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to the Catholic Colleges at Douai and Rome. While at 1871, assisted by Mr. Carlisle, he made a similar sure, Rome, he resolved to enter the Order of Jesuits; and, of Belgium. returning to England, he joined the English province of the In 1870, Father Perry took part, for the first time, in 23 Order on November 12, 1853. After two years' noviciate, eclipse expedition, being stationed near Cadiz, whither be he went to France for one year. He then returned to had taken the two spectroscopes acquired by the ObserStonyhurst for a course in philosophy. His inclination tory in 1870, and two telescopes-a Cassegrain of to mathematics was soon apparent, and his superiors in inches and a 4-inch achromatic. In 1874 he volunteers the Order decided to train him specially for this line of for the Transit of l'enus expeditions, and was selected di work. In 1858 he occupied the 6th place on the Mathe- Sir George Airy as chief of the Kerguelen party. Waru matical Honours list of the London University. After tact and energy were required for the success of a attending lectures by De Morgan, he went to Paris for a party, who encountered several obstacles before arri, year to finish his mathematical studies. On returning to at the “ Island of Desolation," as he termed Kergucler Stonyhurst, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics The spirit in which these obstacles were met is shown b. and Director of the Observatory, succeeding Father his words—“We were determined that no consideratia Weld, who had for many years occupied the position. should make us Ainch where the astronomical interesi During the College year 1862-63, Father Perry taught of the expedition were at stake.” That this was no vas one of the classes at Stonyhurst. In September 1863 he boast is proved by the evidence of those who were his went to study divinity at St. Bueno's College, North colleagues in any excursions by water. His suffering Wales, and in 1866 he was ordained priest. Two years from sea-sickness were so fearful that everyone wondered later he returned to Stonyhurst to resume his professor- that he cared to venture on even the most promising trip ship and the charge of the Observatory. From this time aad that he should have undertaken the terrible tragen he never left the College save to take part in some to Kerguelen speaks volumes for his enthusiasm for scientific expedition.
science. “Four days and nights the mighty waves tas The work at Stonyhurst Observatory had been chiefly been washing over the Volage." His patience in sufieno, meteorological and magnetic before Father Perry's as- on this and other occasions helped to win for tiim sumption of the directorship. In 1866 it was selected as esteem of the officers with whom he came in contar: one of the first-class meteorological stations. In 1867 the Not one word of his discomfort is to be found in any w astronomical department of the Observatory was placed the journals kept by him. In addition to the work of the in a much more satisfactory position by the acquisition of expedition, he took magnetic observations at the Care an equatorial which originally belonged to Mr. Peters, Kerguelen, Bombay, Aden, Port Said, Malta, Palesti, and a small instrument destined for spectroscopic work. Rome, Naples, Florence, and Moncalieri, and lectures 3 The first of these instruments was an 8-inch by Troughton the Transit of Venus at the Cape and Bombay, and, € and Simms, the second a 27-inch. The first spectroscope his return, at the Royal Institution. was procured in 1870 from Mr. Browning, and was used In 1882 he went to Madagascar for the Transit for preliminary work on star spectra, pending the con- Venus. For the eclipse of August 29, 1886, he went's struction of a larger instrument ordered from Troughton Carriacou, for that of August 19, 1887, to Russia ; 20 and Simms. In 1874 a large direct-vision spectroscope last November he sailed for Salut Isles on his tinal empre was ordered from Browning for use in observing the dition. It is worthy of remark that the Arclibishop of transit of Venus. Two years later a Maclean spectroscope | Demerara, who had been a pupil of his, went to Barva was added, and in 1879 another by Browning containing does in 1886 to see his old master; and on the presets 6 prisms of 60°; and more recently a Christie half-prism occasion the body of the master was taken to Dece' by Hilger.
