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THURSDAY, JANUARY 23, 1890.
that about to be adopted for future Indian Civil servants of the highest class. And in them, as we learn will be the case in the future examinations for the Indian service,
no limit is placed on the number of subjects that may be THE FUTURE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE
selected from those which are examined. EXAMINATIO.VS.
We have before us the results of a number of these THE "HE importance of obtaining a satisfactory posi- competitions held during the last ten or eleven years,
tion for future science candidates in these ex- and they show, as might have been expected from the aminations is now very great. We have not only to scheme of marks, that science men are practically exconsider the need there is that the men selected should cluded. We have ascertained as far as possible the represent every side of modern thought and culture, but degrees taken by the successful candidates, and out of also to bear in mind the influence of such examina- thirty we find that twenty-two have taken their degrees tions on the development of education at home. It is in classics, seven in mathematics, and one in natural unfortunately notorious that candidates offering science in science; whilst the marks of forty others, whose degrees the examinations conducted by the Civil Service Com- could not be ascertained, show a similar preponderance mission stand, as a rule, at a great disadvantage. The of classical men. Now, when it is remembered that many sharks allotted to science subjects have often been rela- men take honours in science at Oxford, that the number tively small, and even when outside pressure has secured who do so at Cambridge is approaching that of those who the allotment of a fair proportion of marks to science, the take classical honours, and that scholarships are now methods adopted in conducting the examinations have, given for science in considerable numbers at both Univer45 has been pointed out in our columns and elsewhere, sities, it is plain that a scheme which is likely to produce frequently been such as to prevent good candidates from such results as those we have quoted ought on no account actually obtaining an equitable proportion of them. to be adopted for the Indian Civil Service. Such a one
Now as the Commissioners, year by year, deal with sided system of selection is not fair to the various classes thcausands, we might say with tens of thousands, of candi- of candidates, and it is not fair to the dependency which dates of various types and ages; and as their influence is they will be charged to administer. The plain fact is that by no means confined to the actual candidates examined, in the competition for the home services, the marks it sy plain that we have in this organization a body whose assigned to classics, mathematics, and science respecinfluence, for good or ill, on education in this country tively are scarcely fair to mathematics, and very distinctly ja enormous. Therefore we regard it as most urgent that unfair to science. These branches of learning have been those who are familiar with this question should press placed upon a far more equal footing at our Universities, the facts of the present case not only on the attention of and science candidates may fairly claim more equal treatthe Civil Service Commission, but also at the India Office ment from the Commissioners in competitions such as azad on the notice of the public. We are happy to know, those which we are now considering. In the examinations Indeed, that the subject is being energetically taken up by for first-class appointments in the home services, there number of distinguished graduates of Cambridge. But is the enormous difference of 375 marks against science, he forces on the other side are very strong, and past out of 1250 in the effective mark values of classics and Experience of the action of the Commission has made it science. On a recent occasion the difference between pain that the representatives of science have a serious the highest and lowest on the list of successful candidates task before them.
was no more than 158, and although this is indeed a very In their Report for 1888, the Commissioners have been exceptional case, it shows how enormous the effect of is some pains to convince the public that their examina- such a difference may be when the candidates are at all ions have had a minimum disturbing effect on the evenly matched. wdiary course of education. For example, they show Such a boycotting of the men of scientific training is bat at several recent examinations for Class 1. clerkships deplorable enough in the selecting of men for the home n the home services, all, or nearly all, the successful services, but in the case of the future administrators of andidates have been men of University education. Our Indian dependency it would be far more unfortunate. l'he Commissioners should carry their investigations There, if anywhere, men of every type should play their newhat deeper, and ascertain how far these selected part in the national work. The Cambridge men of science andidates represent all classes of University graduates. are doing their best to avert the catastrophe that we fear. le have done this so far as opportunity has permitted ; We hope they will be supported promptly, universally, ad the results of our investigation in the case of the and energetically by their scientific brethren, both great Elass I. clerkships (which alone we have at present and small. samined, as it only affects the present question) do not lear out the contention of the Commissioners, but go to how that the examinations concerned are very distinctly
THE SHAN STATES. alculated either to disturb the course of education or to A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Shan States. ud to select men representing all the chief types of
By Holt S. Hallett. (London and Edinburgh: William Cniversity culture.
