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W. WATSON & SONS. Awarded 20 GOLDLAND OTHER MEDALS various International Exhibitions, including NEW, RARE, AND INTERESTING MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS

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s. d. New Slide, containing about 200 various Diatoms from St. Peter, Trans. Section of Tentacle of Sea Anemouc, showing Thread Cell, & Hungary-very fine

6. Trans. Section of Ascaris from Horse, showing Alimentary Canal, Ovi Type Slide of about 60 Diatoms from Simbirsk

ducts, Uterus. Muscle, &c. Very beautiful Group of Eggs of Butterflies, Moths, &c.- Opaque

Amphioxus-Trans. Section through Pharynx ... Type Slide of Eggs of Butterflies, Moths, &c. -Opaque, named

Phantom Shrimp (Caprella linearis) Strewed Diatoms from North Sea. Cuxhaven-Opaque...

Kidney of Snail - Typical Crustacean Elytron of Diamond Beetle, Cyphus-very brilliant

Sponge Spicules from Jeremie, in Group-very curious... Fluke from Sheep (Fasciola hepatica)-Stained

I 9 Hydra vulgaris, with Tentacles extended... Very fine Arranged Group of various Diatoms—suitable for Soirées, Pediculus capitis, Male, Female, Egg, and Larva-on One Slide &c.

8 6 Horizontal Section of Fætal Hand, showing commencement of oss, Distillation from "Vapour of Coke-for Polariscope

fication in metacarpal bones Any of the above forwarded on receipt of Remittance for Price.

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF MICROSCOPES, &c. CLASSIFIED LIST OF 40,000 FIRST-CLASS OBJECTS forwarded Post free on application toW. WATSON & SONS, OPTICIANS TO HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT,

313 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C. AND 251 SWANSTON STREET, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA.

ESTABLISHED 1837.

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A WORD TO BUSINESS MEN.
You cannot afford to do your writing in the old way. The
work of our machines is plain and business-like, obviating all
mistakes in reading. Several copies can be made at one writing

by the use of carbon paper. Excellent letterpress copies can be taken. Our improved machine has been adopted in all the Departments of the Government Service, and is being very generally introduced by all leading business houses. Does not this argue that the Typewriter should be worth something to you? The Machines can be furnished with special key-boards to suit any purchaser's line of business.

Principal Office-
LONDON : 100 GRACECHURCH STREET, E.C., corner of Leadenhall Street.

LIVERPOOL: CENTRAL BUILDINGS, NORTH JOHNSTREET.
Branch Offices BIRMINGHAM : 88 COLMORE Row.
MANCHESTER : 8 MOULT STREET.

Write for Full Information.

WIMSHURST MACHINE. Works in any Weather. Size giving 4: Sparks, £4 10s.

SCHOOL APPARATUS,

Approved by Science and Art Department.

HARVEY & PEAK,

6 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C, Prin:ed by Richard CLAY AND Sons, LIMITED, at 7 and $ Bread Street Hill. Queen Victoria Street, in the City of London, and Published in

MACMILLAN AND Co., at the Office, 29 and 30 Bedford Street, Covent Garden.- THURSDAY, February 3, 1300.

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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye."-WORDSWORTH.

No. 1061, VOL. 41.)

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1890.

[PRICE SIXPENCE

(All Rights are Reserved.

Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.]

NEWTON'S PATENT

PROF. SILVANUS THOMPSON'S Scientist's Biunial Lantern, DIOPTRIC SPHEROMETER,

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AS MADE FOR
Oxford and London University

Extension Lecturers, &c.
Highest quality only, £14 145.
New Catalogue of Optical Lanterns,
Projection Apparatus, and Saentific

and other Slides, Four Stamps.

READING TO 0'001 MILLIMETRE,
AS SHOWN AT THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY.

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NEWTON & CO.,
Opticians to the Queen and

the Government,
3 FLEET STREET, LONDON.

NALDER BROS. & CO.,

THE CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT COMPANY,

ST. TIBB'S ROW, CAMBRIDGE.

