« PreviousContinue »
Melicerta. I coiled one of these round the wall of a deep cell, or surgery, or navigation may bring a man into troabls. and thus brought into the field of view, at once, more than a what possible harm can it do himself, or anyone else, thar les hundred living Melicerta of all ages and sizes, and all with content with knowing five Rotifera instead of five berek their wheels in vigorous action ; a display never to be for. And yet if any naturalist were to study only Fisa gotten.
Philodina, Copeus, Brachionus, and Pedalion, it would give Such a tank, so stocked and managed, would probably enable the greatest possible pleasure, as well as an excellent a patient and ingenious observer to decide several other points, notion of the whole class. Let any tyro at the seaside wald about which we are, at present, in ignorance : to say whether the ways and growth of a Plumularia, or of a rosy feather-ce, same individual always lays eggs of the same kind, or whether knowledge of the groups to which they belong could it may lay now female eggs, now male, now ephippial eggs; and not be dignified even with the term "* saperficial"_"lines to say what determines the kind of egg that is to be laid ; " punctiform" would be more appropriate ; but the ples whether it is the age of the individual, or the supply of food, or that he would derive from such a study, could not be grana temperature, or sexual intercourse that is the potent cause. counting the number of animals that he had examel
It would, too, hardly be possible for the male, to escape the would depend on the man himself; and might. I should observation of a naturalist, who possessed a tank in which were imagine, far exceed that derived by the study of a hundred hundreds of Melicerta : and the male is as yet almost unknown. the number of forms in books; especially when such a
Judge Bedwell found in the tubes of the female, in winter, a had been undertaken, not from a natural delight in it, beca small Rotiferon resembling the supposed male, that I had seen some irrelevant reason, such as to support a theory, to må playing about M. tubularia ; only the former had a forked foot, an opponent, to earn a distinction, or to pass an eximusi and sharp jaws that were at times protruded beyond the coronal In truth that knowledge of any group of animals, whice
disc. Its frequent occurrence in the tubes in various stages of rightly be called superficial when contrasted with the knele development, and the nonchalance with which the female suf- of an expert, is often sufficient to give us a satisfactory acqua fered it to nibble at her ciliary wreath, inclined the observer to with the most interesting creatures in it; to make me first conclude, that the animal was the long sought-for male. Un with processes of growth and reproduction too marvellsa sa fortunately it was only observed when in motion, so that its imagined by the wildest fancy; and to uufold to us the line internal structure was not made out ; and the matter therefore creatures who, while possessing bodily frames so unlike me still rests in some doubt.
that we are sometimes at a loss to explain the functional No doubt it is a strong argument that the female would parts, yet startle us by a display of emotions and probably suffer nothing but a male to take such liberties with glimmerings, that raise a score of disquieting questions. her ; but it would seem, from the following account, that it is Moreover, there is another excellent reason why we shoes possible for such freedoms to be pushed too far.
confine our attention to one subject; and that is, that creat Mr. W. Ding wall, of Dundee, was on one occasion watching most ardent naturalist must weary at times of his special para a male Floscule circling giddily round a female, and constantly Variety is the very salt of life'; we all crave fur it, annoying her by swimming into her fully expanded coronal cup natural history, at all events, we can easily gratify the craving Again and again she darted back into her tube, only to find her we are tired of ponds and ditches, there are the rockpool troublesome wooer blocking up her cup, and sadly interfering south-western shores, and the surface of our autumn with, what to a Floscule is, the very serious business of eating - root of oar-weed torn at random from a rocky ledge, for these animals will often eat more than their own bulk in a whelk shell from deep water, a rough stone from low wale few hours. It was clear at last that the lady would not tolerate the rubbish of the dredge, -each and all will afford as desid this persistent interference with her dinner ; for when-after amusement. It is wonderful, too, what prizes lark in la waiting, rather a longer time than usual, closed up in her things, and how often these fall to beginners. The very tube-she once more expanded, only to find him once more time that I tried skimming the sex with a maslin net, I pila in his old position, she lost all patience, and effectually piece of green seaweed off the muslin, intending to thru put an end to his absurdities, by giving one monstrous gulp, away ; but, seeing a little brown spot on it, I dropped the and swallowing her lover. It will not surprise you to hear (not a square inch) into a bottle of sea-water, instead. 45 that he did not agree with her, and that after a short time the brown speck started off and darted wildly round the she gave up all hope of digesting her mate, and shot him It was too small to be made out with the naked eye, by out into the open again, along with the entire contents of her time I had brought my lens to bear, it had vanished. I le crop. He fell a shapeless, motionless lump; the two score and all over the bottle, and could see nothing, neither with the ten minutes of a male Rotiferon's life cut short to five; but, nor without it. I was half inclined to throw away the sa strange to say, in a second or two, first one or two cilia gave a 'but, as I was certain that I had seen something in it twin. flicker, then a dozen ; then its body began to unwrinkle and to before, I corked up the bottle and took it home. Wheels plump up ; and, at last, the whole corona gave a gay whirl, and I looked at it, there was the little brown creature flying abuel the male shot off as vigorous as ever, but no doubt thoroughly wildly as ever. I soon made out, now, that I had cauga: as cured of its first attachment.