Blackwood and Sons, 1889.) From our results, which are given below, it is easy to MR. the Shan States, in search of the best path to resee what it is that is to be feared under the coming cheme. For in the competition for Class I. clerkships, connect Burmah with China and Siain, were performed te major limit of age, twenty-four, is not far removed from partly by boat, and partly on the back of elephants. VOL XLI.-No. 1056.
The problem before him was a difficult one, owing to the several years, afforded Mr. Hallett great assistance in geography of Central Indo-China being unknown at the collecting statistics and particulars of the trade of the time of his visit. He has filled up a great blank in the country, and information about the religions, supers: map of this interesting region, and has proved that a tions, and folk-lore of the various races. In the practicable route for the railway exists, chiefly through preface, Mr. Hallett gives an interesting history ? great and fertile plains, to the populous parts of the the races found in Indo-China, and during her Chinese province of Yunnan, and thence through travels he collected several of their vocabulana Southern into Central China. The project has been the aborigines of Lower Indo-China appear to bare for some years before the public, and has received the been Negritos, probably akin to those of the Andonu unanimous support of the manufacturing and mercantile Islands and the hills of the Malay Peninsula. Otto communities, who have constantly, through the Chambers dwarf races of Negrito origin were met with on the of Commerce, pressed the matter upon the attention of journey, belonging to the Ka tribes in the neighbourhood the Government. The Siamese section of the line, and of Luang Prabang. These are probably of the same several important branches, are now being surveyed and stock as the Trao in Cochin China and one of the native estimated for the King of Siam by English engineers, and races in Formosa, and are, in all likelihood, akin to the are likely soon to be taken in hand.
Tiao, a race of pygmies with whom the Chinese becare The handsome volume before us contains an excellent acquainted when they entered North-Eastern China more index map of Southern China and Indo-China, five route than 4000 years ago. The Bau Lawa tribes met by him maps, and nearly a hundred original illustrations. The in the Shan States, and found in the hills as far south index map shows clearly the projected Anglo-Siamese the latitude of Bangkok, as well as the Mon race o system of lines, and its continuation into Central China, Lower Burmah and the Cham or people of Cambodia together with the proposed branch to Pakhoi, the Southern migrated into their present habitat at an early pertol. Chinese seaport. On the same map are shown the rival and are Mongoloid tribes of a race with Malaysian lines which the French propose to construct in order to nities. This Mon race is represented in Western Bengal draw the trade of Southern and Central China and of the and Central India by the Kolarian tribes. They are proba Shan States to a French port in Tonquin. The route ably descendants of the Ngu stock, including the Paeg, maps, which are beautifully executed from Mr. Hallett's Kuei, and Miao tribes, who, with the Shan, Yang ke survey, have the population, geology, and height above | Karen, and King or Chin tribes, formed the chief part of sea-level of the country noted on them, which greatly the population of Central and Southern China daring the increases their value. Apart from its commercial and struggle for empire-604-220 R.C. geographical aspect, the book will prove of great interest Other interesting tribes, known as La-Hu and Kiang Tuna to the politician and the general reader. It gives the La-Wa, were met with by Mr. Hallett ; and these are sad account of an able, intelligent, and careful inquirer on to belong to the same white
, race as ourselves. They had the spot, concerning the position of the frontier of the already settled about the southern bend of the Hoang-ho u: British and Siamese Shan States at the time we annexed the time when the Chinese tribes arrived on the borders of Upper Burmah, and it indicates the districts claimed by China after their long journey from the neighbourhood : our new subjects which were then forcibly occupied by Chaldæa. Part of these various races have been grada the Siamese. It describes the mode of government and ally amalgamated with the Chinese, who have doubte the condition of the people in Siam and its Shan States, less received from them and other races much of the countries which are now being brought into close political folk-lore and superstitions. It may therefore prove bezba and commercial relations with us. It treats of the interesting to compare the habits, customs, folk-lore
, and threatened absorption of Siamese territory by the superstitions of these early inhabitants of China sci French, and shows how vast is our present stake in those of the Chinese. Many of the customs and supe the country. It points out how imperative it is that we stitions must have been widespread at an early daleshould pay close attention to the proceedings of the Mr. Hallett notices the strong similarity between same French, and safeguard our interests, which include the of the customs and superstitions of the Finnish trite only known practicable route for the railway connection and those of the Shans. The book is rich in legano of Burmah with the populous and fertile regions of connected with various events which are said to have Southern and Western China.
