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1. A. Mannheim. Ina preceding communication the author between the subjects of meteorology, geology, agriculture, and lanws how to transform the properties relating to the dis- hygiene. A review of scientific investigations which have sa nicat of a straight line, of which the points describe tra far been made on the subject of surface water and the formation by surfaces; he now extends his method to the case of springs, shows that the problems of most importance are still

the points of the movable line describe trajectory awaiting their solution. In the speaker's opinion the task to only, and taking as examples several theorems relating be undertaken in the interests of meteorology is the establishing Le former case, derives therefrom corresponding theorems in of as many lysimeters as possible, so that by keeping a conLeter.-Oa a generalization of Euler's theorem relating to tinuous record of their indications a continued set of observations asdrons, by M. R. Perrin. Attention is drawn to some on surface water would be provided. He further considered it ains bearing upon Euler's formula, published by the author to be essential that the relationship of water to the soil should be 42 Hulletin de la Société Mathématique de France, t. x.).- investigated at depths far greater than has as yet been the case.

dies which give a tension of dissociation equal to the A lengthy discussion followed the above communication, which |--1 of the vapour of their saturated solutions, by M. H. Les turned chiefly upon a consideration of the forces, as yet but little in Experiments are referred to which are antagonistic to known, which determine the collecting of water on internal imtheory of M. Bakhuis-Roozeboom. According to experi- pervious layers of the earth.-Prof. Snörer gave a short .. the curves representing the tensions referred to as func. statistical statement on sun-spots during 1889. The chief point if the temperature are tangential, and do not intersect at of interest was that the spots appeared during the first half of cote angle as required by the theory.---Action of fuorine the year in the lower latitudes and in the second half in the higher.

different varieties of carbon, by M. Henri Moissani.-A Taking the year as a whole, there were considerably more spots Fal method for the preparation of fluorides of carbon, by M. in the southern than in the northern hemisphere ; this has been L"babrie-On the blue flame of common salt and the the case in each year since 1883.- The Secretary then handed truncopic reaction of copper chloride, by M. G. Salet. The in his annual report, and the Society proceeded to elect its w tinds that the bands seen in the spectrum of salt burning officers for the year 1890. Prof. Schwalbe was elected President. 291mon fire, and of which the strongest are situated in the 1- and blue-green, are due to copper chloride, and coincide

Physical Society, January 27.-Prof. Kundt, President, in hands given by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in his “Spectres

the chair.-The President opened the ineeting by a short address cux." ---On the electrical resistance of iron and its alloys in memory of civil engineer G. A. Hirn, who died recently at gh temperatures, by M. H. Le Chatelier. The electrical

Logelbach in Alsace. ---Dr. Lehmann spoke on the testing of tucos for a considerable range of temperature of a number tuning forks. After the International Congress met for the 4:01 alloys have been examined. When the results are establishing, of a uniform standard of tone, and selected for this cally shown, the curve for ferro-manganese (13 per cent.

purpose a vibration frequency of 435, it devolved upon Governas found to be regular, just as is the case with platinum or

ment to construct a standard fork, and to devise some ready mm-rhodium alloy, while the curves for mild and hard

method for testing ordinary forks to an accuracy within half a fshow distinctly two singular points at 820° and 710°, and a

vibration per second, and standard forks within o'r of a vibraana steel (5i = 3 per cent.) shows the former only. Ferro

tion. The speaker discussed the various methods in use for Led 25 per cent. Ni) behaves very peculiarly, as below 550° comparing two forks and for counting the number of vibrations

maxrhfications having quite distinct properties exist, and per second which they yield. For the first purpose the vibrael itself shows a sudden change of curvature at 340°,

tions of the respective forks are employed, these being observed nosiemical researches upon silk, by M. Léo Vignon. In

either acoustically or optically ; a further means of effecting the Cullons have been made to determine the heat disengaged comparison is by the stroboscopic method or by the acoustic 1 various reagents are absorbed by raw and prepared silk.