When at Stonyhurst, Father Perry, in addition to i. With these instruments Father Perry has carried out Observatory work, carried out to the fullest exter : systematic work of the highest class, his aim being to duties as a professor. He was very popular as a lectures : make Stonyhurst as efficient an observatory for solar and at Liverpool, Wigan, and neighbouring cowss, physics as the means at his disposal would admit. His often delighted audiences, some of which numbered mais first communication to the Royal Astronomical Society than 3000 people. Father Perry but rarely occupied indicates the policy he pursued--to undertake no work pulpit of recent years, but he was much admired 25 2 which was a mere duplication of that done at other places. preacher. His sermons were marked by the earnestre His solar work during the last ten years formed the sub- which formed so distinguished a feature of his character ject of a lecture at the Royal Institution on May 24. It To those who came in contact with him in connais may be divided into two classes-drawings and spectro- with his scientific work, he endeared himself by his gerud scopic observations. For the drawings an image of the and retiring manner, retiring on all occasions save whe: sun 10inches in diameter was projected on a sheet of some sacrifice was demanded for the science he loved drawing-paper affixed to a sketch-board carried by the well, and for which he laid down his life on December ." telescope, and all markings on the sun traced. The
In 1874, Father Perry was elected a Fellow of the Rise drawing 'finished, the chromosphere and prominences Society, and very shortly before his last voyage he ? were examined with the spectroscope. About 250 draw- placed on its Council. He was a Fellow and Memberin ings were made every year from 1880. The results of Council of the Royal Astronomical Society, and a Fellow the observations were published annually in a neat little of the Royal Meteorological Society, the Physical Society volume, and also in various publications.
of London, and the Liverpool Astronoinical Society 1" In addition to this work, regular observations of the last-named Society he was President at the finc o' Jupiter's satellites, comets, &c., were made, as also his death. In 1886 he received the honorary degree of spectroscopic observations of comets, stars, &c.
D.Sc. from the Royal University of Ireland, and a Father Perry's labours were not confined to the Ob- various dates he was elected by the Accademia dei 40 servatory alone, and in fact the extraneous work which Lincei, the Société Scientifique de Bruxelles, and in he undertook gave the world the best opportunities for Société Géographique d'Anvers. For several years pas studying his high character, and impressed astronomers ceding his death, he served on the Committee of some with a sense of his great devotion to their science. The Physics, appointed by the Lords of the Committee of first occasion on which he left the Observatory for Council on Education, and also on the Committee for Coliscientific work was in the autumn of 1868, when, accom- paring and Reducing Magnetic Observations, appointer panied by Father Sidgreaves, he made a magnetic survey by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. ! of the west of France. In the following year the vacation In April 1887 he took part in the International A:!'" was spent in a like work for the east of that country. In photography Congress held at Paris.
NR. DANIEL ADAMSON.
No account of his work would be complete without a S a mechanical engineer and a metallurgist, Mr.
reference to his connection with the Manchester Ship AS
Canal. He was of an enthusiastic temperament, and this Daniel Adamson must always maintain a foremost pluce, for he was in the van in the industrial progress of
was made specially evident in connection with this great
undertaking A Manchester man, and thoroughly conthe century. He was born at Shildon, in the county of vinced of the benefit which would accrue to the surLurham, in 1818, and apprenticed to Mr. T. Hackworth,
rounding manufacturing towns, Mr. Adamson set to locomotive superintendent of the Stockton and Darling
work to effect what others had proposed. It is more than ton Railway, with whom he remained from 1835 to 1841; | 65 years ago since it was proposed that Manchester He then held various stations in the same railway until should be connected with the sea by a ship canal, but it 1*50, and in 1851 he began business on his own account
was Mr. Adamson's invitation to various persons to meet 25 an iron-founder, engineer, and boiler-maker.
at his house on June 27, 1882, that really started the From this time forward until quite recently Mr. Adam
project. The proceedings then initiated resulted in the son has brought out many highly successful inventions incorporation of the Manchester Ship Canal Company in in connection with the manufacture of boilers and the
Mr. Adamson's work in connection with interapplication of steam. The first of these was a flange
national progress, and his labours to make Manchester an sean for high-pressure boilers, patented by him in 1852,
ocean steam port, will not readily be forgotten. and well known as Adamson's flange seam. In 1856,
In September and October last he was engaged on an Vir., now Sir Henry, Bessemer, read a paper before the examination of the iron mines of the island of Elba, and British Association at Cheltenham describing his steel he embodied the results in a report to the Italian Governprxcess, and one of the first to apply it was Mr. Adamson.
