELF.
reasonable ; theoretically, there is none. But this does not
make the transmission of acquired characters less doubtful. Flowr-Land: an Introduction to Botany. By Robert The Duke has no doubt about it, however. “So far from its
Fisher, M.A., Vicar of Sewerby, Yorks. (London: being unproved, it is consistent with all observation and all Bemrose and Sons, 1889.)
experience. It lies at the foundation of all organic developTHIS is a capital first book of botany, intended for small ment." Very possibly, but where is the observation and where children. The style, however, is really more elementary day. Imagine the fate at the Duke's hands of any scientific
is the experience? These are the biological desiderata of the than the matter, and a child who has mastered this book writer who put forward statements such as these unsupported by will have made a very good start in the science. There a shred of a fact. 1 a good deal of information given about the internal “ This being so," however, the question then arises, Why do structure and function, as well as the external form, of extreme Darwinians so fiercely oppose the idea of the transthe organs of plants, and this information is given cor- mission of acquired characters? Well, it is obvious that they do rectly, as well as clearly.
so because they think the evidence in its favour insufficient, and The book is illustrated by 177 woodcuts, most of which it is clearly the duty of a scientific man, whether an extreme are well suited to their purpose.
D. H.S. Darwinian or not, to oppose the acceptance of that which ex
perience does not support. But the Duke of Argyll attributes Fre Months' Fine Weather in Canada, Western U.S., their opposition to two causes : first, jealousy of associating the and Mexica, By Mrs. E. H. Carbutt. (London names of Lamarck and Darwin ; and, secondly, the dethroneSampson Low and Co., 1889.)
ment of their idol Fortuity. The first of these reasons is almost In this book Mrs. Carbutt records her experiences during with other than respect of Lamarck's position in scientific
too preposterous to discuss. No serious naturalist would speak a remarkably pleasant journey made by herself and her history; this cannot be effaced however much that of Darwin husband in the New World. The scenes she describes may be magnified. And no serious naturalist would adhere to haveaften been described before, but she writes so brightly any theory Darwin had propounded a moment longer than the alvout what she saw that even readers to whom she has evidence seemed to carry conviction. The charge in this par. nothing new to tell will find a good deal to interest them ticular matter is, however, the more grotesque, because, although m her narrative. They will be particularly pleased with Darwin did not esteem as of much value Lamarck's doctrine of her account of " sunny Mexico, and its merry, courteous development and progression, we know that his own mind people."
became more and more fluid on the question of the “direct action of conditions." The idea is in fact so plausible that the difficulty is not in accepting it, but in shaking oneself free from
it. What were probably the last words which Darwin wrote on LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
the subject are contained in a letter to Prof. Semper, dated
July 19, 1881. I quote a passage which appears to me to (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex pretty accurately define the present position of the question :
fressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake "No doubt I originally attributed too little weight to the direct to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected action of conditions, but Hoffmann's paper has staggered me. manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature, Perhaps hundreds of generations of exposure are necessary. It No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ]
is a most perplexing subject. I wish I was not so old, and had The Duke of Argyll and the Neo-Darwinians.
more strength, for I see lines of research to follow. Hoffmann
even doubts whether plants vary more under cultivation than in It has a curious and not uninstructive effect to see the their native home and under their natural conditions (" Life and fe of this journal invaded by the methods of discussion Letters," vol. iii. p. 345). wbich are characteristic of political warfare. The letter of the Darwin's difficulty, in point of fact, was exactly that of every. Duke of Argyll, published in Nature for December 26, 1889 one else. The evidence, instead of being "consistent with all "173) is a clever debating speech. But it rather obscures than observation and all experience,” failed to be forthcoming. illuminates the questions really at issue. And, after the fashion The second reason is equally baseless. Fortuity is no idol of of the political orator, it attributes to those who disagree with the neo-Darwinians ; if it is an idol at all, it is an idol of the the wriler motives which, in so far as they differ from reasoned market,” imposed upon their understanding by the Dake. But Corrviction, are essentially insincere.
at any rate he does not attribute any blame to Darwin. And as In politics
, the personal rivalry which is bound up inextricably this is a rather important matter, on which I admit that persons with the solution of great problems may make it a necessary who ought to know better
have gone astray, I will quote a four of the game to endeavour to belittle one's opponents. But passage on the subject from Prof. Huxley's admirable biography in science it is not so. The newer problems which have been (Proc. Roy. Soc., No. 269) :Talved by Darwinism depend for their solution upon the discussion “Those, again, who compare the operation of the natural
evidence, and no competent biologists will, in the long run, causes which bring about variation and selection with what they le influenced in the opinions they form about them by anything are pleased to call chance, can hardly have read the opening
paragraph of the fifth chapter of the Origin' (ed. 1, p. 131): There is nothing in the Duke's letter which has not been worn "I have sometimes spoken as if the variations had been threadbare by discussion. Still, there are, no doubt, many due
to chance. This
is of course a wholly incorrect expression, readers of Nature who, while taking a general interest in the but it seems to acknowledge plainly our ignorance of the cause matter, have not followed all that has been written about it. I of each particular variation."" am disposed to think, therefore, that it may not be without its It is obvious that the use of accidental in the guarded sense in we to go over the ground which the letter covers.
which it is employed by Darwin is widely different from forFirst, as to acquired characters. Let us take a simple case. tuitous as employed by the Duke of Argyll, Darwin took 11 a admitted that a blacksmith, by the constant use of his arms, variation as a fact of experience. Its causes and laws have still may stimulate their abnormal muscular development ; that is an to be worked out. One of the latter, due to Quetelet, was exacquired character. But a working man, whose arms are of per- plained by Prof. George Darwin in this
journal (vol. viii., 1873, lestly average dimensions, may nevertheless have a son with p. 505). He says: “One may assume, with come confidence, arms which would seem to mark him out for the blacksmith's that under normal conditions, the variation of any organ in the profession; that would be a congenital variation. Now we same species may be symmetrically grouped about a centre of know that a congenital variation is likely to be inherited ; that greatest density." 1s a matter of observation. What is the case as to the acquired And this is quite in accord with the remark of Weismann that character? The answer must be, I take it, that there is no variability is not something independent of and in some way probability that the arms of a blacksmith's son will differ in any added to the organism, but is a mere expression for the fluctuarespect from those of the average inhabitant in the locality where tions in its type. Variation is therefore not unlimited, and we he was born. The Duke of Argyll
, however, suggests that there must admit with Weismann that its limits are determined hy "no necessary antagonism between congenital variation and the underlying physical nature of the organism ;” or as he the transmission of acquired characters." This is perfectly again puts it, "under the most favourable circumstances a bird