132 HORSEFERRY ROAD, WESTMINSTER. TELEPHONE 3120.

TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS: Secohm, LONDON CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. NEGRETTI AND ZAMBRA'S OPERA, RACE, & FIELD GLASSES

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

MAKERS OF
PHYSICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, BOTANICAL, AND

SCIENTIFIC APPLIANCES GENERALLY,
Descriptions of which may be obtained on application.
Drawing made on Stone and Wood, and the most refined work in Lithography
and Colour Printing, as well as the various processes connected with

Photography, done on the premises.
Sale Authorized Makers of Prof. Ewing's SEISMOMETRIC APPARATUS.

Quartz Fibres made as described by MR. C. V. Boys.
Agents for the Microscopes of CARL ZEISS. of Jena, and for the Earthquake

Model (made in Japan) of Prof. SEKIYA.

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Now Ready, Vol. XI., Nos. 1 and 2.
Price to Subscribers 21s, per Yearly Volume, post free.
THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY.
Edited by MICHAEL FOSTER, M.D., F.R.S.

Published by the Proprietors and sold on their behalf at
THE CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT COMPANY'S WORKS,

ST. TIBB'S ROW, CAMBRIDGE.

Barometers, Microscopes, Telescopes,

Magic Lanterns, &c., &c. Illustrated Price Lists posted free to all parts of the World.

NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA,
OPTICIANS AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT MAKERS TO THE QUEEN

HOLBORN VIADUCT, E.C.
Branches:-45.CORNHILL; 122 RÉGENT STREET.

Photographers at the CRYSTAL PALACE,
N. & Z.'s Large Illustrated Catalogue, 1200 Engravings,'Price 5s.6d.
Telephone No. 6583. Telegraphic Address : "Negretti, London."

THE COUNTY COUNCIL FOR THE LIVING SPECIMENS FOR THE MICROSCOPE COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.

GOLD MEDAL awarded at the FISHERIES EXHIBITION The Public Health Committee of the Lancashire County Council is pre: THOMAS BOLTON, 83 CAMDEN STREET, BIRMINGHAN, pared to receive Applications from duly

qualified persons for the Appointment of MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH for the Administrative County of Who last week sent to his subscribers Asterionella formou, with sketch and Lancaster

description. He also sent out Argulus foliaceus, Correthra. Trout Ore Salary £800 per annum, with a reasonable allowance for travelling expenses. Philodina roseola, Floscularia, Corethra pluminris, Melicerta rings The official will not be eligible for a pension, and the appointment is to be Stephanoceros; also Amoeba, Hydra, Vorticella, Crayfish, Dog Fisk determinable by a 6 months' notice on either side.

Amphioxus, and other Specimens for Biological Laboratory work. All applications, with testimonials, to be sent to me, the undersigned, before

Weekly Announcements will be made in this place or organisms T E MARCH 22, 1890.

is supplying.
FRED. C. HULTON,
Clerk to the County Council.

Specimen Tube, One Shilling, post free. County Offices, Preston.

Twenty-six Tubes in Course of Six Montks for Subscription of 41 k..

or Twelve Tubes for ias. 6d. BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE

Portfolio of Drawings, Eleven Parts, II. each.
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

MINERALOGY.
COMMITTEE ON CHEMICAL TEACHING.
The Second Report of this Committee, containing "Suggestions for a
Course of Elementary Instruction
in Physical Science," and a Report on the

SAMUEL HENSON, “Teaching of Chemistry in Public Elementary Schools." may be obtained from the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, W. Price 6d.

97 REGENT STREET, LONDON, W. ESTABLISHED 1840.

Late 277 STRAND. THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,

A Large Collection of Beautiful Mineral Specimens, including a VEE) ASPATRIA.

FINE GROUP OF SENARMONTITE CRYSTALS, VERY BRIL

LIANT MANGANITES, WULFENITES, VANADIMITES, HAR PRINCIPAL-DR. H. J. WEBB, B.Sc.

MATOME, from Oberstein and Scotland : NATROLITES, Auvergt

CHILDRENITES, ARAGONITES, and MELANGPHLOGITE Thorough practical and scientific Training in Agriculture. Preparation for the Colonies. Students gained the First, Third, and Fourth Scholar- FOSSILS, ROCKS, ROCK SECTIONS, HAMMERS, ships of the Royal Agricultural Society, 1888.