tiny cephalopod --something like an octopus-and with a pis I have taken Melicerta ringens, as an example of what yet I fshed it out, and dropped it into a glass cell. At least remains to be done, even with an animal which is as common in dropped the water from the pipette into the cell; but the a ditch, as a fly is in a house ; but almost every other Rotiferon itself had vanished again; I could not see it either in the would have done equally well, for there is scarcely a single species, or the cell. I was not going to be tricked again ; solo whose life-history has been thoroughly worked out.
the cell under the microscope, and there was my prias; To me, natural history in many of its branches seems to less, but for its panting ; and watching me, as it were, resemble a series of old, rich mines, that have been just scratched microscope with its big blue-green eyes. It was almos! at by our remote ancestors, and then deserted. Our predecessors , less, and was dotted at wide intervals with very mtaats did their best with such feeble apparatus as they had ; it was not spots, set quincunx fashion-spots absolutely invisible to much, perhaps, but it was wonderful that they did it at all with sharpest unaided sight. no better appliances ; and it irks me to think that we, who are As I looked it began to blush--to blash saint ors equipped in a way which they could not even dream of, should deeper orange, then orange-brown; a patch of coke turn our backs on the treasures lying at our feet, and go off another there, now running across one side of the bode. prospecting in new spots, contented too often with a poor result, fading away, again to appear on a tentacle; till a lazt, aur merely because it is from a new quarter.
covered from its alarm, each black spot began to quire Besides, the love of novelty is a force too valuable to be wasted rapid expansions and contractions, and then to spread wat in on a mere hunt for new species in any one group of animals, varying tints, till its wavering outlines had met the age especially unimportant ones. It should rather be used to make of its neighbouring spots; and the little creature, regida us acquainted with the more striking forms of many groups. colour and its courage at the same moment, rushat uit ons Let us have no fear of the reproach of superficial knowledge ; in a headlong course round the cell. everyone's knowledge is superficial about almost everything; I was the merest beginner when I saw this, but I had ite and even in the case of those few who have thoroughly mastered luck, knowing nothing whatever about it, and never bars some one subject, their knowledge of that must have been the subject a thought, to see, with my own eyes, hon see superficial for a great portion of their time. Indeed, the taunt cuttlefishes are protected by their loss of colour, and also is absurd. I can imagine that a superficial knowledge of law, how the loss takes place.
doubt the sea-side of our south-western coasts-I mean 40 feet focal length, and detailed Mr. Davis to assist him. ceks, not ** the thundering shores of Bude and Bos”-is a Mr. Jacoby was intrusted with the charge of the time-determinalise for microscopists ; but there is no need that we should tions, and longitude and latitude work. The Bramble was at
w far afield. Our inland woods, our lanes and pastures, Cape Ledo on a mission like that of the Pensacola, and attendseld to w a thousand beauties and wonders. The scarlet ing upon the English Eclipse Expedition in charge of Mr. A. eunel will show its glorious stamens, the flowers of the Taylor, F.R.A.S. ; and through the courtesy of her commanding 18-vart glow like a costly exotic : wild mignonette will rival officer, Captain Langdon, R.N., advantage was taken of her
fantastic shape the strangest orchid ; the humblest grass run to St. Paul de Loanda and return, December 14-17, to itt a tuft of glistening crystals; the birch and salad-burnet make a chronometric determination of the longitude, by com
out their crimson tassels ; the Jungermanns will display parison with the time at Loanda as determined by Mr. Preston, mimic volcanoes, the mosses unfold the delicate lacework who was left there by the Expedition for the gravity and magsir dainty urns. But the time would fail me to name one netic work. Also, on the Bramble's second return to Loanda,
and those sources of wonder and delight that lie all around on December 23, another comparison was made. d most of which, as in the case of the Rotifera, contain Prof. Abbe was in charge of the meteorological work and of berler points on which we are all happily ignorant, and the organization of parties of observers from the ship's company. Sre in the best of all possible conditions for deriving end. A large amount of valuable material results from his work. leasure and instruction from them. Besides, my time and your The mounting and adjustment of the extensive apparatus for sa mest. I think, be drawing to a close; I would then only the total eclipse, I reserved for myself. A duplex polar axis
more suggest, that we should not only explore for ourselves eleven feet in length had been constructed of six-inch iron se * pastores new"-no matter how imperfectly--but that tubings, and mounted with great stability. This axis was wald encourage those, who can be our most efficient guides, driven by powerful clock-work of extreme precision, made by dulze us with the main results in the simplest language. Mr. Saegmueller, of Washington. On this single axis was by one of the most charming subjects, that can interest mounted the totality-battery, consisting of 2 Brashear reflecting
betags, admits of being so treated ; and there can be no telescopes of 8 inches diameter, four Clark telescopes of 34, 5, season why the Muse of Natural History (for no doubt there 7}, and 8 inches aperture, the second being rigged with an eyeada a Mase) should resemble that curious nymph among the piece enlarging the sun's image to a diameter of 45 inches, the anir, whom Mr. Michell found lying under the moss of third being used as a high power directing telescope, while the
I tree, half smothered in a heap of ber cast-off skins, fourth, a photographic doublet with 10 inch back lens, loaned able types of successive classifications, and abandoned by the Harvard College Observatory, was arranged for a series aclature.