happened in the country. Some of these relate to år The author expresses himself fluently and concisely. His time when the Lawa were conquered or driven into the descriptions of scenery, people, and wayside incidents, hills by the Shans; others relate to events which bere are extremely good, and the story of the journey is lightly, since happened in the country; and the remainder as brightly,andamusingly told. He wasexceptionally fortunate adaptations from Buddhistic stories, or refer to the in his companions, and had no trouble in gaining the good guardian spirits of the country, or to romantic incidents will and assistance of everyone he met during his travels. that have occurred. The guardian spirits universal, Dr. Cushing and Dr. McGilvary, who joined the party as worshipped by the Shans are, strange to say, the interpreters, were masters of the Shan language, and, spirits of ancient Lawa kings and queens reigning in die being missionaries, took a great interest in the welfare country at the time when wars were carried on between of the people. They had made a careful study of their the Lawa and the Shans. Some of these local Sivas are manners and customs, and, having previously traversed believed to have ogre propensities, and formerly human the Shan States in various directions, were well known to sacrifices were offered up to them. Even the year the chiefs, nobles, and officials of the country. Another previous to Mr. Hallett's visit, the execution of severa missionary, Mr. Wilson, who had resided at Zimmé for criminals was hurried on in order to appease the locæ
Lawa spirits, so that they might be induced to allow the malignant foes. The spirits, in their opinion, have as waterneeded for the irrigation of the fields to flow down from little intelligence as the birds of the air, and any scaredie hills. Human sacrifices at the obsequies of their chiefscrow device will keep them at a distance. The spirits of were offered by the Shans up to the middle of the sixteenth those who die from abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth enfury, when the States became feudatory to Burmah. are much dreaded by the widower. If the child dies with At the time the chiefs were buried, elephants, ponies, and the mother, its spirit joins hers in its rambles, endeavourlaves were interred with them. The continuance of this ing to harm the living. The first object of their search is iustom was strictly prohibited by the Burmese Emperor the husband and father, whose death they do all they can Bureng Naung. Besides the legends, many humorous to accomplish. Sometimes the man endeavours to escape Hories and fables are current amongst the people, speci- by becoming a monk in a monastery far from his home. mens of which are given in the book.
This belief, like most of the superstitions in Indo-China, Ruddhism, with the Shans, as with the Chinese, is merely | is also current in China. a rock covering the belief in ancient superstitions, ancestral With reference to the condition of the people in the worship
, and spirit worship of the people. Even the images Shan States, Mr. Hallett says :Buddha in the temples are believed to be inhabited by the “Nowhere in the Shan States is misgovernment and pirits of deceased monks, and when an abbot, celebrated oppression of the people so rampant as in Siam. Taxafor his learning and virtue, dies, it is the custom for those tion in the Shan States is exceedingly light; and the people año have spent their monastic life under his instruction to are not placed under grinding Government masters, but srepure a shrine for him in some part of their house, or, have the power to change their lords at their will ; they I still in the monastery, in their dormitory, where flowers are not compelled to serve for three
months in the year
without receiving either wages or food; amongst them ind food are placed for the acceptance of the spirit of gamblers, opium-smokers, and drunkards are looked heir deceased teacher. If he is treated with neglect or down upon and despised, and libertinism is nearly lisrespect, he may become a spirit of evil towards his unknown. The only loose women seen by me in the immer pupils. This custom probably arises from the Shan States were a few Siamese, who had taken up their honka being celibate, and therefore having no children quarters at Zimmé, the head-quarters of the Siamese
judge.” o carry on the ancestral worship of the family. Another ecular practice in relation to the images of Buddha is
Referring to Siam, he gives a fearful description of the be transferring to him of some of the attributes of the oppression ruling in the country, and he says :wan-yin, the Chinese Goddess of Mercy, the offspring "If it were not for slavery, serfdom, vexatious taxation At the lotus flower, who terminates the torment of souls and for the vices of the people, the Siamese might be a a purgatory by casting a lotus flower on them. In China, happy race. Living as they do chiefly upon vegetables bruature offerings are laid before this goddess as a hint and fish; in a country where every article of food is on her to convey the articles implied by their likenesses him to subsist upon a fourth of his earnings ; where a
cheap ; where a labourer's wages are such as to enable the spirits of friends or relations. The offerings, few mats and bamboos will supply him with materials for parently accompanied by a scroll stating who the a house sufficient to keep out the rays of the tropical sun ridles are for, consist of miniatures-cut out of paper, and the showers in the rainy season where little clothing money, houses, furniture, carts, ponies, sedan-chairs, is needed, and that of a cheap and simple kind; where ipes, male and female slaves, and all that one on this nine-tenths of the land in the country is vacant
, without izeth might wish for in the way of comfort. In Siam contented and happy. The land is so fertile and the
owners or inhabitants-surely such a people might be ad the Shan States, there being no temple of this god-climate is so humid, that every cereal and fruit of the less, Buddha, who is generally depicted as sitting on a tropics grows there to perfection. Yet among the ptus flower, is besought to do her work, and similar common people it is seldom a man or woman can be bungs are heaped on his altar, but cut out of wood, or found who is not the slave of the wealthy or the noble. litmed of rags or any kinds of rubbish, as paper is not granting monopolies for gambling, opium, and spirits.