CHISELS, and BLOWPIPE APPARATUS.

Precious Stones for Collectors and Mounting, PRACTICAL BIOLOGY

COLLECTIONS FOR STUDENTS AND PROSPECTORS. OF LONDON PASS AND HONOURS EXAMS. Lessons given.

Catalogues Free Classes now forming at St. Thomas Charterhouse Science Schools,

RECENT SUCCESSOf one of his Students, ist in Honours in Zoology! F. H. BUTLER, M.A. Oxon., A.R.S. Mines, &c.. of Last B.Sc., with University Scholarship.

NATURAL HISTORY AGENCY,

148 BROMPTON ROAD, LONDON, S.W., KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.

Near the British Natural History Museum, PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY. This Appointment will be vacant at the close of the present Winter Begs to give notice that at the end of MARCH next his Business

WILL BE REMOVED to his lately acquired Commodious Show and For particulars apply to J. W. CUNNINGHAM, Secretary.

Store Rooms at

158 BROMPTON ROAD,
BRITISH MUSEUM.

Five doors west of his present premises.
The Reading Room and Newspaper Room will be closed from SATUR-
DAY March 1, to WEDNESDAY, March 5, both days inclusive.

Recently received :—Specimens of Bertrandite, a Meteorite from Atacama,
E. MAUNDE THOMPSON,

and other American Minerals of interest. British Museum, February 24, 1890.

Principal Librarian.

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. SILVERED-GLASS REFLECTING SPECIAL AND TYPICAL COLLECTIONS FOR STUDENTS, TELESCOPES.

LECTURERS, AND MUSEUMS.

| EVERY REQUISITE FOR PRACTICAL WORK, CABINETS, CALVER'S well-known TELESCOPES received the Highest Award for

CASES, APPARATUS OF ALL KINDS. "Excellence and Improvements" at the International Exhibition, London, Catalogues and Testimonials, 18.-G. CALVER, F.R.A.S., Widford, The Largest Stock in England of Rocks, Rock-Sections, Chelmsford.

Minerals, Fossils.

New Catalogues and Lists now ready, Fnt, of GENTLEMAN, well experienced in EX JAMES R. GREGORY,

PERIMENTAL PHYSICS, Ph.D., for last three years Demonstrator at a German University, wishes to settle down in England, and seeks 88 CHARLOTTE STREET, FITZROY SQUARE, LONDON. suitable Appointment. --Address“Bi 210," Nature Office,

GEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS. LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS.-OFFICES or comprising Fossils

, Minerals, and Rocks, labelled with Nase. Locality RESIDENCES, at 63, in Well-Lighted, Fire-Proof, Sanitary Building and Geological Position, in Mahogany Cabinets. 100 Specimens, 253 Suites overlooking Square. Fine Suite of Nine Rooms cut off at top 200 ditto, sos. The best value obtainable. Furnished or not.

Micro-sections of Rocks in great variety. Cabinets, Glass-topped Boxes.

and other Geological Requisites. A FRENCH GENTLEMAN having studied THOMAS D. RUSSELL,

at the N. H. Museum, Paris, desires situation in Biological Laboratory.--Write to Mr. CHARPENTIER, Caversham, nr. Reading.

PRIZE MEDALLIST, HEALTH EXHIBITION.

78 NEWGATE STREET, LONDON, E.C TO SCIENCE LECTURERS.

ROCK SECTIONS CUTTING MACHINES
See Mr. HUGHES'S PATENT COMBINATION OPTICAL LAN.
TERN, used by W. LANT CARPENTER, Esq., Prof. FORBES, B. J. MALDEN, Prize Medal awarded by the Jury of the late Exhibition of Inventions
Esq. New Oxyhydrogen Microscope. Grand Results. Docwra Triple,

PRICE 5.
Prize Medal, Highest Award. Patent Pamphagos Lantern Science Lecture
Sets. Novelties Cheapest and Best. Elaborately Illustrated Catalogue,

Sole Makers
300 Pages, Is. ; Postage, 5d. Smaller do., 6d. Pamphlets Free. HUGHES,
Specialist, Brewster House, Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N.