of twelve exposures, two of which were made through an orthosopiiy, however, books in such matters are of little import- chromatizing screen provided by Mr. Carbutt ; two six-inch
and names and classifications of still less : both these Dallmeyer rapid rectilinear lenses of 24 and 38 inches focus ;
indeed, are of ephemeral interest; they are the pride of one Schroeder triple objective, of 6 inches aperture and 22 7. and the reproach of to-morrow. It is to the living inches focus ; one Gundlach orthoscope of 3 inches aperture and al themselves that we must turn, fascinated not only with 21 inches focus ; two flint spectroscopes and one quartz spectro
cesty and their actions, but with the questions which the scope loaned by Harvard College Observatory; a duplex photoaplauon of them perpetually provokes, and very rarely meter of 75 inches focus also provided by Prof. Pickering, and
his reversing layer spectroscope for photographing a spectrum in the long procession of the humbler creatures, who can trail for fifteen seconds both before and after second and third where life first develops into consciousness, and why it does contacts ; a 5 inch Ross lens of 42 inch focus ; a 4 inch Spencer where consciousness first stretches beyond the present so as objective of 36 inch focus, and a 64 inch Merz-Clark objective, sinde the past, and why that happens; or at what point, both rigged with the means of automatic variation of aperture aby, memory and consciousness themselves are lighted up by during totality, and lastly, two duplex cameras provided by Dr. for faint flashes of reason?
Wright of the Sloane Laboratory of Yale University, for photoHe know nothing now of such matters, and probably we never graphic record of the polarization of the corona. In all there Brice much; but the mere fact that the study of natural were 23 objectives and two mirrors, with their axes adjusted
wesistibly draws us to the consideration of these ques. into parallelism. gives to her pleasant features an andoubted dignity, and
with the exception of the Gundlach camera, which was reshe charming companion of our leisure hours to the rank served for a special investigation of the extreme outer corona, stimate sharer of some of our gravest thoughts.
all this apparatus was operated automatically, by an adaptation of the pneumatic organ-valve system of Mr. Merritt Gally, of
New York. Exposing shutters were opened and closed, sensiTHE TOTAL ECLIPSE.
tised plates were exchanged for others as soon as exposed, and
all the mechanical movements were accomplished with entire FIE C.S.S. Pensacola arrived at Saint Paul de Loanda on precision. Also, by employing an ordinary chronograph in
Icember 6, after a voyage of 51 days from New York, conjunction with the valve system, the exact time of beginning * made the ports of Horta, Fayal, in the Azores, Nov. and end
of each exposure became a matter of accurate record. 282-3; of Saint Vincent, in the Cape Verdes, November All this apparatus was brought into operation during the Es; of Saint George's Parish, Sierra Leone, November 18- period of total eclipse, and over 300 exposures were made in a
and of Elmina, on the Gold Coast, November 26-28. period of 3m. Iosec. ; but no photographs of the corona were rouediately on landing at Loanda, it was found that the Rio secured, as the sun was completely obscured by clouds. Hown meamer, sailing bi-weekly for Muxima, had left two ever, the entire success of the pneumatic movements is a result
previously, and that recent washouts along the line of the of no little value in view of eclipse work in the future. Sinbo de Ferro Trans-Africano made it impracticable for In addition to this, a silver-on-glass mirror, of 20 inch diameter lapedition to reach either Muxima or Cunga early enough and 75 feet focal length, by Brashear, lent to the Expedition by Sora znfficient time for moming and adjusting the instru. Prof. Langley, was so mounted as to throw an image of the a for the eclipse
corona up the cliff and just underneath the sun at the time of herefore ar unice decided to locate the Expedition at or totality. 'At the focus a beautiful 10 inch image of the sun was Cape Lettu. Mention should be made here of the courteous formed, and 20 x 24 inch plates of the highest sensitiveness kes of His Excellency the Governor of Luanda, for his were in readiness to record the coronal streamers. This unusual lly mierer in the Expedition, and the facilities he offered apparatus was also rendered inoperative by clouds. ale prosecution of the various fields of its work.
