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great difficulty in the case of soft iron, and is not observed at all in the case of manganese steel. A fairly approximate numerical measurement may be made in this way: Take a block of iron or steel on which a groove is cut, and in this groove wind a coil of copper wire insulated with asbestos; cover the coil with many layers of asbestos; and finally cover the whole lump of iron or steel with asbestos again. We have now a body which will heat and cool comparatively slowly, and which will lose its heat at a rate very approximately proportional to the difference of temperature between it and the surrounding air. Heat the block to a bright redness, and take it out of the fire and observe the resistance of the copper coil as the temperature falls, due to the cooling of the block. Plot a curve in which the abscissæ are the times, and the ordinates the logarithms, of the increase of resist. ance of the copper coil above its resistance at the temperature of the room. If the specific heat of the iron were constant, this curve would be a straight line ; if at any particular temperature latent heat were liberated, the curve would be hori. zontal so long as the heat was being liberated. If now a block be made of manganese steel, it is found that the curve is very nearly a straight line, showing that there is no liberation of latent heat at any temperature. If it is made of nickel steel with 25 per cent. of nickel, in its non-magnetic state, the result is the same-no sign of liberation of heat. If now the block be made of hard steel, the temperature diminishes at first; then the curve (Fig. 13) which represents the temperature bends round : the temperature actually rises many degrees whilst the body is losing heat.' The liberation of heat being completed, the curve finally descends as a straight line. From inspection of this curve it is apparent why hard steel exhibits a sudden accession of brightness as it yields up its heat. In the case of soft iron the temperature does not actually rise as the body loses heat, but the curve remains horizontal, or nearly horizontal, for a considerable time. This, again, shows why, although a considerable amount of heat is liberated at a temperature corresponding to the horizontal part of the curve, no marked recalescence can be obtained. From curves such as these it is easy to calculate the amount of heat which becomes latent. As the iron passes the critical point it is found to be about 200 times as much heat as is required to raise the temperature of the iron i degree Centigrade. From this we get a very good idea of the importance of the phenomenon. When ice is melted and becomes water, the heat absorbed is 80 times the heat required to raise the temperature of the water ] degree Centigrade, and 160 times the heat required to raise the temperature of the ice by the same amount. The temperature of recalescence has been abundantly identified with the critical temperature of
not aware that anything corre- falling, they become again magnetic, the efect of the sponding with recalescence has been observed in the direction of their axes is apparent. But Weber's theory case of nickel. Experiments have been tried, and gave does not touch the root of the matter by connecting the a negative result, but the sample was impure ; and magnetic property with any other property of iron, por the result may, I think, be distrusted as an indication of does it give any hint as to why the moment of the molewhat it would be in the case of pure nickel. The most cule disappears so rapidly at a certain temperature probable explanation in the case of iron, at all events, Ampère's theory may be said to be a development of appears to be that when iron passes from the magnetic tó Weber's: it purports to state in what the magnetism of the non-magnetic state it experiences a change of state of the molecule consists. Associated with cach molecule is comparable importance with the change from the solid to a closed electric current in a circuit of no resistance; the liquid state, and that a large quantity of heat is ab. each such molecule, with its current, constitutes Weber sorbed in the change. There is, then, no need to suppose magnetic molecule, and all that it can do they can do chemical change; the great physical fact accompanying But the great merit of the theory- and a very great one the absorption of heat is the disappearance of the capacity it is—is that it brings magnetism in as a branch of elecfor magnetization.