The Government battens on the vices of the people by zsily obtainable. The whole country outside the villages Government places the people under unscrupulous and according to the Shans, infested with jungle demons, tyrannical Government masters-merciless, heartless, and he spirits of human beings who have died when absent exorbitant leeches--who; unless heavily bribed, force the om their homes. These endeavour to cause the death peasantry to do their three months' corvée labour at times f others by the same means as caused their own. Their and
seasons that necessarily break up all habits of inictims have to join the company or clan of demons to Government imposes taxes upon everything grown for
dustry, and ruin all plans to engage in successful business. thuch the successful demon belongs. Thus the clan human requirements in the country : fishing-nets, stakes, ncreases in numbers, and is ever becoming more potent boats, spears, and lines, are all taxed. The Government y mischief
. The people believe in divination, charms, net is so small that even charcoal and bamboos are taxed mens, exorcism, sorcery, mediums, witchcraft, and
to the extent of one in ten, and firewood one in five, in hosts. Witch-hunting rages throughout the country, for miles to market with a hundred sticks of firewood,
kind. Fancy the feelings of an old woman, after trudging ad villages are set apart in which those accused of when twenty of the sticks are seized by the tax-gatherer chcraft must reside. Mr. Hallett noticed that the as his perquisite ! There is a land-tax for each crop of lephant-drivers every evening placed pieces of lattice- annuals sown, and paddy and rice are both subject to rork on tall sticks stuck in the ground on the paths tax; so that three taxes can thus be reaped from one cading to and from the camp ; and on inquiry he learned cereal. The burdensome taxation is levied in the most vey were to entangle any evil spirit that might wish to are let out to unscrupulous Chinamen, who are thus able
vexatious manner that can be conceived ; for the taxes ater the camp and injure the party. The Shans con- to squeeze, cheat, and rob the people mercilessly. It is der such precautions fully sufficient to ward off their no use appealing from the tax-gatherer to the officials.
Money wins its way, and justice is unknown in Siam. Hence, the extreme points of the Lesser Antilles are Everyone who has not a friend at Court is preyed upon about six hundred miles apart, and there is such by the governors and their rapacious underlings. Such diversity of soil and climate that each island really is being the present state of Siam, one is not surprised to learn that the majority of its inhabitants, besides being
quires separate treatment. slaves and selling their children, are libertines, gamblers,
There is still much misconception in the mind of the opium smokers or eaters, and given to intoxicating British public as regards the healthiness of these island: beverages."