With the direct photoheliograph, however, very gratifying hs Forse'a came to anchor alongside H.M.S. Bramble in success was secured Seventy pictures of the partial phases liile bay to the north of Cape Ledo, on the afternoon of were made before totality, and forty after. The serious obstacles Day, Lecember 8. The Eclipse Station was selected in a to the operation of so long a tube were successfully overcome Satuurable spot close to the shore cliffs, and the sites of the by means of a skeleton mounting, a combined form of an equaopal instruments were determined before night.
torial stand and tripod; and Prof. Bigelow's sand-clock enabled veet or ten days' hard work sufficed for getting a large the precise and easy following of the sun. The revolving plate at of the apparatus in readiness for the eclipse. I placed holder, of 22 inches diameter, actuated automatically by com
Bigelow in charge of the direct photoheliograph of nearly pressed air, in which the principles of the apparatus of the
National Electric Service Company were employed, was a Italy. All are described or mentioned by the Marche P thorough success. Exposures were made at intervals of six in his " Étude de la Faune Malacologique terrestre e seconds.
de l'Italie et de ses iles" (Paris, 1878). A few hours before the eclipse came on, the Pensacola went out to sea, and stood in the centre of the eclipse-track at the time of totality. Atmospheric conditions were slightly more favourable there than at the main station of the Expedition, and
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. some interesting results were obtained. During totality, how. ever, the clouds were so thick that it is very doubtful whether
LONDON, the true solar corona was seen at all. The Eclipse Station was completely dismantled by December,
Royal Society, January 30.-"On the Germination d 27, and the Pensacola left Cape Ledo on the afternoon of the Seed of the Castor-oil Plant (Ricinus commuXL" Bl. same day.
Green, M.A., B.Sc., F.L.S., Professor of Botxoy Returning to Loanda, it was found that two of the three
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Communa detached parties of the Expedition sent into the interior to
Prof. M. Foster, Sec. R.S. observe the eclipse were unsuccessful on account of clouds. which, during germination, render the reserve materials and
The work embodied in this paper deals (a) with the pe The third has not yet been heard from.
DAVID P. TODD.
for the use of the embryo, (6) with the forms in which to U.S.S. Pensacola, December 31, 1889.
absorbed by it and the mode of their atsorption, and * the parts played in the process by the endosperm
embryo respectively. SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.
A ferment is found to exist as a zymogen in the resting
which is readily developed by warmth and weak acids medias Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo, December.-Results active condition. The results of its activity are the splung obtained from Dr. L. Weigert's therapeutic treatment of puls of the fat with formation of glycerine and (chietly rica monary phthisis, by Prof. A. Visconti. Seven patients in various acid. Further changes, brought about by the protoplam stages of consumption have been subjected to this treatment for endosperm cells, form from the latter a lower carbon acid the purpose of testing its efficacy. It consists in administering unlike ricinoleic acid, is solable in water and is a superheated dry air (150° to 180° C.), which is inhaled through These changes do not take place in the absence of free sorg a specially prepared apparatus, for which Dr. Weigert claims A quantity of sugar also is formed, which appears to bar that it acts directly on Koch's bacillus of tuberculosis. In the glycerine as its antecedent. incipient stages of the disease satisfactory results were obtained The proteids of the seed, which consist of globain in some respects, such as relief of the cough, greater freedom of albumose, are split up by another ferment, with furnis respiration, less profuse perspiration, and increased appetite. peptone and asparagin. But it was doubtful whether the germ itself was killed, while in The only products which enter the embryo are a casa the advanced stages the malady continued its normal development acid, sugar, possibly some peptone, and asparagia. C without being perceptibly arrested by the treatment. Without ation of the structure of the cotyledons, which are the at actually condemning Weigert's method, Prof. Visconti cannot organs, shows that the mode of absorption is always dialy at present regard it as an efficacious remedy against phthisis.--On the determination of the coefficient of dynamic and electromotor
“Investigations into the Effects of Training Walls produce, by P. Guzzi. The author' here describes a method of Estuary like the Mersey:" By L. F. Vernon Harcourt, determining this coefficient, for which he claims certain advant- M. Inst.C.E. Communicated by A. G. Vernon Han ages over that proposed by Dr. J. Hopkinson in the Electrician F.R.S. of December 3, 1886, especially in the case of engines of over The present investigations were carried out with a 100 horse-power. His method of calculating the yield of the model of the Mersey estuary, from near Warrington to the dynamo and electric motors is based exclusively on electric sea beyond the bar. The experiments were diredel » measurements made with safer and more handy instruments solution of two problems-namely, (I) the influence of trai than Hopkinson's dynamometers. Two dynamos of about the walls in the wide upper estuary on the channel below Liver same type and dimensions are connected together in such a and across the bar; and (2) the effects of training walls way that one moves the other as motor, as in the Hopkinson lower estuary on the channel across the bar. apparatus. But instead of communicating to the system the
The experiments indicate that, whereas training waila n dynamic energy required to maintain it in motion with the upper estuary would be injurious, owing to the resulting velocity and intensity of the normal current, Guzzi's instrument tion, training walls in the lower estuary would improre communicates the equivalent electric energy derived from any depth of the outlet channel ; and that such training external source whatsoever.