About two months ago he caught a cold on his Haring satisfied himself by experimental trials of the
Flintshire estate of Wepre Hall. He returned to his quality of steel, he determined to use it for the manuLacture of boilers; and Sir Henry Bessemer, when
home at Didsbury, and died there on Monday, the
13th inst. in May 4, 1888, be presented the Bessemer Medal to
Quite recently Mr. Adamson was elected President Mr Adamson on behalf of the Council of the Iron and
of the Iron and Steel Institute. He was a member Heel Institute, referred with satisfaction to this circum
of the Institution of Civil Engineers, of the Institution slance, as being the turning point in his own career, and
of Mechanical Engineers, and of the Iron and Steel Ines biaving given a start to the use of steel for general stitute, and to the proceedings of these Societies he engineering purposes. Later on, when open-hearth steel presented many papers containing the results of his sis introduced by the late Sir William Siemens, Mr. inquiries as to the properties and treatment of metals, dialison made trial of it for boiler use, and was for especially iron and steel. years an upholder of the merits of steel. He wrote a fimprehensive paper "On the Mechanical and other Properties of Iron and Mild Steel," which was brought En fore the Paris meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute
NOTES Jib;X, when it gave rise to a most interesting discus8:01. This paper is looked upon as a standard one on the At a meeting of a Committee appointed by the Council of the >ubject of sieci.
| Royal Society to set on foot a memorial to the late James Pres. Jlt. Adamson's inventions appear to have been all
cott Joule, held on November 30 last, at Burlington House, it ini.mately connected with his business. In 1858 he
was unanimously resolved that a fund should be raised for a appuied hydraulic power for the riveting of steel structures,
memorial of an international character commemorative of the and tu 1862 he brought out an invention for building life-work of Joule. This memorial will have for its object the eam boilers, the rivet holes being drilled through the iales when these were in position. He was entirely encouragement of research in physical science. It is proposed red to the punching of steel plates; he de
also that a tablet or bust shall be erected to his memory in tibed it as a bárbarous mode of treatment, as it London, a Manchester Memorial Committee having already fore the fibre of the material; and he would never allow taken steps to ensure a suitable monument in his native city.
lo be used in his own works. The important feature in Joule’s discoveries were of such commanding importance that all Mr. Adamson's work was its thoroughness ; all the there can be no doubt as to the success of this movement. The material used was subjected to chemical and mechanical Committee feel confident not only that men of science will gladly tests, so that he obtained a reputation throughout the
contribute towards a fund to do honour to Joule's memory, and worid for the soundness of everything he turned out. M1. Adamson was one of the first to show the superi- devote themselves to the practical application of scientific
to assist others to follow in his footsteps, but that those who Ority of compound engines. This class of engine had already been introduced by Mr. John Elder, of Glasgow, principles will also be anxious to aid in the promotion of a but to Mr. Adamson is greatly due the credit of the em
fitting memorial of one whose work has exerted so great an playment of triple and quadruple expansion engines. In
influence on industry. 157 the read a paper at Manchester, in which he maintained that pressures of 150 pounds on the square inch could be
WE regret to announce the death of Gustave-Adolphe Hirn,
the eminent physicist. He died at Colmar on January 14, in 25 safely applied as pressures of 50 pounds by a careful extension of the compound system. As far back as 1861
his seventy-fifth year. he patented and brought out a triple-expansion engine, and in 1873 a quadruple engine. In the paper to which solar eclipse expedition to the Salut Isles, has arrived in England,
MR. ROONEY, who accompanied the late Father Perry on the We have just referred Mr. Adamson gave expression to the opinion that the consumption of coal per horse-power bringing with him the plates successfully exposed during the f+7 hour should not exceed from 1 to 13 pounds of coal, totality of the eclipse by Father Perry and himself. Mr. es tils! at that time 2 pounds per horse-power per hour Rooney has put himself in communication with the Astronomer *23 considered a very good result.