and also as regards their suitability for settlers with a Mr. Alabaster, the confidential adviser of the King of small capital
. If there were someone in this count? Siam, told Mr. Hallett that nine-tenths of the non- whose business it was to give accurate information Chinese inhabitants of Bangkok were slaves ; that specting the West Indies, they would probably be greatl
, squeezing” was so universal amongst the nobility,
benefited. officials, and monopolists, that no man could become
The revival of interest in these islands, and the large rich in the country unless he purchased an appointment, number of people who annually visit them, are facts which and thus became one of the rulers; and that justice in have naturally led to the production of a guide-book
. the courts was a farce—the heaviest purse, or the most Mr. Bulkeley has, however, aimed at producing some powerful person, invariably winning the case ; besides thing more than a guide-book. The greater part of the whích, if a man was believed to be in possession of volume is devoted to a minute description of the physical money, false charges were brought against him, directly features, and the circumstances of the several islands or indirectly, by the officials, in order to wring the money and this is followed by information for intending settlers out of him. Everyone that he questioned in Bangkok with the view of inducing those who have capital to 2 was of opinion that the state of the people could not be vest to make their homes in these islands. While se much worse than it was at the time of his visit
. Accord cannot endorse all Mr. Bulkeley's statements on this latte ing to an inspector of police in Siamese employ, the point, it is only right to say that none of them are post magistrates in that city have the reputation of being the tively misleading, and at all times they are discussed with biggest liars in the country, and the police are said to be a modesty, and an evident desire to arrive at a right her the greatest thieves, and so unsafe are the people from clusion, that disarms criticism. false charges and lawsuits, that they willingly become
Besides the sugar-cane and cocoa-nut palms, there are the
slaves of the powerful in order to gain their protection. industries connected with fruits, fibres, spices, annata
The whole volume is replete with interesting informa-arrow-root, pepper, maize, medicinal plants, scent-protion; we heartily commend it to the attention of our ducing plants, coca, ramie, tea, tobacco, and many other readers.
well suited to the soil and climate.
It is well known that in former days large fortunes were
made by sugar planters in the West Indies. Now, howTHE LESSER ANTILLES.
ever, even the best estates do little more than give :
small return on the capital invested, wbile many cano The Lesser Antilles. A Guide for Settlers in the British even do this. It would be unwise, therefore, for the West
West Indies and Tourists' Companion. By Owen T. Indies to confine their attention exclusively, or, inden! Bulkeley. (London : Sarnpson Low, Marston, Searle, largely, to the sugar-cane. Already a change is taking pla: and Rivington, Limited, 1889.)
Jamaica has pimento, coffee, tropical fruits, cinckevia SIN INCE Mr. Froude wrote on the West Indies, numerous dye-woods, annatto, cacao; Trinidad has cacao, cocoa
books and pamphlets have been produced, either to nuts ; Grenada is almost exclusively cacao and spices show he was entirely wrong, or to supplement in some Montserrat is noted for its lime plantations and lime-juice important particular the information he gave respecting while Dominica exports concentrated lime-juice, cack-1. these islands. The author of the little book before us cocoa-nuts, as well as oranges to the neighbouring took note of Mr. Froude's lament that all hand-books to islands. The tendency is for the cultivation of the Wex the West Indies “were equally barren” of facts con- Indies to become more and more diversified, and a nected with the higher interest which the islands possess well it should be so. for Englishmen, and he seeks to supply the deficiency. With such good markets for produce of all kinds in the
Although it is evident that Mr. Bulkeley has not an United States and Europe, it is evident that West Indies intimate knowledge of all the islands concerned, this is planters could regain much of their former prosperity if no great disparagement—especially when we recall their only they adapted themselves to the new order of things comparative isolation, and the general ignorance which To assist them in the development of new industries exists even in the West Indies themselves in regard to Government botanical gardens are in course of her the affairs of their neighbours.
established, under the auspices of Kew, in every islan The facts stated are generally trustworthy, and the and from these new plants and information respecting hints given to visitors and intending settlers are likely to their cultivation are being widely distributed. In such a be useful. There are a moderately good map and some work enterprising governors, such as the late Sir Anthan twenty illustrations, most of which, however, are already Musgrave, and the present Governor of Trinidad, S familiar to us. Although usually grouped together, the William Robinson, and others, have taken an active parlseveral islands in the Lesser Antilles differ much more It is not, however, as regards industrial subjects only the from each other than is usually supposed. One end of interest in the West Indies has revived of late The the chain, at the Virgin Islands, touches 19° N. lat., publication of Grisebach's "Flora of the British West while the other end at Trinidad is in 10 n. lat. Indian Islands” in 1864 (one of the series of colozaal
flora projected by the late Sir William Hooker) was for is the only trustworthy guide to the solution of the many a long time the only effort made in the cause of botanical morphological problems which Human Anatomy presents. science in this part of the world. Since that time, both This very naturally leads to an account of the Development the fauna and flora have received systematic attention in of the Embryo, which is, however, compressed into so few this country and in the United States, and after a lapse pages that we doubt whether a beginner can derive from of nearly two hundred years we are beginning to have a it a clear conception of the very elaborate set of changes clear idea of the distribution of life in the Caribbean which lead from the simple laminated blastoderm to the Archipelago
form of the fætus at the time of birth. A Joint Committee of the Government Grant Com A chapter on Histology or tissue-anatomy comes next mittee of the Royal Society and of the British Associa- in order. He groups the tissues into five classestion, has been engaged for the last three years in epithelial or surface limiting; connective or skeletal ; investigating ascertained deficiencies in the fauna and nervous or sensory; muscular or contractile ; blood and flora. Almost every page of Mr. Bulkeley's work affords lymph or nutritive. This classification is both simple and ample evidence of the aid he has received, directly convenient, and is much to be preferred to the grouping ar indirectly, from the botanical efforts of recent years. into cellular, fibrous, membranous and tubular tissues, Vore, however, might have been said of the special sometimes adopted. In the course of this chapter he in plants which are characteristic of the several islands, and part fills up some of the gaps in the section on embryowhich contribute so large a share to the interest of daily logy, by describing the development of the nervous and hfe in them.
