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at first sight seems to underlie the dark mica-schist, is inconstant 20 authors and illustrated by 17 plates; and that the sale of the in position (on the assumption of a stratigraphical sequence); Society's Transactions and other publications is largely sa s that its crystalline condition does not resemble that of the schist- inerease. It was then announced that the following gentless series, but is rather such as is common in a rock of its age; that had been elected as Officers and Council for 1890 :-Presiden it contains mica and other minerals of derivative origin, and in The Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, F.R.S. ; Treasurer, K. places rock-fragments which precisely resemble members of the Edward Saunders ; Secretaries, Mr. Herbert Goss and 1 Piora schist series. (b) The Val Canaria Section: This sec Rev. Canon Fowler ; Librarian, Mr. Ferdinand Grut, apo tion, described by Dr. Grubenmann, is discussed at length. It other Members of Council, Mr. J. W. Dunning, Captain H. is shown that the idea of a simple trough is not tenable, for Elwes, Mr. F. DuCane-Godman, F.R.S., Dr. P. B. Mann, identical schists occur above and below the rauchwacké; that Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., Mr. R. South, Ms. Henry T. Stan there is evidence of great pressure, which, however, acted sub- F.R.S., and Mr. Roland Trimen, F.K.S. Lord Walingers sequently to the mineralization of the schists; and that in one place nominated Mr. J. W. Dunning, Captain Elwes and Mr. 1 the rauchewacké is full of fragments of the very schists which are DuCane-Godman, Vice-Presidents for the Session 1&po. supposed to overlie it. (c) Nufenen Pass, 6c.: Other cases, and he then delivered an address. After remarking on in further to the west, are described, where confirmatory evidence attractive beauty of some of the larger diurnal Lepidoplera, as is obtained as to great difference in age between the rauchewacké the brilliant metallic colouring of certain species of Coleoptes and the schists, and the antiquity of the latter. The apparent the influence that such magnificent examples of the wealth interstratification is explained by thrust-faulting. (4) The Jurassic design in Nature might have upon artistic taste, and the ne Rocks, containing Fossils and Minerals. The author describes sequent refinement and increased enjoyment of life, Lord Welur, the section on the Alp Vitgira, Scopi, and the Nufenen Pass. ham referred, in illustration of the practical usesunen Here indubitable Belemnites and fragments of Crinoids occur in entomological studies, to the successful importation into Calicium a dark, schistose, somewhat micaceous rock, which is often very of the Australian parasites intesting the scale insed (len full of "knots" and "prisms” of rather ill-defined external purchasi), which had proved so noxious to the orange plantas, form, something like rounded garnets and ill-developed stauro Through the efforts of Prof. Ritey, upwards of 10,000 perzsa lites. These rocks at the Alp Vitgira appear to overlie, and in had been distributed and had since spread very widely, so de the field can be distinguished from the black garnet schists. In in many localities the orange and other trees hitherto thái one place the rock resembles a compressed breccia, and among infested with this noxious insect had been practically cleared the constituent fragments is a rock very like a crushed variety of it by their aid. He also referred to the successful fertilizatica y the black-garnet mica-schist. These Jurassic "schists" are red clover in New Zealand by the importation of impregnated totally different from the last-named schists, to which they often queens of the common humble-bee, and to the uses to wluce present considerable superficial resemblance ; for instance, their silk produced by various exotic species of Bombycidæ hal Dram matrix is highly calcareous, the other rock mainly consisting of been successfully applied. Reference was then made to l'e silicates. Some of the associated mica may be authigenous, but investigation instituted by Mr. Francis Galton, F.R.S., and to? the author believes much of it and other small constituents to be experiments of Mr. F. Merrifield, with the view of determare derivative. There is, however, a mineral resembling a mica, the percentage of hereditary transmission to successive offre exhibiting twinning with (?) simultaneous extinction, which is by different generations of successors, and to the vajes' authigenous. The knots are merely matrix clotted together by auxiliary such experiments and the researches of Prof. Wersos some undefinable silicate, and under the microscope have no Mr. Poulton, F.R.S., and others might prove to the stadvd es resemblance to the "black garnets." The prisms are much the laws of heredity, protective resemblance, and natural seledi: same, but slightly better defined ; they present no resemblance | It was then observed that even if the study of entomology oord 10 the staurolites, but may be couseranite, or a mineral allied to claim to have conferred no greater benefits upon the home lipyre. Hence, though there is rather more alteration in these race than to have afforded to many members of our vis rocks than is usual with members of the Mesozoic series, and an population an inducement to improve their minds and mee interesting group of minerals is produced, these so-called schists iheir bodies, it would have contributed in no small degree to the cliffer about as widely as possible from the crystalline schists of sum of human health, happiness, and morality; in connects the Alps, and do not affect the arguments in favour of the anti with these remarks he quoted the words of the Abbe Umbang quity of the latter. In short, they may be compared to rather the obituary notice of Henri de Peyerimhoff, "J'ai connu pie poor forgeries of genuine antiques. Incidentally the author's d'un jeune homme qui s'est passionné pour une branche de observations indicate (as he has already noticed) that a cleavage l'histoire naturelle, et je n'en ai vu aucun s'écarter du chemis foliation had been produced in some of the Alpine schists anterior la vertu et de l'honneur." Attention was then drawn boite to Triassic times. After the reading of this paper, Dr. Geikie stated enormous numbers of species of Insecta as compared with the that he had sent to Prof. Heim an abstract of the paper read by numbers of species of oiher orders of the animal kingdom, Prof. Bonney to the British Association at Newcastle, and Dr. Heim an approximate estimate was made of the extent of the field on had favoured him with a résumé of his views on the subject of entomology, and of its relation to other branches of biologa the present discussion. Having read a translation of this résumé, study. In connection with the subject of the principal world Dr. Geikie complimented the author on his courage in returning | entomology continued or completed during the year, spesa to this difficult ground, but, notwithstanding the arguments so mention was made of the " Biologia Centrali Americana. » skilfully brought forward that evening, he was not convinced of Messrs. Godman and Salvin, and the "Revisio Insecteren an error on the part of the Swiss geologists. Even the author's Familiæ Mantidarum," by Prof. Westwood. In concluua own sections gave some countenance to their views, since the 'Lord Walsingham referred to the losses by death during dark garnetiferous schists might quite well be part of the same past year of several Fellows of the Society and other empe -series as the Belemnite-schists. In metamorphic regions there logists, mention being made of Mr. F. Bond, Dr. Siguez on the other not so. In the Alps, as Heimlande his
sociales Löw, Dr. Karl Venus
, and the
Rev. J.G. Woord votes of thorit contend, the Belemnite-schists, which have become markedly having been passed to the President, Secretaries, and Lilmans crystalline, may be less altered portions of masses from which | Lord Walsingham, Mr. H. Goss, Canon Fowler, and Mr. Gre all trace of fossils has been generally obliterated. Remarks replied. were also made by Mr. Eccles, Mr. Teall, Dr. Irving, Prof. Linnean Society, January 16.-Mr. J. G. Baker, F.RS. Hughes, the Rev. E. Hill, and Prof. Bonney.
Vice-President, in the chair.-Mr. Clement Keid exhibited es
made some remarks upon a collection of fruit of Thapa radu Entomological Society, January 15.-Fifty-seventh Annual from the Cromer Forest bed at Mundesley.-ME I G hale Meeting.--The Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., Presi exhibited and described a collection of cryptogamic plants frue dent, in the chair. -An abstract of the Treasurer's accounts, New Guinea, upon which Mr. A. W. Bennett and Caree showing that the finances of the Society were in a thoroughly Elwes made some critical remarks. - In the absence of elke satisfactory condition, was read by Dr. Sharp, one of the author, Mr. A. Barclay, a paper was read by Mr. B. D.IS Auditors, and the Report of the Council was read by Mr. H. son on the life-history of a remarkable Uredinc on Fire Goss. It appeared therefrom that the Society had lost during grandiflora. A discussion ensued in which Me A W the year several Fellows by death and had elected 24 new Bennett and Prof. Marshall Ward took part.--This was followed Fellows; that the volume of Transactions for the year extended by a paper from Mr. Edward E. Prince, on certain proiectate to nearly 600 pages, and comprised 23 memoirs, contributed by provisions in some larval British Teleosteans.