Royal, and the plates will be handed over to the Royal AstroBesides these inventions, Mr. Adamson took out patents, nomical Society to be developed. . in connection with the manufacture of steel by the Bessemet process, with machinery for compressing steel,
The Forth Bridge was tested by the engineers on Tuesday as. and for testing machines, as also improvements in guns a preliminary to the passage of the first train over it on Friday.
The following is the official report :-“Sir John Fowler and Mr.
Baker, engineers of the Forth Bridge, have to-day tested the FEARs having been expressed as to a possible connectics. two 1700-feet spans by placing on the centres two trains, each between influenza and cholera epidemics, Dr. Smolenski pais made up of 50 loaded coal waggons and three of the heaviest lishes, in the Russian Official Messenger, an elatorite reçon. engines and tenders, the total load thus massed upon the spans upon the subject. He points out that the suspicion is not ars being the enormous weight of 1800 tons, which is more than and that in 1837 it was discussed by Gluge (“Die Influenz", double what the bridge will ever be called upon in practice to and refuted. In fact, influenza or grippe epidemics have læst sustain. The observed deflections were in exact accordance known in Europe since 1173—that is, for more than sereg with the calculations of the engineers, and the bridge exhibited hundred years ; whilst the first cholera epidemic appeared 19 exceptional stiffness in all directions.” Every part of the bridge Europe in 1823, but did not spread, that time, further thu will be in perfect order for the visit of the Prince of Wales on Astrakhan. Six years later it broke out in Orenburg ; next yez: March 4.
in Caucasia and Astrakhan again, wbence it spread over Russi
and, in 1831, reached Western Europe. As a rule, influera At the meeting of the Convocation of London University, on spreads very rapidly, and in 1782, at St. Petersburg, no fewer Tuesday, there was some discussion as to the question of the re- than 40,000 persons fell ill of it on the same day (January 14 constitution of the University, Dr. F. J. Wood, who presided, said | In 1833 its progress was also very rapid, and within a few he was not in a position to help Convocation very much. As they days it appeared at places so far apart as Moscow, Odessa, were well aware, the Senate had drawn up a scheme which was Alexandria, and Paris, while cholera epidemics are usually słow intended to follow on the lines of the recommendations of the in their migrations from one place to another. Moreova, Royal Commission. That scheme had been submitted to the influenza is chiefly a winter epidemic, while cholera prefers the consideration of University College and King's College, and up spring and the summer. Dr. Smolenski has further tabułale? to now those Colleges had arrived at no decision upon it, but all influenza and cholera epidemics which bave broken out in the requested a conference. That conference was about to take course of our century in Europe, and he comes to the following place, and, of course, until it was held it was impossible for results :-Influenza broke out in 1816, in Iceland ; 1827, ie any of them to say what shape the scheme would ultimately Russia and Siberia ; 1830–33, in Europe generally; 1836-37
Mr. T. Tyler moved a resolution declaring that “ The in Europe ; 1838, in Iceland ; 1841-48 and 1850-51, in Europe proposal of the University for London Commission that, under 1853, in the Faroe Islands ; 1854-55 and 1857-58, in Europe a new charter for this University, special powers and privileges 1856, in Iceland and the Faroe Islands ; 1862, Holland 2z. should be conferred on certain institutions in or near London is Spain ; 1863-64, France and Switzerland ; 1866, France 23. incompatible with the fair and just treatment of the provincial Great Britain ; 1867, France, Germany, and Belgium; 1844 Colleges, and that the acceptance of this proposal would be Turkey; and 1874-75, Western Europe. As to the chokra detrimental alike to the interests of the provincial Colleges and epidemics during the same period they were : 1823, Astrakha to those of the University itself.” This motion was unanimously and Caucasia (from Persia) ; 1829, Orenburg (from Turkestan) adopted.