tricity ; it explains why a current makes a magnetizable What explanations have been offered of the phenomena body magnetic. It also gives, as extended by Weber, in of magnetism ? That the explanation must be molecular explanation of diamagnetism. It, however, gives noo hin was early apparent. Poisson's hypothesis was that each of connecting the magnetic proporties of iron with an molecule of a magnet contained two magnetic fluids, other property. Another difficulty is this: When To which were separated from each other under the influence ceases to be magnetizable, we must assume that the mule of magnetic force. His theory explained the fact of mag- cular currents cease. These currents represent energy netism induced by proximity to magnets, but beyond this We should therefore expect that, when iron ceased to be it could not go. It gave no hint that there was a limit to magnetic by rise of temperature, heat would be liberated; the magnetization of iron-a point of saturation ; none of the reverse is the fact. hysteresis ; no hint of any connection between the mag- So far as I know, nothing that has ever been proposed netism of iron and any other property of the substance ; even attempts to explain the fundamental anomaly. Whe no hint why magnetism disappears at a high temperature. | do iron, nickel, and cobalt possess a property which we It does, however, give more than a hint ihat the perme- have found nowhere else in nature? It may be that it ability of iron could not exceed a limit much less than its lower temperatures other metals would be magnetic, but actual value, and that it should be constant for the mate- of this we have at present no indication. It may be thai. rial, and independent of the force applied. Poisson gave
as has been found to be the case with the permanent his theory a beautiful mathematical development, still gases, we only require a greater degree of cold to extend useful in magnetism and in electrostatics.
the rule to cover the exception. For the present, the Weber's theory is a very distinct advance on Poisson's. magnetic properties of iron, nickel, and cobalt stand as He supposed that each molecule of iron was a magnet exceptional as a breach of that continuity which we are in with axes arranged at random in the body; that under the habit of regarding as a well proved law of Nature. the influence of magnetizing force the axes of the little magnets were directed to parallelism in a greater degree as the force was greater. Weber's theory thoroughly
NOTES OV A RECEVT VOLCANIC ISLAND
IV THE PACIFIC. explains the limiting value of magnetization, since nothing more came bei done than to direct all the molecular IN 1867, H.M.S. Falcon reported a shoal in a position with some similar modification, it gives an account of of Namuka Island of the Friendly or Tonga Group hysteresis, and of the general form of the ascending curve In 1877 smoke was reported by H.M.S. Suppo lo & of magnetization. It is also very convenient for stating rising from the sea at this spot. some of the facts. For example, what we know regarding In 1885 a volcanic island rose from the sea during a the effect of temperature may be expressed by saying that submarine eruption on October 14, which was first rethe magnetic moment of the molecule diminishes as the ported by the Janet Nichol, a passing steamer, to be temperature rises, hence that the limiting moment of a miles long and about 250 feet high. magnet will also diminish ; but that the facility with The U.S.S. Mohican passed it in 1886, and from calcula. which the mol cules follow the magnetizing force is also tion founded on observations in passing, gave its length increased, hence the great increase of u for small forces, as 176 miles, height 165 feet. The crater was on the and its almost instantaneous extinction as the temper- eastern end, and dense columns of smoke were rising ature rises. Again, in terms of Weber's theory, we can
from it. state that rise of temperature enough to render iron non- In 1887 the French man-of-war Deres reported its magnetic will not clear it of residual magnetism. The height to be 290 feet. axes of the molecules are brought to parallelism by the In the same year an English yacht, the Syhil, passed it, force which is impressed before and during the time that and a sketch was made by the owner, H. Tufnell, Esq., the magnetic property is disappearing ; they remain which is here produced. parallel when the force ceases, though, being now non- The island has now been thoroughly exainined and magnetic, their effect is nil. When, the temperature mapped, and the surrounding sea sounded by H.M. "I have only recently become acquainted with the admirable work of
surveying-ship Egeria, Commander Oldham. M. Osmond on recalescence. He has examined a great variety of samples
It is now li'o mile long, and i' of a mile wide, of the of steel, and determined the temperatures at which they give off an excep- shape given in the accompanying plan. The southero tional amount of heat. Some of his results are apparent on my own curves, though I had assumed them to be mere errors of observation. For example,
portion is high, and faced by cliffs on the south, the referring to my Royal Society paper, there is, in Fig. 38, a hint of a second
summit of which is 153 feet above the sea. A long Hai small anomalous point a little below the larger one. And, comparing stretches to the north from the foot of the hill, Figs. 38 and 38A, we see that the higher the heating, the lower is the point of recalescence; both features are brought out by M. Osmond
The island is apparently entirely formed of asbes and double recalescence observed by M. Osm ind in steel with a moderate cinders, with a few blocks and volcanic bombs here and quantity of carbon I would explain provisionally by supposing this steel to be a mixture of two kinds which have different critical temperatures.