wheel. The vibration frequency of a fork is determined either $:rason of the results seems to indicate that the method

graphically or by means of a tuning-fork clock, or by means of le employed to elucidate the theory of dyeing.-Estimation

the undulations obtained by oscillating or rotating acoustical op dearum and hamus in soil, by M. J. Raulin. A method

instruments. An important factor in all these methods is the imating potassium by weighing it on a tared filter as phos temperature of the fork. To determine this a special thermostat Polybdate is described, together with the application of the

is employed, by means of which the fork can be set in vibration Poficat permanganate process of J. H. Schmidt to the deter

in an air-bath whose temperature is constant and accurately in won of humus.-On a colouring-matter from Diaptomus,

known. The standard fork for reference is one of König's, Lerns to the carotin of vegetables, by M. Raphael Blanchard.

whose vibration-frequency has been accurately determined by colouring-matter, isolated from these animal organisms, is

several methods. The comparison of any new fork with the Ti to differ considerably in spectroscopic properties and in standard is made by means of the acoustic wheel, and by a hlubility in alcohol from the lipochromes, and it does not simultaneous graphic recording of the movements of the fork be to be identical with any of the red pigments from the which is vibrating inside the thermostat, and of the magnetic bemerala, Echinodermata, Bryozoa, or Mollusca ; while on

interrupter ; the latter consists of a tuning-fork vibrating to rxontrary it is found to show many analogies to carotins the octave below the note yielded by the standard fork. – Dr. P!gal, which are so marked as to lead to the conclusion that

Eschenhagen exhibited curves of the three elements of terrestrial self a carutin and so possesses great interest as a colouring of Potsdam, and gave a short description of the arrangement of

magnetism recorded by the new instruments in the Observatory 1220ce common to both the animal and vegetable kingdoms, 1 9 sa instance of the production of a hydrocarbon by animal the apparatus. The curves were taken on white photographic psy.-On the intercellular substance, by M. Louis Mangin. It paper, and were of such dimensions that the greatest variations Musan that among Phanerogams and Cryptogams (with the which have as yet been observed were completely recorded. Eten of Fungi and many Algə) the tissues of the softer parts ceived from Prof. Weinhold. He made, in addition, some

- Prof. Kundt exhibited some quartz-fibres which he had reumposed of cells cemented together by an intercellular subaz composed of insoluble pectatez.-On the localization of remarks on the preparation of these fibres by Boys's method, erung matters in the seminal integuments, by M. Louis and gave some data as to the dimensions of an apparatus which wiel. - Formation of quartz at the spring of Maubourot at

Prof. Weinhold had constructed for the measurement of gravitaBerets, by M. Beaugey. On the existence of leucite rocks tion constants, and had employed in several determinations.

Lu Minor, and on some hypersthene rocks from the cavus, by M. A. Lacroix. It is found that the leucitic rocks

AMSTERDAM m near Trelsizoode fall under two main types, leucitite and Royal Academy of Sciences, Dec. 28, 1889.-Prof. van wiphrite.-Upon the composition of some pseudo-dolomitic de Sande Bakhuyzen in the chair.-M. Hugo de Vries related ble from the north of France, by M. L. Cayeux,

the results of the scientific researches made by the Committee of

Advice, appointed in July 1887 at Rotterdam, to report on the BERLIN.

appearance of Crenothrix in the drinking-water of the Rotterdam Meteorological Society, January 7.—Dr. Vettin, Presi: water-supply. He gave an account of the organisms met with AT, in the chair,--Dr. Wagner spoke on the behaviour of in the mains and basins before and after the filtration of the er in the soil. The relationships between surface water and water, and of the degree of the pollution caused by these ng and deposita, possessing as they do a distinct meteoro- | creatures in the colder and warmer months of the year. He mal interest, have as yet been but slightlyinvestigated, probably spoke also of the influence of darkness on the water-organisms, cause the behaviour of water in soil occupies the border-land | wbich, under ordinary circumstances, live in the sunlight'; of the

proposals made by the Committee to mitigate or remove the evil ;

THURSDAY, FENRUARY 25. and of the improve nents effected, or about to be effected, in ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4-30. accordance with those suggestions.-M. Kapteijn treated of

SUCIETY OF ARTS, at 5.-The Northern Shan States and the Es

Railway : William Sherriff. chronographical observations for the purpose of determining INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at & parallaxes of fixed stars. After having explained the precautions RovAL INSTITUTION, at 3 -The Three Stages of Shaksar's

Canon Ainger. taken to prevent systematic error, he gave the results and subjected

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 28. them to several tests showing their absolute trustworthiness within the limits defined by the probable errors.