1830, Russia (from Persia); 1831-37, various parts of Europe,
the next epidemic appeared in 1846 in Transcaucasia (comita On Friday, January 24, at 4.30 p.m., Mr. Holland Crompton from Persia); in 1847 it spread over Siberia and Russia, and it will begin a course of ten lectures at the Central Institution, 1848 it was in Europe ; in 1849-52 it was followed by feele Exhibition Road, on the theory of electrolysis and the nature of outbreaks all over Europe. The third cholera epidemic case chemical change in solution. In this course an historical account from Persia again in 1852, and it resulted in a severe outbreat will be given of the recent development of the Clausius dissocia- during the years 1853-55 in Europe, followed by feebler me? tion hypothesis by Arrhenius, Ostwald, and others; of van't breaks till 1861. The fourth cholera epidemic came through *** Hoff's extension of Avogadro's theorem to dilute solutions ; Mediterranean ports in 1865, and lasted in Europe till 190k and of the Raoult methods of determining the molecular weights with feebler epidemics in 1869–74. The latest invasion of dissolved substances. On Monday, January 27, at 4.30 p.m., cholera was in 1884, when it came again through the Mediter Prof. Armstrong, F.R.S., will begin a special course of ten ! ranean ports. As to the cholera epidemic which now begins lectures on methods of analysis as applied to the determination 'die out in Persia and Mesopotamia, it certainly is a danger of the structure of carbon compounds. The object of this course the more so as, out of the five epidemics of cholera which hatt will be to explain and experimentally demonstrate the methods / visited Europe, three have come from Persia. adopted in determining the structure of the more important and typical compounds, including alkaloids, carbohydrates, and oils are found off Torquay and other south coast fishing
ATTENTION has lately been called to the fact that sochorica and fats.
Prof. Ewart, of Edinburgh, has written to the Times that duration The annual meeting of the Association for the Improvement the present winter they have made their appearance in the of Geometrical Teaching was held last Friday morning in one Moray Firth. At the end of December they were abundant af of the theatres of University College, London, under the presi: Troup Head, where considerable numbers were captured in a dency of Prof. Minchin. While observing with pleasure that herring nets by the Buckie fishermen. Prof. Ewart thinks toz the l'niversities of Oxford and Cambridge had embodied in the further inquiries may perhaps show that the northward migten a printed regulations for various examinations some requests of of the anchovies is in some way related to the inildness of tre the Association with regard to elementary geometry, the Council winter. He points out that it is most desirable to ascertas in their report expressed regret that the Euclid papers set for whether they have reached the Moray Firch with the mus responsions at Oxford still consist exclusively of " book work." Atlantic water that during western winds rushes through the The response of the L'niversity of Dublin to the Society's Pentland Firth, or by travelling along the east coast through it petition is that they are not prepared to decide on such important cold Arctic water that wells up from the bottom in the vicznity questions without much consideration. At the afternoon meeting
the Dogger Bank papers were read by the Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, The programme of the Royal Horticultural Society for the ! on a new treatment of the hyperbole ; by Mr. G. Heppel, on present year includes a daffodil exhibition and conference, to be the teaching of trigonometry; by Mr. E. M. Langley, on some held at Chiswick on four days of April; the great show in : geometrical theorems ; by Prof. Minchin, on staties and geometry; Temple Gardens in May; an exhibition of tea roses by ** and by Mr. R. Tucker, on isoscelian hexagrams,
National Rose Society, in June ; in July an exhibition of 200
aníerences upon carnations, ferns, and selaginellas ; and in his apparatus should be scientifically tested at Kew, but it would September, at Chiswick, exhibitions of and conferences upon not have been easy for any member of the staff of the Royal dahlias and grapes. The drill hall meetings began with one on Gardens to find time for the necessary observations. The task the subject of winter gardening, introduced by the Rev. W. was undertaken by Dr. Francis Oliver, who now presents the Wilks; and, after the annual meeting in February, there are to results of his investigation. The following is a summary of the le papers and discussions upon hippeastrums (amaryllis), salaul. conclusions at which he has arrived :-"I contend that all the ingi, spring flower gardening, spring flowering shrubs and trees, movements exhibited by the leaves of Abrus precatorius depend herbaceous pæonies, lilies, fruit-drying, hollyhocks, crinums, on causes not so far to seek as those suggested by Mr. Nowack. rees and shrubs for large towns, and Chinese primulas. The The ordinary movements of the leaflets, of rising and falling, are accommodation at the drill-hall is not adequate to the wants of called forth in the main by changes in the intensity of the light. the Society, and the Council is considering whether it would In a humid atmosphere they are more sluggish than in a relatively not be possible to erect a suitable building on the Thames dry one. In other words, when the conditions are favourable Emiankment.