CUTTELL, 47 Rathbone Place, Oxford Street.

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AUTOCOPYIST

HOLLOWAYS PILLS

Sale by Auction.

Excellent Copies of the actual, natural Handwriting, also

of Drawings, Music, even of elaborate Sketches, Pro

grammes, Píans (up to Double-Elephant size), Shorthand, and THE CELEBRATED PERCY MINERAES.

Type-Writing, are easily, quickly, and cheaply produced by the MR. J. C. STEVENS has received Instruc

tions from the Executors to SELI. BY AUCTION, at his Great Rooms, 38 King Street, Covent Garden, on MONDAY, MACH 10, at half-past 12 precisely, without the least reserve, the Valuable and Well

Very fluid ink, used with ordinary pen and paper. Auto-Circulars authenticated Collection of Minerals formed by the late Dr. JOHN

resemble written letters. Used at the House of Lords, &c. PERCY, M.D., F.R.S., &c., Author of the World-renowned Works on Metallurgy The Collection comprises Choice Silver and Gold Speci.

AUTOCOPYIST DEPT. (A. E.T.Co., Ld.), mens, as well as of most Metalliferous Minerals; also Valuable Earthy Minerals, Polished Specimens in great Variety and Beauty. Most of

London Wall, London, and 52 Princess Street, Manchester. the Examples have been re-examined, and Valuable Notes are appended to the Labels in the Handwnting of the late Doctor, thus increasing the Interest of the Collection.

THIS On View Saturday prior from 10 to 4, and Morning of Sale, and Catalogues

MEDICINE had. On the ist of every Month, Price Sixpence.

Is unequalled in the Cure of all Disorders of the LIVER, THE ENTOMOLOGIST:

STOMACH, KIDNEYS AND BOWELS. A Great PURI.

FIER of the BLOOD; & Powerful Invigorator of the AN ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY System, if suffering from WEAKNESS AND DEBILITY, Edited by RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S.,

and is unequalled in Complaints incidental to Females. With the Assistance of T. R. BILLUPS, E.E.S.

J. H. LEECH, B.A., F.L.S. MANUSCRIPT COPYING EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S.

J. JENNER WEIR, F.L.S.
F. BUCHANAN WHITE, M.D.

By Typewriter. Special attention given to Papers on Technical Subjects

for Public Reading. Contains Articles by well-known Entomologists on all branches of the Science; on Insects injurious or beneficial to Farm or Garden ; Notes on

Price, Is. 3d. per 1000 Words. Manifold Copies, 1s. per 1000 Words. Habits, Life Histories, Occurrence of Rarities, &c. There are Monthly STANDARD TYPEWRITING CO., 90 & 91 Queen St. (third floor), E.C. Lists of Duplicates and Desiderata.

and at 38 Arlington Square, N., and 41 Goldney Road, W. Wooncur ILLUSTRATIONs and occasional LITHOGRAPHED and CHROMOLITHOGRAPHED PLATES.

OSTEOLOGICAL SPECIMENIS, SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, & KENT, LTD.,

MODELS, &c.-MOORE BROS., 49 Hardman Street, Liverpool. Stationers' Hall Court.

Price List, Three Stamps.

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1785

WALES

TAINERS

STOLARULI LEMBRE

Bomis.
SEE PRICE LIST,

Waltham
Waltham Bros,Brewers, London.S.W.

WIMSHURST MACHINE.
Works in any Weather. Size giving 4: Sparks, £4 10s.

SCHOOL APPARATUS,

Approved by Science and Art Department.

HARVEY & PEAK,

6 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C,

PERKEN SON, & RAYMENT,

ESTABLISHED 1852. 99 HATTON GARDEN,

CATALOGUE FREE.
Discount for the Trade London, E.C.

and Profession. MANUFACTURE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS

Of every description. " OPTIMUS” PHOTOCRAPHIC SETS “OPTIMUS” MAGAZINE CAMERA." OPTIMUS" PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES With Tripod and every necessary complete.