combined with dredging, offer the best prospect of farme Rivista Scientifico-Industriale, December 31, 1889.-Re
direct, stable, and deepened channel across the bar. searches on the absorption of hydrogen by iron, and on the February 6.-"Memoir on the Symmetrical Functions tenacity of certain metals after absorbing gases, by Prof. M. Bel Roots of Systems of Equations." By Major P. A. Macle lati and S. Lussana. It has already been shown by Hughes Royal Artillery. Communicated by Prof. Greenhill
, FRS (NATURE, vol. xxi., 1880, p. 602) that steel and iron immersed The object of the present memoir is the extension bu in diluted sulphuric acid become very brittle, and that the same of algebraical quantities of the new theory of symmetric faza phenomenon is produced when these metals are used as negative which has been developed by the author in regard to 2 electrodes in a voltameter. Prosecuting the same line of re- system in vol. xi. and succeeding volumes of the in search, the authors here describe a series of experiments tending yournal of Mathematics. In the theory of the single to show that the action of electrolytic oxygen on the tenacity of ihe conceptions and symbolism are to a large extent sth platinum, and of hydrogen on that of copper and zinc, is un and are based upon the properties of single integral certain ; also, that the absorption of hydrogen produces very and their partitions into single integral parts. In this si probably an increase of tenacity in platinum, as it certainly does former theory may be regarded as being unipartite. in iron, but, on the contrary, a diminution in nickel. Nor can In the present generalization to the case of syl these different results be explained by the simple passage of the quantities the fundamental ideas proceed, not from current, Möbius having already shown that the elasticity of metals number, but from a collection of m single numbers in is not perceptibly affected by this cause. --Action of arsenate of to number, weight, degree, part, and suffix, the collectors hydrogen on potassium permanganate, by D. Tivoli. Some numbers invariably replaces the single number of the thea experiments are described, from the results of which the author the single system. In this view the theory of the ses infers that the solution of potassium permanganate is capable of m-partite. rapidly and completely absorbing arsenate of hydrogen.-S. The quantities, to which the symmetric functions relee Giuseppe Terrenzi gives a somewhat complete list of the land be regarded as the solutions common to m bon-home and fresh-water mollusks occurring in the Narni district, Um equations each in m variables. Schlafli, in the Vienna To bria. This fauna presents nothing remarkable, all the species tions (Denkschriften) for 1852, added another linear con being common to other parts of Umbria, and generally to Central geneous equation in m variables, and then forming the ele
+ I equations, thereby obtained an identity which is Treasurer : Prof. A. W. Rücker, F.R.S. ; Demonstrator : C. V:mental in the subject. This identity involves those sym- Boys, F.R.S. ; other Members of Council : W. H. Coffin, Sir functions which are here termed fundamental, and marks John Conroy, Bart., Conrad W. Cooke, Major-General Festing, arting point of the present investigation.
F.R.S., Prof. J. V. Jones, Prof. O. Lodge, F.R.S., Prof. W. articular, three distinct laws of symmetry are established, Ramsay, F.R.S., W. N. Shaw, H. Tomlinson, F.R.S., and G. generalizations of those established by the author in the M. Whipple. Votes of thanks were then passed (1) to the Law Fournal of Mathematics (vol. xi.). Of these the first Lords of the Committee of the Council on Education for the re of fundamental importance, and are examined in detail, use of the room in which the Society met ; (2) to the auditors, Ting idea in these theorems, as in the whole investiga | Prof. Minchin and Dr. Fison ; (3) to the President and officers is the "separation" of a partition; the separation bearing of the Society for their services during the year. The meeting me relation to the partition as the partition to the number was then resolved into an ordinary science meeting. Messrs. E. lection of numbers.
W. Smith and C. E. Holland were elected members of the soclusion, the memoir consolidates and largely generalizes Society, and Mr. Sidney Evershed was proposed as a member. bur's recent researches alluded to above.