there, especially on the verge of the hill, Although M. Osmond's method is admirable for determining the temperature
Under the action of the waves, raised by the almost of recalescence, and whether it is a single point or multiple, it is not constant south-east winds, this loose material is being adapted to determine the quantity of heat liberated, as the small sample rapidly removed ; continual landslips take place, and same time as the sample experimented upon.
Commander Oldham is of opinion that the original
f. fine, gn.green, n. mud, vol.volcanio, s. sand, sh. shells,
10 Cables are
summit was some 200 or 300 yards southward of the speaking of forecasts based on telegraphic reports, ai present highest cliff, and that the shallow bank stretching emanating from a central office. In every country, with to the south represents the original extension of the out exception, where forecasts for distant countis island.
provinces are issued from headquarters, the complam" As far as can be judged from Mr. Tufnell's sketch from from outlying stations, of occasional failure, are freque the north-west and that of the Egeria from the south- enough. south-east, considerable changes have taken place in two The fact is that at individual stations the percentage years, the different summits shown in the former having of success may be highly satisfactory, as at Mr. CL disappeared as the sea has eaten away the cliffs.
Peek's observatory at Rousdon, Lyme Regis. The The flat to the north seems to be partly due to redis- results for this point appeared in the Times of Januar tribution under the lee of the island of the material 14, and are as follows: removed from the southern face. It is crossed by curved ridges from 3 to 12 feet high, which Commander Oldham 1884 58-7 69'0
734 1бр. 9, considers to have been formed as high beaches during 1885
So 80 0 ... 120 ... 87 spring tides and strong winds, the flat ground between
1880 ... 730
80..70 them, almost at the level of the water, being deposited
1887 ... 750 830 90
So 82'0 under normal conditions of weather.
70 ... 40 The island is thus gaining on one side, while losing on In this, Col. 1 is percentage of reliable wind and weather the other, but when the high part has gone, this partial
wind only. recovery will probably cease.
wind doubtful. A little steam issuing from cracks in the southern cliffs
wind unreliable was the sole sign of activity, but a pool of water at a
Col. 6 temperature of from 91° to 113° F., water which rose in a
unreliable. hole dug in the flat of a temperature of 128° F., and a temperature of 100° F. in a hole dug half-way up the slope, On the other hand, at other points the forecasts muay also show that the island still retains heat near the sur- be frequently unsuccessful. face. The water is sea-water that has filtered through the In one important particular not only our own Office loose ashes, and it rose and fell with the tide.
but all other Offices in Europe, signally fail, and that is It appears by the condition of the fat that the island the quantitative prediction of rain. No one is able. ay has neither risen nor subsided during the past two or parently, to predict whether the amount of rainfall o three years.
the morrow will be a tenth of an inch or a couples It will be interesting to watch the ultimate fate of this inches. No sudden floods have ever yet been foreto last addition to the Pacific isles, but it seems probable By this we are not speaking of predicting the approas that its existence as an island will be short unless a hard of foods to the lower valleys from rain which has already core is yet revealed.