Royal Microscopical Society, January 8.-Rev. Dr. called Hoplocephalus elapoides.-A second paper by Mr. Bouillinger
, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair.—Mr. T. F. lenger contained a list of the reptiles, batrachians, and freshwater uth exhibited to the meeting, by means of the oxyhydrogen fishes collected by Prof. Moesch and Mr. Iversen in the districts ters, a series of photomicrographs of various diatoms taken i of Delhi and Langkat, in North-Eastern Sumatra. —Dr. Günther, A Zeiss's apochromatic objectives and projection eye-pieces, F.R.S., read a paper entitled "A
Contribution to our Knowing powers of 1000 to 7500 diameters. At the conclusion of 'ledge of British Pleuronectidæ.”. The author described the true exhibition Mr. Smith presented the series of slides-52 Arnoglossus grohmanni, a Mediterranean scald-fish, recently sumber to the Society for future use and reference. -Mr. discovered by the Rev. W. S. Green on the Irish coast, and C. White exhibited a specimen of a parasite found in the quite distinct from Arnoglossus lophotes. Dr. Günther also kroaches which insest sugar-ships ; also a slide containing stated that the Mediterranean lemon-sole (Solca lascaris) was dl in large numbers from a urinary deposit.-A paper by specifically identical with the British species (Solea aurantiaca), R L. Maddox, on a small glass rod illuminator, was read. - but was distinct from that of the Canary Islands and Madeira ving to the lateness of the hour, the reading of papers by Mr. (Solea scriba); and gave it as his opinion that the Mediterranean diel and Dr. Czapski was postponed until the March 'Solea lutea and British Solea minuta cannot be separated by any
EDINBURGH. Chemical Society, January 16.-Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S., the chair. The following papers were read :-A new method Royal Society, January 6.-Lord Maclaren, Vice-President, estimating the oxygen dissolved in water, by Dr. J. C. Thresh. in the chair.- Bailie Russell read an obituary notice of the late e process is based on the fact that whereas, in the absence of Sir James Falshaw, Bart.-Prof. Tait read a paper on the effect gen, nitrous acid and hydrogen iodide interact, forming of friction on vortex-motion.—Dr. A. Bruce described a conine, water, and nitric oxide, in the presence of oxygen the nection (hitherto undescribed) of the inferior olivary body of sic oxide becomes re-oxidized, and, serving as a carrier of the i the medulla oblongata, which has a function in the maintenance rgen, brings about an additional separation of iodine, equiva- cf equilibrium of the body.--Dr. W. H. Perkin read a paper in amount to the oxygen present; hence, deducting the on the internal condensation of some diketones. --A photograph nant of iodine liberated by the nitrous acid and by the oxygen of a group of sun-spots and of the surface of the sun was presolved in the solutions used from the total amount, the differ sented by Mr. James Naismith. The photograph was from a te will be that corresponding to the oxygen dissolved in the drawing made in 1864. ser examined. The apparatus required is a very simple one, analytical operations are conducted in an atmosphere of coal
PARIS. A and the results in the case of freshly distilled water agree Academy of Sciences, January 27.-M. Hermite in the beely with those recently published by Sir H. E. Roscoe and
chair.-On clasmatocytes, by M. L. Ranvier. The author gives h. L.sant (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1889, 552).--Note on a milk of this name (from kidoua, fragment, and kúTOs, cell) to certain sarmal quality, by Mr. F. J. Lloyd. The author gave the elements which are easily detected under the microscope in the tales of an examination of the milk of two cross-bred short thin connective membranes of the vertebrates when they are preito, and called attention to the abnormally low proportion of pared by a process here described. They are not migratory Hannstituents other than fat.--The sulphates of antimony, by cells, but have their origin in the leucocytes, or lymphatic cells, R. H. Adie.
though it is not to be supposed that all leucocytes develop into Zoological Society, January 14.-Prof. A. Newton,
clasmatocytes.-On the theorem of Euler in the theory of poly. 25., Vice-President, in the chair.— The Secretary read a
hedrons, by M. de Jonquières. The paper deals with Lhuilier's port on the additions that had been made to the Society's
objection, accepted by Gergonne, against the generalization of eragerie during the month of December 1889,--Mr. Sclater
Euler's formula, which is shown to be applicable to all polykibited and made remarks on a specimen of a very singular
hedrons, whether convex or not. It is further placed beyond s from North-East Asia, apparently referable to the genus
doubt that Euler not only enounced, but gave a full demonstraederra, sent to him for determination by Dr. Lütken, of tion of the formula in question.- On the roots of an algebraic penhagen. After a careful examination Mr. Sclater was in equation, by Prof. A. Cayley. Assuming f(a) to be a rational ned to think that it was probably a hybrid between Tadorna
and integral function, with real or imaginary coefficients, of the de remarks on a set of small birds bones obtained from n order;
and supposing that the equation ['(c) = 0, of the order neath some deposits of nitrate in Southern Peru, transmitted the Society by Prof. W. Nation.-Mr. David Wilson-Barker n I, has n – 1 roots, then it is shown that the equation ibited and made remarks on some specimens of Teredos taken a submarine telegraphic cables off the Brazilian coast.-Prof.