for transpiration the movements are most active. The position
for snow and hail is connected intimately, in the cases that have The International Horticultural Exhibition to be held in
come under my observation, with a spotting or biting (by insects) Berlin under Royal and Imperial auspices, from April 25 to
of the leaflets, and is not due to any other external factor. The May 5, will be characterized by two special features-an exhibi- position for fog and mist, and for electricity in the air
, is probi un of horticultural architecture, and one of horticultural models, ably due to the disturbance caused by varying light, the rhythmical apparatus, &c. It is requested that all exhibits or announce
movements of the leaflets being temporarily overthrown. The Dents of such should be promptly sent to the General Secretary position indicating thunder and lightning I take to be patho
the Society for the Promotion of Horticulture, Prof. Dr. L: logical from its tendency to recur on the same leaves. Daily Wattack, Invalidenstrasse 42, Berlin N., from whom all
movements of the rachis constitute a periodic function in this as in further information may be obtained. The Exhibition will be
many other plants with pinnate leaves. The regularity of these held in the Royal Agricultural Exhibition building, on the
oscillations is considerably influenced by both light and tem1.ehrt Railway. The general organizer of the scientific depart
perature." ment e Prof. Dr. Pringsheim; and the following gentlemen have undertaken the management of special branches :--For the
On Tuesday an Archäological Congress began its proceedings geography of plants, Prof. Dr. Ascherson ; for physiology, Prof.
at Moscow. The sitting was attended by delegates from German, Dr. Frank ; for seeds, Herr P. Hennings ; for morphology,
Austrian, and French Archæological Societies. The section of the al.atomy, and the history of development, Prof. Dr. Kny; for
Russian Imperial Historical Museum in Moscow allotted to the fungi, Prof. Dr. Magnus; for soils, Prof. Dr. Orth ; for history,
Moscow Archæological Society was formally opened on January 8, literature, and miscellaneous, Dr. Schumann ; for officinal and
by Prince von Dolgoroukoff, the Governor-General. The collectechnical objects, Dr. Tschirch. The Minister for Agriculture,
tion consists of a variety of antiquities from the Caucasus, stone Iur. Freiber v. Lucius-Balhausen, will be the Honorary President and glass ornaments, beautiful enamel work from various parts of of the Exhibition. The city of Berlin has granted the sum of Russia, ancient holy images, and antique garments and china. A 15.000 marks towards its expenses ; and a guarantee fund of correspondent of the Times, who gives an account of the exhibits, 80,000 marks has been raised.
calls attention especially to a number of ancient gold ornaments
from the Caucasus (described as Merovingian), contributed by The Calcutta Herbarium contains a rich collection of Malayan the Countess Ouvarova, the President of the Society. He also Deants, and Dr. King, the superintendent of the Calcutta Royal refers to certain Osetinian copper pins, 18 inches long, found Branic Garden, proposes to publish from time to time a sys- near some human skulls, and supposed to have been used for smatic account of as many of them as are indigenous to British dressing the hair. A helmet of Assyrian form has attracted stotinces, or to provinces under British influence. In addition much notice. ii) the States on the mainland of the Malayan penninsula, these grovinces include the islands of Singapore and Penang, and the
In one of the lectures he is delivering at Aberdeen, under the Nicobar and Andaman groups. The classification which Dr.