fallen on the upper reaches of a river, for that is ac The soundings between Falcon Island and Namuka meteorological prediction at all. show that they are separated by a valley 6000 feet deep. With the necessarily incomplete character of the in
Metis Island, 73 iniles north-north-east of Falcon formation reaching head-quarters, the wonder is that tar Island, is another volcanic cone that appeared a few Office can attain such success as it does. The main years before the latter, but has not yet been examined. deficiency in the information is in its quantity, and this
W. J. L. WHARTON. seems to lie at the door of the Postal 'Telegraph Office
which insists on being paid for its telegrams. If meteoro
logical messages were transmitted gratis, we might expert WEATHER FORECASTING. to hear at frequent intervals from our 'outposts
of twice, or, at most, thrice in the twenty-four hours: 1 POPULAR interest in weather prediction shows no fact, from several stations we can only hear once, the
sign of abating. The January number of the Kew cost of more telegrams being prohibitive. It is sell Bulletin is devoted to an account of Herr Nowack's so- evident that such an amount of information is quite iscalled "weather plant," and its failure as an indicator sufficient. The weather will not abstain from chango: either of coming weather or of earthquakes. Very because the hour for a telegraphic report has not arrived recently a lively correspondence has been carried on in The information contained in the telegrams is a the daily press on the merits or demerits of the forecasts deficient in quantity, for the reporters cannot, within issued by the Meteorological Office. Accordingly, some prescribed form of their messages, communicate all * remarks on the subject in the columns of NATURE may impressions which the ever-varying appearance of the not be out of place.
sky may have conveyed to their minds. A skilled clizu One critic says that the forecasts are little better than observer, who has leisure to practise his powers, is one haphazard guesses, and that the money devoted to them able to form a very correct idea of whai is coming to would be better spent on an additional lifeboat or two the region bounded by his own horizon, but he is quite on the coast. Another says the forecasts are not worth unable to give the benefit of his observations and expert the paper they are printed on, and wishes that the Office ence to a friend in another county by telegraphing tbe published in the newspapers fuller accounts of the weather information. reported from the coasts.
The greatest want which the Office finds in its observer The fact is that the Office is compelled by public is skill in cloud observation, and it appears to be the c opinion to issue forecasts. The public will have its that a cloud observer nascitur non fit, and that it is der forecasts, as in 1867 it would have its storm-warnings, to impossible to teach the art to a new hand, at least by notwithstanding the reluctance of meteorologists to issue correspondence. either the one twenty years ago or the other at present. Instrumental records of the phenomena taking plaut sa It can hardly be doubted that, for these islands at least, the higher strata of the atmosphere are of course and conscientious meteorologists would be disposed to agree tainable, and it is only by carefully watching the upper with Arago, who said in 1846, and printed it in italics clouds that we can gain any notion of changes takin in the Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes : “Jamais, place up there, but, by means of such watching. Ma quels que puissent être les progrès des sciences, les Clement Ley is able to predict with nearly reries
: savants de bonne foi et soucieux de leur réputation ne se certainty the weather for the Midlands-his own here hasarderont à prédire le temps." We are, of course, bourhood.
43 50 48 53 52 45 57
II 17 10 9 6 8
39 32 40 41 24
It must always be remembered that the forecasts are in the picturesque surroundings of those old homes of drawn for districts, not for individual stations; and disre- learning. They attract attention and interest by their anding the amount of correctness claimed by the Office situation amid scenes and traditions of which the whole by its own checking of its work, they attain a very credit- English-speaking race is proud. Bedford College has atile amount of success when tested by independent had no such advantages. London institutions are reob-ervers. This happens even in the summer-time, the garded as either Imperial or parochial-as too large or too stry season at which a recent critic said that the forecasts small to interest its citizens as such. Bedford Square for one month, if shuffled about, and drawn at random compares unfavourably with the “backs,” and it is imrom: a bag, would suit just as well for the next! This is possible to regard York Place with that gush of emotion
roved by the results of the hay harvest forecasts, which which "the High” sets free. Thus it is that, although ste deduced from the reports of the recipients, practical Bedford College has been at work since 1849, and though Agnculturists.
one in every four of the whole number of women who The following is the table for the season of 1888, the have gained degrees of the University of London has laiest for which the figures are available :
been a student in its classes, the work of the College does not yet receive the meed of public appreciation which it
has fairly earned. Bedford College is for women what Percentages.