[(u) = o will have n roots. The demonstration rests on the Jetitey Bell exhibited and made remarks on some living same principles as those of Gauss and Cauchy.--Researches on recimens of Bipalium, transmitted to the Society by the Rev. the cultivation of the potato, by M. Aimé Girard. The author II. R. Fisk, of Capetown.- A communication was read from communicates the results of his experiments, continued for three 11. R. Lydekker
, containing an account of a new species of years at the Ferme de la Faisanderie, Joinville-le-Pont, with the itinct alter from the Lower Pliocene of Eppelsheim. The variety of the potato known as Richter's Imperator, which is wthor described part of the lower jaw, which he had previously shown to yield a far larger crop of starch-bearing tubers than any ferred to Lutra dubia, from the deposits indicated. Having other variety cultivated in France. The paper was supplemented were, dow seen a cast of the type of the latter, he found that by some remarks by M. P. P. Deherain,
who stated that his own le present specimen indicated a distinct species, for which the experiments fully confirmed those of M. Girard. There could be we Le boiszca was proposed. -A communication was read no doubt as to the great superiority of Richter's Imperator, wa Prof. Bertram C. A. Windle and Mr. John Humphreys
, , especially as a starch-producing tuber.-Remarks on the samte cranial and dental characters of the domestic dog. The Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes for 1890, by M. Faye. aper was based on the results of the measurements of a large in presenting a copy of this valuable annual for 1890, M. Faye umber of dogs' skulls of various breeds. Its object was to remarked that the astronomic section of the work became more Sertain whether cranial and dental characteristics afforded important every year. The present volume contains a table of aficient information to permit of a scientific classification of the the planetary
phenomena, the most accurate available data for the reals , or would throw any light upon their origin. The con- variable stars,
a catalogue of the chief stars whose magnitudes corkasus so far arrived at was that interbreeding had been so respond to Pickering's photometric scale, papers on the use of the
tensive and complicated as to make it impossible to distinguish aneroid barometer, on the elasticity of solids and the neutral temde various forms scientifically from the characters examined. perature of thermo-electric couples, together with the magnetic several points with regard to the shape of head and palate and elements for France
and its seaports on January 1, 1890, and at he occasional occurrence of an extra molar
were also touched various Mediterranean stations for 1887.-On the simply rational poz.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger read the fourth of his series of transformations of algebraic surfaces, by M. Paul Painlevé. In patribations to the herpetology of the Solomon Islands. The this paper the author extends to the transformations in question present memoir gave an account of the last collection brought M. Picard's method relative to the birational transformations wme by Mr. C, M. Woodford. Besides known species, this of algebraic surfaces.-
On the substitution of the salts in mixed mollection contained examples of a new snake, proposed to be solutions, by M. A. Étard. In his previous researches the
author determined the lines of complete solubility for a mixture
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 13 of potassium and sodium chlorides, varying the quantity of the
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MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Concerning Semi-invariants: S. Ker meials saturated by the same metalloid as a function of the tem F.R.S.-Ether-Squirts : Prof. K. Pearson perature. He studies the reverse case here, determining the INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at results when in a solution of the same metal the metalloids are
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Canon Ainger, varied. - On the different states of iodine in solution, by MM.
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 14 Henri Gautier and Georges Charpy. Iodine solutions are ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 3 -Anniversary Meeting usually divided into two classes-brown (alcohol, ether, &c.) RAVAL INSTITUTION, at 9.- Problems in the Physics of an Electra. Le and violet (sulphur of carbon, chloroform, benzine, &c.). The
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SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 15, and results were obtained varying from 330 to 489, according to ROXAL INSTITUTION, at 3.—Electricity and Magnetism : Right Ham La the solvent; Loeb's results are thus confirmed and amplified. -Calorimetric study of the phosphites and pyro-phosphite of soda, by M. L. Amat. These researches fully confirm BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED the author's previous conclusion that the acid phosphite of Lunar Surfacing by Glaciation : S. E Peal (Thacker). Emlentes a soda, PO,H. Nah, may, by the simple process of drying, chemische Krystallographie : Dr. A. Fock (Leipcig. Engelmans lose water and become transformed into pyrophosphite of mente der Paläontologie, 2 Hälfte: Dr. G. Steinmann and Dr L Date soda, a substance differing in many of its properties from the (Leipzig, Engelmann). --L'Evolution du Système Nerveux. I. Tom acid phosphite. --A study of the pneumococcus occurring in the Paris : B, Bailliere) --A Theory of Gravitation: T. Wakelu Petre