Gifford Bequest, Dr. E. B. Tylor offered a most interesting Lag intends to follow is that of the late Mr. Bentham and Sir
suggestion the other day as to the meaning of a well-known but Jusepb Hooker. The current number of the Journal of the puzzling Assyrian sculptured group. This group consists of two Astetic Society of Bengal contains the first of this proposed four-winged figures, with bodies of men and heads of eagles,
standing opposite a tree-like formation, which is easily recog
nized as a collection of date-palms, or a conventionalized reThe January number of the Kar Bulletin contains an able presentation of a palm-grove. Each of the two figures carries ard most interesting report, by Dr. Francis Oliver, on the so- in the left hand a bucket or basket, in the right a body which ched weather plant. This plant is Abrus precatorius, Linn., a each seems to be presenting to the palm-tree. What is this *dll-known tropical weed. Mr. Joseph F. Nowack claims to body? It is usually described as a fir-cone, but some have rehave discovered that its leaves have "the peculiar property of garded it as a bunch of grapes, others as a pine-apple. Dr. adicating by their position various changes in nature about Tylor suggests that it should be connected with the most obvious forty-eight lours before the said changes occur." Numerous point of interest for which the date-palm has been famous baxrvativas with hundreds of such plants have convinced him among naturalists since antiquity-namely, its need of artificial "hat is any given position of the leaves corresponds always to a fertilization in order to produce a crop of edible dates. This certain condition of the weather forty-eight hours afterwards.” process in its simplest form consists in shaking the pollen from Sume time ago he devised an apparatus for the purpose of putting the inflorescence of the male date-palm over the inflorescence of las supposed discovery to practical use. It consists of a "trans- the female. The practice is mentioned by Theophrastus and parent vessel containing the weather plant, closed on all sides, Pliny, and in modern times in such works as Shaw's “ Travels pralected against injurious external influences, and adapted to be in Barbary.” Dr. Tylor exhibited a drawing of the male palm inetnally ventilated and maintained at a temperature of at least inflorescence, and said it was hardly necessary to point out the & Reaumur, these being the conditions under which, in temperate resemblance to the object in the hand of the winged figure of clamatea, Nowack's weather plant answers the purpose of a the Assyrian sculpture. As the cultivator of the palm-tree has weather indicator." Last year Mr. Nowack was anxious that to ascend the tree in order to perform the process of fertilization,
series of papers.
he of course takes with him a supply of fresh Aowers in a basket. are discovered here, including those which are in the greate? Dr. Tylor's theory, therefore, is that the objects carried by the commercial request, and they are easy to obtain, Greek 2! winged genii of the Assyrians are the male inflorescence of the Italian vessels have already proceeded to Lampeclusa to take date palm in one hand, the basket with a fresh supply of insor- advantage of this discovery. escence in the other, and that the function the genii are depicted
At the meeting of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, in the sculptures as discharging is that of fertilizing the palm
on November 27, Mr. K. H. Bennett read a paper on t2 groves of the country—a function which must have been held to
breeding of the glossy ibis (Ibis falcinellus, Linn.). The w denote their great beneficence, since it showed them fulfilling precedented rainfall of the year on the Lower Lachlan induct' the great duty of providing the Assyrians with bread.
several species of birds to breed in the district, contrary to it. The current quarterly statement of the Palestine Exploration author's experience of previous years. Among these was in Fund contains a brief review of the work done in connection, glossy ibis, two nests of which with eggs of a beautiful grees with the Fund during 1889. It is stated that excavations on ish-blue colour somewhat resembling those of fries ar property belonging to a French gentlemen on the eastern slope hollandia, but much brighter, were found in October and of Zion have revealed a number of rock-hewn chambers, which November. At the same meeting Mr. J. H. Maiden lum appear to have been used in ancient times partly as dwellings municated preliminary notes, by Dr. T. L. Bancroft, on the and partly as storehouses. In describing them Herr Schick re- ' pharmacology of some new poisonous plants. Mr. T. P. Lu: marks that nearly all the ground covered by the city of Jerusalem read a paper on Queensland Macro-Lepidoptera, with lucili. is found on examination to be honeycombed with these rock- and descriptions of new species. Forty-one species belongin, hewn chambers. It is not improbable that the Jebusites were to to various families were proposed as new, and new localice some extent troglodytes. In the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles were given for about ninety-five other species. mention is made of a cave at Cyprus “where the race of the
The new number of “The Year Book of Pharmacy" (J. ara! Jebusites formerly dwelt.”
A. Churchill) has been issued. It comprises abstracts of papers Several violent shocks of earthquake occurred in Carinthia relating to pharmacy, materia medica, and chemistry, cut. on January 14, at 9.30 p.m., their direction being from south- tributed by British and foreign journals from July 1, 1888, 12 east to north-west. In the theatre at Klagenfurt, which was June 30, 1889. It presents also the Transactions of the Biu-5 densely packed, the seismic disturbance caused a panic, which Pharmaceutical Conference at the twenty-sixth annual meeting, was heightened by a false alarm of fire. The audience, how- held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, September 1889. ever, soon became reassured, and there was no accident to life
MESSRS. E. AND F. N. Spox have issued a third edition vi or limb.