AMATEUR SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, at B-Practical Coalaning

Streatfeild. Jan. 25.-Prof. van de Sande Bakhuyzen in the chair.-M. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Evolution in Music : Prof. C. Hubert H tv Hoogewerff , giving an account of joint work by himself and M.

SATURDAY, MARCH 1. van Dorp, spoke of the action of potassium hypobromite on suc Essex FIELD CLUB, at 7.-Micro-Fungi of Epping Forest.si cinphenylamide, and on the amide of cinchonic acid.-M. van Preserve, and Study Them : Dr. M. C. Cooke Bammelen communicated certain results of a research relating , RovaL INSTITUTION, at 3. -Electricity and Magnetism Hight Ito the composition of volcanic and other soils, on which, in

Rayleigh, F.R.S. Deli and Java, tobacco is cultivated. The extraordinary fitness of the soil of the cleared forest grounds in Deli for the production of exquisite tobacco is to be attributed, he thinks, to the peculiar composition of the amorphous silicate occurring therein, BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVE to the looseness of the forest soil , and to the auspicious climate

Elementary Dynamics of Particles and Solids : Prof. W. M Hicks with regard to the rainfall. He concluded by insisting on the millan). —La Vie des Oiseaux : Baron L'Hamcaville (Paris, J.AL urgent need for the establishment of a scientific experimental A Naturalist's Voyage round the World, new editius, dless station at Deli. Such an establishment would be favourable to Darwin (Murray) - A Naturalist among the Head Hunters C the culture of tobacco, and would enlarge our knowledge of the and Atlas to accompany same: G. F. Becker (Washingtoo) -Fos

ford (Philip).-Geology of the Quicksilver Deposits of the Pris soil, of the vegetable world, and of geological formations. and Fossil Plants of the Triassic Rocks of New Jersey and the u

Valley: J. S. Newberry (Washington). -11 Tereta del Parlac delle Forze Dimostrato Erroneo: G. Casına (Brescia) -Materu Flora of the Malayan Peninsula: Dr. G. King (Calcutiai

Physiology, vol. xi. Nos. 1 and 2 (Cambridge)-Transactions of the DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia, vol. 2 (Philadelpliial-05

ciones Magnéticas y Meteorológicas del Real Colegio de Belea de LONDON.

de Jesus en La Habana, Julio-Dic. 1887. (Habana). - Bulletin de

Geological Survey, Nos. 18 to 53 (Washington).- Department of THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 20.

ture, Melbourne, Bulletin No. 4 (Melbourne). --** Timetan," ben TRUYAL SOCIETY, at 4-30.--A Comparative Study of Natural and Artificial

Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society Digestions (Preliminary Account): Dr. A. Sheridan Lea.-On a Fer

Guiana, December 1889 (Stanford).
mentation causing the Separation of Cystin : Sheridan Delépine. Some
Stages in the Development of the Brain of Clupea harengus : Ernest W.

L. Holt.
LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Fruit and Seed of Juglandia ; on the
Shape of the Oak-leaf ; and on the Leaves of Viburnum ; Sir John Lub-

CONTENTS.
CHEMICAL Society, at 8:- The Behaviour of the most Stable Oxides at The Physics and Chemistry of the Challenger
High Temperatures : G. H. Bailey and W. B. Hopkins. -The Influence

Expedition of Different Oxides on the Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate : G. J. Fowler and J. Grant.

The Human Foot ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 4.

Our Book Shelf:INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.

Ettingshausen: "Das australische Florenelement in ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Three Stages of Shakspeare's Art : Rev.

Europa."-W. B. H.
Canon Ainger.
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21.

"Is the Copernican System of Astronomy GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 3.-Annual General Meeting.