- The paper on galvanometers, by Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., ruary 13.-"On the Unit of Length of a Standard Scale Mr. T. Mather, and Dr. W. E. Sumpner, was then resumed by George Shockburgh, appertaining to the Royal Society.” | paper
, and representing the result of experiments on many
A long table of numbers accompanying the scral J. T. Walker, R.Ė., F.R.S. ke determinations of the length of the seconds pendulum, galvanometers, was explained. From this it appeared that were made in London by Kater and at Greenwich by galvanometers of the D'Arsonval type were exceedingly efficient End are described in the Philosophical Transactions in proportion to the amount of wire used in the coils. It was 28, 1829, and 1831, the distance between the upper and
for this reason that voltmeters with strong permanent magnets siges of the pendulum was measured off on a standard
could be made sensitive even with an exceedingly large external which had been constructed by Sir George Shuckburgh. instrument. The space occupied by the wire was so exeedingly
resistance in series so as to diminish the power absorbed by the cale had not yet been compared with any of the modern and scales, but it had been preserved with much care with sensibility. The most sensitive galvanometers should therefore
valuable that the extra resistance did not too much diminish the Kruments appertaining to the Royal Society. the antumn of 1888, M. le Commandant Defforges, an
be made of the permanent magnet type. If, lowever, the magnets of the French Geodetic Survey, came to England to
were to form part of the moving system, as in most galvanoshare in operations for the determination of the difference meters, the experiments showed that instruments of the Rayleigh, giude between Greenwich and Paris, and also to determine Gray, or Rosenthal type were the best
. The coils should be Sta of a French seconds pendulum at Greenwich. He astatic system of needles sets itself perpendicular to the earth’s
numerous and small, as Mr. Boys had previously shown. As an by me, to compare the portion of Shuckburgh's scale field, it was recommended that astatic galvanometers should be o bal been employed by Kater and Sabine with one of the placed so that the needles pointed east and west. The controlling urd metre bars of the International Bureau of Weights and magnet would then not need to be turned round as it was raised Es in Paris. The Council of the Royal Society assented, ballistic galvanometers for quantity by measuring the deflection
or lowered. It was recommended to calibrate low-resistance he scale was sent across to Paris and brought back again by for a known current. This obviates the necessity for large I agent. details and results of the comparison are given in a
condensers or high potentials. The method, although not new, is al account by Commandant Defforges, from which it will
not described in text-books. In conclusion, Prof. Ayrton asked es that the scale was compared with the French metrical
for information with regard to microscope galvanometers. sale, N, at the temperature of 48° 7 F., at which the dis
C. V, Boys, F.R.S., thought that the factor of merit of galvanobetween Kater and Sabine's divisions, and 39-4, of the
meters should not be given in scale divisions per micro-anpere kburgh scale was found equal to 1 0006245 metre. On
under the condition of constant controlling moment. This gave ting to the temperature of 62° F., which was employed by
too great an advantage to instruments of the Gray or Rosenthal and Sabine, this distance becomes 1'0007619 metre, which type. Great sensibility could be obtained by diminishing the gitalent to 399400428 inches is we adopt the relation
moment of inertia of the suspended parts, the practical limit tre = 39-370432 inches, which was determined by Colonel being determined by the trouble due to the silk fibre. Spider eeC.B., of the Ordnance Survey, and is given in his lines, when used in place of silk fibres, gave better results. It able work on the comparisons of standards of length.
was possible by using a good suspending arrangement to use the actual length of the space o to 39:4 on the Shuckburgh needles, 9" long and a period of 20 seconds, and to gain a way be regarded with some probability as differing by not sensibility far greater than those indicated in the paper. Ballistic than atout oʻ0004 inch, or, say, the 1oo, oooth part, from
galvanometers should be made with needles as light as possible. uantity which the scale indicates.