University and King's Colleges are for men. It provides,
within easy reach of all Londoners, an education which is Districts. Names of stations.
tested by the severe standard of the University of London, and bears the ball-mark of success. One-third of its students are aiming at degrees, and their presence
in the class-rooms, their work in the examination-hall, Golspic and Munlochy
48 North Berwick, Clamis, Aberfeldy,
guarantees the quality of the teaching they receive to and Reebiemay
class-mates who do not intend to face the same England, NE Chatton and Ulceby
ordeal, Science has for long been taught in Bedford Thorpe and Rothamsted Wind Counties. Cirencester and East Retford
College, but there has been a pressing need for better Horsham, Maidstone, and Downton
laboratories and class-rooms. These the Council has SR, W. Dumbarton, Islay, and Stranraer
now provided. A new wing has been built, dedicated to Leyburn and Prescot Bridgend (Glamorgan), Clifton,
the memory of the late Mr. William Shaen, who worked Glastonbury and Spring Park
long and devotedly for the College. About £ 2000 is Cloucestershire) trlar, N.
required to complete and fit up this building free of all Moynalty and Hollyınount Motieygall, Kilkenny,
debt, and Mr. Henry Tate, who had already given £1000 Abbey
to the fund, has promised to supplement it by a like
amount if the Council on its part can raise the other Every year the Office hears of farmers expressing their moiety of the deficit. It is too probable that this sum a terest in these announcements, and sending daily to will only be obtained by an exhausting effort, but surely the places where they are exhibited, to learn what they it is not too much to hope that the public may at last
appreciate the importance of promoting the higher educaTo give an idea of the difficulty of obtaining accurate tion of women in London. In a northern manufacturing upinions from outsiders as to the value of storm-warnings, town the money would be forthcoming in a week. n1.ch are a class of forecasts, it may be interesting to
As regards the laboratories, it may be sufficient to say ile some specimens of reports.
that Dr. W. Russell, F.R.S., is the Chairman of the Inquiries were made in 1882, from all the stations where Council, and that they have been built under his general Fials are hoisted, as to their correctness and general supervision. They appear to be in all respects suited to tity: From Tynemouth the answer was that “these the purposes for which they are intended. The physical mais have been, and will be, an inestimable boon to our laboratory and lecture-room are on the ground floor. The malaring population.” From South Shields, just opposite former has a concrete floor, and is well
lighted, partly by irnemouth, the reply to a recent official inquiry was windows, partly by a skylight. It looks out upon East "bar "the warnings were not a ha’porth of use, and that Street, and is therefore removed as far as possible from do ane munded them.” Each answer merely represented the effects of the heavy traffic in Baker Street
. The che private opinion of the person who uttered it.
chemical laboratory is at the top of the house, and opens The reader can see that there is some difficulty in into a class-room which is fitted with all the usual E'king out the actual truth from such a heap of incon- conveniences for experimental illustration. VOLS Stalements as the foregoing are certain to furnish. It is surely a hopeful sign that a College for the higher
R. H. S. education of women should now be regarded as incom
plete unless it controls physical and chemical laboratories
specially designed and fitted for the delivery of lectures THE LABORATORIES OF BEDFORD
and the performance of experiments. These Bedford COLLEGE,
College now possesses. We can only hope that it may
soon possess them free of debt. The Editor of NATURE BEDFORD COLLEGE, in York Place, Baker Street, will be happy to receive and forward to the College
which was one of the earliest institutions devoted to authorities any subscriptions which may be sent to him abe bagher education of women, is taking a leading part for that purpose. 2 providing facilities for their instruction in science. founded long before Oxford and Cambridge conbezcended to the “weaker sex* (which has since proved föng cough to attain to the highest place in the
STEPHEN JOSEPH PERRY, F.R.S.
ON the evening of January 4, a telegram from Demerara
announced that there had been a successful ob. has tad to struggle not only against the inevitable servation of the eclipse of December 22, and that Father ..fficulties due to its early foundation, but against the Perry had succumbed to dysentery. apathy of London. Provincial towns feel that their Stephen Joseph Perry was born in London on August shour is involved in the success of their institutions. 26, 1833, and received his early education at Gifford Hall The Colleges for women at Oxford and Cambridge share School. Having decided to enter the priesthood, he went