True?"
PHYSICAL SOCIETY. at 5.-On a Carbon Deposit in a Blake Telephone Emerson : - Naturalistic Photography ·

Transmitter: F. B. Hawes. - The Geometrical Construction of Direct Letters to the Editor :-
Reading Scales for Reflecting Instruments : A. P. Trotter.-A Paralle
Motion Suitable for Recording-Instruments : A. P. Trotter.-On Ber-

Acquired Characters and Congenital Variation -trand's Refractometer: Prof. S. P. Thompson.

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. ; The Right Rex INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.-Some Types of American

Bishop R, Courtenay; Dr. J. Cowper
Locomotives, and their Construction: C. N. Goodall.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Magnetic Phenomena: Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S.

Easy Lecture Experiment in Electric Resonance.

(Nlustrated.)-Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 22.

African Monkeys in the West Indies. -Dr. P. L ROYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY, at 3.45. ROYAL INSTITUTION. at 3.-Electricity and Magnetism: Right Hon.

Sclater, F.R.S. . Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.

Galls. —Prof. George J. Romanes, F.R.S.

The Supposed Earthquakes at Chelmsford on January SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 23. SINDAV LECTURE SOCIETY, at 4.-Our Ancestors, the Sea-Kings: Justin

7.-Charles Davison H. McCarthy, M.P.

Shining Night-Clouds. -Robert B. White

A Greenish Meteor.-T. D. A. Cockerell.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 24,
SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-Stereotyping : Thomas Bolas.

The Molecular Stability of Metals, particularly of TOYNBEE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Will and Reason: B. Bosanquet.

Iron and Steel By Carl Barus

Christoforus Henricus Diedericus Buys Ballot
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 25.

Notes
ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30.-Exhibition of Stanley's Spiro- Our Astronomical Column :-

The Diēri and other Kindred Tribes of Central Australia : A. w. Objects for the Spectroscope.-A. Fowler.
Howitt.

Progress of Astronomy in 1886
NSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.—The Shanghai Water-Works:

The

Maximum Light-Intensity of the Solar Spectrum J. W. Hart.

The Tytam Water-Works, Hong-Kong : Jas. Orange. --The Construction of the Yokohama Water-Works: J. #. T. Turner. (Dis

Spectrum of Borelly's Comet, 8 1889 cussion.)

Spectra of 8 and u Centauri
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. — The Post-Darwinian Period: Prof. G. J. On the Star System Scorpii
Romanes, F.R.S.

Geographical Notes.
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 26.

On some Needless Difficulties in the Study of GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On a Crocodilian Jaw from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough: R. Lydekker.-On the Relation of the Westleton Beds

Natural History. By Dr. C. T. Hudson, F.R.S.. or " Pebbly Sands" of Suffolk to those of Norfolk, and on their Extension

The Total Eclipse. By Prof. David P. Todd. Inland; with some Observations on the Period of the Final Elevation and Scientific Serials Denudation of the Weald and of the Thames Valley, Pari 111. : Prof. Societies and Academies Joseph Prestwich, F.R.S.-Ona Deep Channel of Drift in the Valley of Diary of Societies. the Cam, Essex: W. Whitaker, F.R.S. SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.- The English in Florida; Arthur Montefiore, Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received

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Russian Iron Body, s-in., with superior portrait lens... 127 0 5-in., and 102 6

Japanned Metal.

Brass Sliding Tubes, 6 in., no front lens ...

30

45%

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133 0 6-in., no

87 6
30s.

45s,
6-in., with superior portrait lens... 1510 6-in., and 115 3
7-in., no front lens ...

... 155 0 ... 7-in., no

110 0 Each Magic Lantern is efficient for Exhibitions. 7-in., with superior portrait lens... 173 6

7.in., and

137 9 The Lens gives crisp definition, being a superior achro8-in.

256 0 8-in., no

160 0 matic photographic combination, with rack and pinion. 2900

250 0 Compound Condenser of 4 in. diameter. Three-wick 10-in., ..... 3600 ... 10-in.,

Refulgent Lamp, yielding a brilliantly illuminated 12-in.,

... 580 0 ... 12-in., ,

450 0 picture, Japanned Metal, complete in Box......£1 10 O

.

GO

...

...

9-in.,

9 in.,

... 285 0

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