The method proposed, of winding the central part of the coil in
the opposite sense to the rest, would probably not be good, owing hysical Society, February 7.-Annual General Meeting. to the unevenness of the field produced. The conclusion come
C. Reinold, F.R.S., President, in the chair.—The reports to by the author, that D'Arsonval galvanometers of great sensie Council and of the Treasurer were read and adopted. bility should be made with small coils placed in a very strong field, former stated that there had been a very satisfactory increase was one he had himself come to, but had finally abandoned owing le number of members during the year. The number now to difficulties caused by diamagnetism in the copper and to pie 360, of whom 80 are Fellows of the Royal Society. excessive damping due to Foucault currents. Mr. Swinburne is the year the Council had proposed to change the time of thought that the factor of merit of a galvanometer should be ktop of the Society from Saturday afternoon to Friday determined differently according as it was to be used for the ding. The change was adopted by the members by a vote of measurement of current, or quantity, or for null methods merely. 12 30. and had resulted in a larger attendance at the meetings. He saw no great advantage in making practical instruments mag the year the second part of vol. i. of the translations of proportional. The name D'Arsonval should be dropped, as the ortant foreiga memoirs had been issued to the members, and instrument denoted by it was invented by Varley years ago. *** hoped that a third part would be published early in He would like to know the relative sensibility of the telephone puresent session. The Council had to regret the loss by death and the Lippman galvanometer. Prof. Fitzgerald stated that koree well-known members-James P. Joule, Warren de la Lord Rayleigh had shown that the microscope method of and Father Perry. A valuable collection of books had observing angular deflections was as sensitive as the ordinary
given the Society by the Royal Astronomical Society. method of mirror and scale, even when only the mirror was used u the Treasurer's report, it appeared that the balance of the as a pointer, so that if a pointer were attached it would be far sety has been increased by 120 during the year. Prof. more sensitive. The drawback, however, was that it was tort, of Münster, was, at the recommendation of the Council, impossible to distinguish with the microscope between lateral es un honorary member of the Society. The result of the displacements of the needles and the angular motion whose election of officers was declared as follows:-President : measurement was required. To get over this error it was W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ; Vice-Presidents : Dr. E. Atkin necessary to read both ends of the pointer, but this was hard Walter Baily, Shelford Bidwell , F.R.S, and Prof. S. P.
to do. Prof. Ayrton replied to the different points raised mpou: Secretaries: Prof. J. Perry and T. H. Blakesley ; in the discussion.
Entomological Society, February 5.- The Right Hon. Oldfield Thomas read an account of a collection of N:Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The Presi- from Central Vera Cruz, Mexico, made by a scientike ees dent announced that he had nominated Mr. J. W. Dunning, tion organized by the authorities of the Mexican Museum Captain H. J. Elwes, and Mr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., Vice the superintendence of Dr. F. Ferrari-Perez. Theo Presidents for the session 1890-91.-Mr. F. D. Godman consisted of about 100 specimens, belonging to 21 exhibited a specimen of Papilio thoas, from Alamos, Mexico, Amongst these, two (a Hare and a Squirrel were dead. showing an aberration in the left hind wing. Mr. R. Trimen, new, and proposed to be called Sciurus nigr meiner F.R.S., remarked that butterflies of the genus Papilio were Lepus tera-crucis. seldom liable to variation.-Mr. C. G. Barrett exhibited a series of specimens of Phycis subornatella, Dup., from Pembroke, the
Geological Society, February 5.-W. T. Blanford Fu east and west of Ireland, the Isle of Man, and Perthshire; and President, in the chair. -The following comunamicalum a series of Phycis adornatella, Tr., from Box Hill, Folkestone, read :-The variolitic rocks of Mont-Genèvre, by Ger Norfolk, and Reading ; also a number of forms intermediate I: Cole and T: W. Gregory. The propylites of the Va between the above, taken in the Isle of Portland by Mr. N. M. Isles of Scotland, and their relations to the andes Richardson. He said that these forms proved the identity of diorites of the district, by Prof. John W. Judd, F.RS the two supposed species, which he believed were both referable to P. dilutella, Hb. He also exhibited specimens of Hesperia
EDIXRURGA. lineola, and a pale variety of it taken in Cambridgeshire ; Royal Society, January 27.-Rev. Prof. Flint, likes specimens of Epischnia bankesiella, a recently described species, dent, in the chair. ----Prof, Calderwood real a paper ons taken in Portland ; and a specimen of Retinia margarotana, and man's place in Nature. A discussion followei. H.-S., a species new to Britain, discovered amongst a number February 3.-Sir W. Thomson, President, in the chair of Retinia pinivorana, which had been collected in Scotland. - William Peddie read a paper on new estimates of Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher showed a series of Gelechia fumatella, distance. He showed that the ratio of the latent les from sandhills in Hayling Island and near Littlehampton, and, for vaporisation of a liquid to six times its surface-tension de comparison, a series of G. distinctella, from the same places. approximation to the number of molecules per liner He also showed a few bred specimens of G. terrella, and a series that liquid. The liquids water, alcohol, ether, chlor of preserved larvæ. He stated that on the downs the larvæ live carbon bisulphide, turpentine, petroleum, and wood spiri: 4 in the middle of the tufts of such grasses as Festuca orina and according to this method, 50, 52, 30, 15. 19, 30, 40, allied species. --Mr. H. Goss read a communication from Dr.