-The Psychology of Attention: T. Ribot (Chicago, Open Court per fibrine pneumonia consecutive to la grippe (influenza), by MM. Company).-English Intercourse with Siam in the Seventeenth Ceen G. Sée and F. Bordas. From these clinical researches, made Dr. J. Anderson (K. Paul). -Contributions to the Fauna of Merci on a large number of patients in the Hôtel-Dieu, the authors
Archipelago, 2 vols. (Taylor and
Francus). -- Report of the Commissa
Education for the Year 1887-88 (Washington).-The Library Reference conclude that pneumonia is not only a local affection caused by of the World: J. Bartholomew (Macmillan) -Science and Scientists K infection, but that it is itself insecting in the sense that it may J. Gerard (London), --Le Climat de la Belgique en 1889: 4 L invade other organs.—Papers were read by M. Chr. Bohr, on Bruxelles). -Tylar's Practical Hints and Photographic Calenta, pulmonary respiration ; by M. Abel Dutartre, on the poison Melbourne Observatory in the Years 1881-84 (Melbourne). – Babbags of the land salamander ; by M. Ch. Musset, on “selenotrop- culating Engines (Spon). - Practical Hints fox Electrical Students ism” (influence of moonlight on plants); by M. A. de Schulten, Kennelly and Wilkinson (Electrician Office), - Lehrbuch der Meer on the artificial reproduction of malachite all but identical in Dr. w. J. Van Bebber Stuttgart, Enke). - Is the Copernicza She density, hardness, and crystallization with the natural stone ; by
Astronomy True!: W. S. Cassedy (Kitanaing. Pail-New Zealand
Emigrant, Invalid, and Tourist: J. M. Moore (S. Low).--Pra le M. A. de Grossouvre, on the presence of Alpine fossils in the kohle und der Kalksteine der Permformation Böhmens, Bani a Het Callovian formation of the west of France; and by M. Ch. V. Ant. Fritsch (Prag). --The Extermination of the American Eate. V Zenger, on the magnetic storms and aurora boreales of the years (Des Moines, lowa). --U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries: Pad
Hornaday (Washington).-Iowa Weather Report, 1873-79-80&24 1842-57.
Report of the Commissioner for 1886 (Washington--Report se
Lumière du Magnésium : Dr. J. M. Eder (Paris, Gaurtuer Vilar DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
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MONOGRAPH OF THE BRITISH CICADÆ OR FETTIGIIDE
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By GEORGE BOWDLER BUCKTON, F.R.S.,
Illustrated by more than 400 Coloured Drawings. In Eight Parts. Demy 8vo. Part I. 85. No coloured monograph of the British Cicadæ exists, and it is even believed that no adequately illustrated monograph exists of European species. Partly to meet this want, it is proposed to publish eight quarterly parts, each containing on an average ten litho-chromo plates and letterpress, illustrating the forms, metamorphoses, general anatomy, and the chief details connected with the life-history of this family of insects. The work will contain also short diagnoses of all the British species, about 230 in number, most of which have come under the author's notice, each species being illustrated by one or more coloured drawings. Some account will be given of the curious myths and tales told by ancient Greek and Latin poets, and descriptions will be appended relating to the curious sound-organs possessed by some species, and other subjects connected with the economy of this interesting but difficult group of Rhynchotous insects. Mr. Buckton's name is well-known to entomologists, and this book represents the labour and baservation of many years.
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LECTURERS, AND MUSEUMS.
CASES, APPARATUS OF ALL KINDS.
in England of Rocks, Rock-Sections, SUBSCRIPTIONS TO “NATURE."
28 0 JAMES R. GREGORY,
awarded to S Fry & Sons.
Quarterly 88 CHARLOTTE STREET, FITZROY SQUARE, LONDON.
To the United States, the Continent, &c. :GEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS.
Yearly . . .
30 6 Comprising Fossils, Minerals, and Rocks, labelled with Name, Locality Half-yearly.
15 6 and Geological Position, in Mahogany Cabinets. 100 Specimens, 255.; Quarterly 200 ditto, 50$. The best value obtainable.
Micro-sections of Rocks in great variety. Cabinets, Glass-topped Boxes, , To India, China, and Japan :and other Geological Requisites.
Yearly . : THOMAS D. RUSSELL Half-yearly
16 6 PRIZE MEDALLIST, HEALTH EXHIBITION,
8 6 78 NEWGATE STREET, LONDON, E.C.
CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS INVENTIONS EXHIBITION-GOLD MEDAL AWARDED.
NEW ILLUSTRATED Three Lines in Column 2s.6d. 9d. per Line after.
One Eighth Page, or Quarter Column
3 free on application to E. DENT Whole Page
6 6 and Co., Makers to the Queen, DENT 61 STRAND, LONDON, W.c., Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN & CO. or 4 ROYAL EXCHANGE.
OFFICE: 29 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND, W.C.