vascular systems. It is to be boped the day is not far distant when this The skeleton is next described, and following the plan first unpretentious guide-book to the Lesser Antilles will pursued by Prof. Humphry in his well-known treatise, be followed by others, not less interesting, but still more and by Hyrtl, Gegenbaur, Krause, and others in their fully meeting the requirements of those who may visit systematic works, he describes the joints and ligaments them for pleasure, or go to them in the hope of pursuing along with the bones with which they are associated. some of the numerous industries opened to settlers in these This arrangement, undoubtedly, has certain advantages beautful islands.
D, M. more especially in the direction of economizing space in
About one-third of the work, extending to 248 pages, is A TEXT-BOOK OF HUMAN ANATOMY.
occupied with the chapters to which we have just referred,
and the remaining two-thirds is devoted to an account of A Tert-book of Human Anatomy, Systematic and Topo- the soft parts, including the anatomy of the brain and graphical. Including the Embryology, Histology, and organs of sense. In this, the larger division of his textMorphology of Man, with special reference to the re- book, Prof. Macalister alters his mode of treating the quirements of Practical Surgery and Medicine. By subject, and departs from the method which systematic Alex. Macalister, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Professor of writers are in the habit of pursuing. Anatomy in the University of Cambridge. (London:
The rule, almost without exception, has been to describe Charles Griffin and Co., 1889.)
in separate chapters the muscular, vascular, nervous, aliW JHEN it was announced some time ago that the mentary, respiratory, and genito-urinary systems, so as
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cam- to bring before the student in a continuous series all bridge was engaged in writing a systematic work on those organs which possess corresponding properties. Human Anatomy, its publication was looked for with To some extent, therefore, the arrangement adopted in our anticipation and interest. Prof. Macalister deservedly 'text-books of systematic anatomy has had a physiological enjoys a n many branches of knowledge, and as an anatomist in Dr. Macalister has not followed this plan. He has the comprehensive meaning of the term. Curiosity was adopted an arrangement on a topographical basis, i.e. excited, therefore, as to the mode in which he would according to the method pursued in the dissecting-room, treat the subject : whether he would follow the old lines in which the student works out for himself the constituent pursized by so many of those who have preceded him in parts of the body as he displays them in the course of his the writing or text-books, or if he would strike out a new dissections. This method of studying the anatomy of the path for himself.
human body is, as everyone will admit, of enormous importIn his preface he tells us that he has endeavoured to ance-indeed, we may say of primary value-to the pracgive a comprehensive account of the Anatomy of Man titioner of medicine and surgery. But it is the custom of the studied from the Morphological standpoint. Accordingly, schools to distinguish between the analytical or dissectNe hod that, after a few explanatory paragraphs on the ing-room method, in which the body is picked to pieces by meaning of terms used in description, he proceeds to the dissector himself
, and the synthetical or systematic seate his conception of a Cell. His definition is so com- method, in which the body is, as it were, built up by the prehensive that he regards it in its simplest form as a teacher for the student. This custom is the fruit of long minute speck of protoplasm without either nucleus or experience, for whilst giving full value to the topographical cell-wall; and, in this respect
, he may be said to coincide or regional aspect of anatomy, it enables the teacher to with the view held by Stricker in his well-known article show to the student the continuousness of such systems on the Cell. He then briefly describes the process of as the vascular, nervous, and alimentary, and to point Karyokinesis, and very properly states that the study of out their physiological relations. For it should be kept the specialization of the products of cell multiplication in mind that anatomy is the basis of physiology, as well