millions, respectively, of particles per linear centimetre Clemow, of Cronstadt, St. Petersburg, on the subject of the course no stress is to be laid upon the relative values i coincidence of vast flights and blights of insects during the years numbers; the point of interest is the complete agreemea 1510, 1757, 1763, 1782, 1783, 1836, and 1847, and the epidemic the order of the unknown quantity.--Prol. Tait comst of influenza. During the year 1889 no unusual activity in the a paper by Prof. Dittmar on the gravimetrie como-> insect world had been recorded. Mr. H. T. Stainton, F.R.S., water. -Mr. John Aitken rend a paper on the number of and Mr. McLachlan, F.R.S., made some remarks on the subject, particles in the atmosphere of certain places in Great Brina the purport of which was that there was no connection between on the Continent, with remarks on the relation betwee epidemics and the occurrence of swarms of insects.--Mr. G. A. J.
amount of dust and meteorological phenomen. Hele Rothney communicated a paper entitled “ Notes on Flowers that dust condenses moisture before the air is saturated to avoided by Bees." It appeared, according to the author's same number of dust-particles per cubic centimetre, the res observations, made in India, that dahlias were exceptionally spheric transparency depends upon the depression of de attractive, but that the passion-flower was only resorted to by a bulb, being large when the depression is large, bat bewa few species of Xylocopa ; and that, with one exception, he had small before the depression vanishes. Increase of tempe never seen any insects feeding on the flowers of the oleander.
also reduces transparency when the number of particles Mr. Slater, Colonel Swinhoe, Mr. Trimen, Lord Walsingham, and the same, for increase of temperature means increase in Mr. McLachlan took part in the discussion which ensued. - Dr. Di pressure. As a rule, quantity of dust decreases when 1.* Sharp read a paper entitled “On the Structure of the Terminal
increases. When calms occur dust accumulates. Thus Segment in some male Hemiptera."-Colonel Swinhoe read a the radiating power of the air, so that it cools quickly ast paper entitled “On the Moths of Burma,” which contained forms. Thus a fog may be regarded as a suspender de.descriptions of several new genera and 107 new species. - dust-measuring instruments intended for use at Ben Neste Dr. F. A. Dixey read a paper entitled “On the Phylogenetic exhibited. Significance of the wing-markings in certain genera of the Nymphalida.” A discussion ensued, in which Lord Walsingham,
PARIS. Mr. Jenner-Weir, Captain Elwes, and Mr. Trimen took part. Academy of Sciences, February 10.-M. Hermart
Zoological Society, February 4.-Prof. W. H. Flower, chair.-Note on an unpublished memoir of Descartes', in". F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The Secretary read a report on the right of the author to the priority of a discovery in the the additions that had been made to the Society's Menagerie of polyhedrons, by M. De Jonquières. Some per during the month of January 1890.-A communication was read pointed out in the memoir which show that Descartes Les from Mr. W. K. Parker, F.R.S., containing an account of the applied the formula F+S=A+2, and furnished the eles morphology of the Hoatzin (ópisthocomus cristatus). The the demonstration, hence his name should be associuch author treated of the early stages of the development of this
that of Euler as an independent discoverer of the famous low Reptilian Bird, and its shoulder-girdle, sternum, and hind -A physical process for the measurement of the incline limbs.--A communication was read from Mr. A. D. Bartlett, the declination-thread of meridian-circles, by M. Hamy, a containing observations on Wolves, Jackals, Dogs, and Foxes. ordinary astronomical methods this value can be determine Mr. Bartlett's remarks tended to show that all the varieties of within half a degree, but using the process described, is Domestic Dogs owe their origin to Wolves and Jackals, and that sible to obtain it within a few seconds. The complete the habit of barking has been acquired_by, and under the tion will be given in the coming number (January) of the i influence of domestication ; also that the Dog is the most per- Astronomique.-Upon the exponential function, by M. fectly domesticated of all animals. -A communication was read A demonstration is given of a relation of the forn from Mr. G. E. Dobson, F.R.S., containing a synopsis of the
N+AN, +eN,....t«N.=0 genera of the family Soricidæ. The author recognized nine genera, and divided them into two sub-families. New methods a, b, . . ., h being whole numbers, N N N., of defining the genera were introduced, each genus was briefly cients. Starting with the polynomial function characterized, and remarks on certain genera, not admitted in
F(x)=z-(: - a)-+*(: - batis. ...(8the synopsis (although hitherto generally recognized), were appended.---Mr. F. E. Beddard read a paper containing observa. the author deduces that assuming (1) to hold tions upon some species of Earthworm of the genus Perichæta.A communication was read from Mr. J. M. Leslie, containing notes on the habits and oviposition of the clawed Aglossal Frog (Xenopus lævis), as observed at Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony, and then proves this function not to hold if a be an even where this species was said to be of ordinary occurrence.--Mr. --Note on a method of transformation in kinematic german