“ A Guide for the Electric Testing of Telegraph Cables," he The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for the month Colonel V. Hoskiær, of the Royal Danish Engineers. The firs of January states that December was notable for the sever edition appeared in 1873. The Congress of Electrician in storms that prevailed along the Transatlantic routes. A number
1881 made some alterations necessary, and the author explam of the depressions followed each other in rapid succession ; the
that he has added a few methods of testing, in the hope of most notable of these was one on the 16th, in about lat. 51° N., making the book more useful. long. 37° W. Gales of hurricane force, with mountainous seas, The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has issued, accompanied this disturbance, as it moved to the north-eastward, in the series entitled “ · Chief Ancient Philosophies," a thirt to the serious embarrassment of west-bound steamers. Two storms edition of the Rev. I. Gregory Smith's “ Aristotelianism," 11 occurred to the eastward of Bermuda during the first week of the which an attempt is made to tabulate from the “Ethics" the month. The first of these disturbances was central on the 4th, opinions of Aristotle on questions relating to what has been in about lat. 36° N., long. 55o W. After 16 hours the wind called “the scientific basis of morality." In the same volume hauled to south-east and moderated. The south-east wind ex. | is printed a treatise, by the Rev. W. Grundy, Head Master o perienced aster the passage of the storm was probably due to the Malvern College, on the more important of Aristotle's orber approach of the second cyclone, which was central on the 5th in works. about lat. 31° N., long. 63o W., and was accompanied by severe hailstorms and heavy seas. Very little log was reported. A
Some interesting properties and reactions of the chlorides dense fog along the coast of the United States on the 19th, 20th,
selenium are described by M. Chabrié in the current number of and 21st, extended some distance inland ; navigation in New chloride, Seci,, was obtained by Berzelius by passing a strearea
the Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Paris. Selenum teta: York harbour was practically suspended on the 20th. Ocean ice
of chlorine over selenium at the ordinary temperature, a puso'y was reported in the neighbourhood of lat. 48° N., long. 47° W.
of the reddish brown liquid subchloride, Se,Cla, leing in We reserred lately to a new kind of butter which is now formed, and eventually converted to the pale yellow solid retra being made in Germany from cocoanut milk. The Calcutta, chloride. The tetrachloride was subsequently volatilizei by Correspondent of the Times says that the cocoanuts required for heating and obtained in small white opaque crystals. By heating this industry are imported in large numbers from India, chiefly i the crystals obtained by this method in one end of a sealed tut: Bombay, and that the trade seems likely to attain still greater to 190°-200° C., M. Chabrie has obtained a sublimate of much importance.
larger and better formed crystals, presenting brilliant facr. ACCORding to the Perseveranza of Milan, quoted in the tetrachloride were altempted by Victor Meyer's meihod 24 380
With these crystals determinations of the vapour density of the current number of the Board of Trade Journal, important sponge-banks have lately been discovered close to the island of
in an atmosphere of nitrogen. The resulting oumbers show Lampedusa, on the southern coast of Sicily. These deposits of Se,cı, and three molecules of chlorine. The sulxchlonde,
that two molecules of SeCl, dissociate at 360' into one molecule of sponges extend for over a surface of from 15 to 18 marine leagues, and are situated about an equal distance from the south
Se,Cl,, is a very much more stable body, and may be distillet eastern extremity of the island. The smallest depth above these yield values closely approximating to 7-95, the theoretical denu??
unchanged at 360°. Determinations of the density of its vaprus banks is 20 ells ; the greatest depth is from 30 to 31 ells. At the lesser depths rock is met with, on which the sponge grows ;
of a molecule of the formula Se,Cl. Among the nutnernai
reactions of these compounds which M. Chabrié bas studied, the a greater depths a sandy soil is sound. All varieties of sponge most interesting are those between selenium tetrachloride asof