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A DICTIONARY OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY.

By T. E. THORPE, B.Sc. (Vict.), Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S.,
Professor of Chemistry in the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, South Kensington.

ASSISTED BY EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS.

LONDON : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. WILLIAM WESLEY AND SON,

Just Published, with 57 Illustrations and Diagrams, Crown 8vo, 41. EL

THE ELEMENTS OF Scientific Booksellers and publisbers, 28 ESSEX STREET, STRAND, LONDON.

LABORATORY WORK.

A Course of Natural Science.
Just Published, Price 3d.

BY A. G. EARL, M.A., F.C.S.,
A Classified Catalogue of New and SECOND-HAND Works in

Late Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge; Science Master at Tonbridge ASTRONOMY,

School.

With numerous Questions and Exercises.
MATHEMATICS,

London : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.
PHYSICS.

DIGEST OF MR. HERBERT SPENCER'S WORKS.

Just Published, 8vo, Cloth, Price 155. Just Published, in One Volume, Crown 8vo, Cloth, 136, Pages, AN EPITOME OF THE SYNTHETIC 4 Folded Rainfall Tables, Wynberg, 1889, 28. 6d.

PHILOSOPHY. By F. HOWARD COLLINS. With a Preface CYCLES OF DROUGHT AND GOOD by HERBERT SPENCER.

SEASONS IN SOUTH AFRICA. By D. E. HUTCHINS, Con. "I have read portions taken at random here and there, and have found servator of Forests, Knysna. With Reprints of his Lectures on Sun them very well done."—MR. SPENCER in Preface. spots and Seasons," "Our Climate and its Variation in Cycles," but Re-written and Enlarged.

WILLIAMS & NORGATE, London and Edinburgh. W. WESLEY & SON, 28 Essex Street, Strand, London. DEATH AND DISABLEMENT BY ACCIDENT. BRADY & MARTIN,

THE RAILWAY PASSENGERS' ASSURANCE COMPANY 27, 29, & 31 MOSLEY STREET,

Assures £1000 at Death and Full Benefits at 64 per AnnaA. NEWCASTLE UPON-TYNE,

HON. EVELYN ASHLEY, Chairman. Wholesale and Export Dealers and Manufac

Annual Income £250,000. turers of Chemical and Scientific Apparatus,

80,000 ANNUAL POLICYHOLDERS. Pure Chemicals for Analysis, &c.,

Invested Capital and Reserve Fund £285,000.

COMPENSATION PAID Supply Colleges and Schools in all parts of the World with every requisite for Theoretical and Experimental Work in Chemistry,

£2,750,000. Sound, Light, Heat, Magnetism, Electricity, &c. Analytical & Works Laboratories completely Furnished.

West End Office :-8 GRAND HOTEL BUILDINGS, W.c. Agents in connection with the Science and Art Department.

Head Office :-64 CORNHILL, LONDON, E.C.

WILLIAM J. VIAN, Secretary
PARTNERS
N. H. MARTIN, C. E. STUART, B.Sc.
New ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, CONTAINING MANY NEW FORMS OF

STANLEY
APPARATUS, FREE ON APPLICATION.

Mathematical Instrument Manufacturer to H.M. Goverament, Couacil of

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Mathomatical, Drawing, and surveying Instruments MANUFACTURERS OF

of every Description,

of the Highest Quality and Finish, at the most Moderate Prices, CHEMICAL & PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS.

Nlustrated Price List Post Free.

W. F. S. obtained the only Medal in the Great Exhibition of 1861 NOW READY,

Excellence of Construction of Mathematical Instruments, and the only Illustrated Classified and Descriptive

GOLD MEDAL in the International Inventions Exhibition 1885 for Mathe

matical Work. Silver Medal, Architects' Exhibition, 1886. CATALOGUE of CHEMICAL APPARATUS. Address : -GREAT TURNSTILE, HOLBORN, LONDON. W.C. Royal 8vo, 113 pp., Illustrated with nearly 600 Woodcuts,

6d., Post free. 22 GARRICK STREET, COVENT GARDEN,

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KING, MENDHAM, & Co.,

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