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THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1890.
And now, having relieved our feelings, we may turn to the question of immediate importance-namely, the pro
spects of educational advance under the new Code which THE NEW CODES, ENGLISH AND is so eagerly expected. SCOTCH.
It is rumoured that the authorities at the Education THE HE country is once more within a month of a new Department are earnestly engaged in the attempt to make
Education Code. Once more the Lord President the Code a real advance on former efforts. They have and the Vice-President of the Council are being besieged many difficulties. If they can successfully run the gauntby representatives of all interests and opinions, anxious let of the Treasury, they have to reckon with the factious to impress them with the exclusive importance of their criticism of political partisans. We hope, however, that we particular views. Last year, it will be remembered, the may assume that the draft Code as it issues from the Code-great advance as it was on its predecessors—fell Department will embody at least all the purely educational
victim to the fears of one party and the lukewarmness reforms which appeared in its unlucky predecessor. The of the other. The extreme School Board partisans gave clause requiring English as a class subject will go, the curbut scant support to any scheme which did not prac-riculum and regulations for evening schools will be made tically embody the recommendations of the minority of more elastic, an attempt will be made to spread the teaching the late Royal Commission, while the champions of of drawing, and further facilities will be afforded for science voluntary schools shrank from any changes which, by instruction at central schools and classes. It will be the raising the standard of efficiency, seemed likely to ac- task of outside critics to see that these proposals, already centuate the difference between the Board school, which made in last year's Code, are not whittled down, and that bas the ratepayers' pocket to draw on, and the voluntary they are supplemented by other changes on which al school, which depends on a fast-shrinking fund of private educational reformers are practically agreed. What these subscriptions. And so the Code was sacrificed, and changes are may be gathered from the discussion che friends of education were condemned to wait another on elementary education, especially in its relation to ear,
scientific and technical instruction, which followed Dr. This is what is constantly happening, and what will Gladstone's paper at the Society of Arts last November. continue to happen, so long as there are ten experts The programme has been since embodied in a more forthcoming on all matters relating to educational definite and concrete form in the suggestions which have machinery for one who knows and cares about education just been submitted to the Education Department by itself. Whether elementary schools should be free; the Committee of the National Association for the whether they should be under representative control; Promotion of Technical and Secondary Education. whether they should all receive rate-aid-these and the Among other suggestions they propose that drawing like disputes are always sure to gain the ear of the public, should be made compulsory in boys' schools, of course while the problem of making the education provided being allowed a due interval before the regulation worth disputing about is passed by almost unnoticed. comes into operation, during which schools may adapt
How few among our so-called "educationists” (a their staff for the purpose. Elementary drawing should dewly-introduced word with an ominous ring about it) be introduced into infant schools for boys to correever sit down deliberately to face the central problem of spond to needlework for girls, as proposed in last elementary education-the only problem of fundamental year's Code. The absurd minute of the Science and importance : Given a child between the ages of 5 and Art Department-forced on them, it is only fair to say, 13, with the limitations imposed by its age, by its home by the Treasury--confining grants on drawing in girls' surroundings, by the pressing necessity that it should schools to departments where cookery is taught, ought of tegin to earn a living as soon as possible, and by the fact course to be repealed; not so much in the interests of the "mnost neglected of all by theorists) that there are only a girls, as of the boys in mixed schools, for whom under the certain number of school hours in the day-what is the existing regulations provision for drawing cannot well be best kind of training through which it shall pass? How made. Drawing is not only the basis of all technical incan those few precious years be best utilized ?
struction, but is a subject of very high educational value, and Theories, indeed, there are, enough and to spare, till ' on both grounds its spread is much to be desired. A further we could wish sometimes that all those in high places change which is to be hoped for is the extension of sho talk of education were made to go through an the Kindergarten methods from the infant school into apprenticeship as school managers, in order to gain some the lower standards, and their continuation by means of practical acquaintance with the limits imposed on the graduated object-lessons so as to lead up to more disrange of instruction by the nature of the child-material tinctive scientific and manual instruction for the more with which they have to deal. For no designer trained advanced scholars of the school. Manual instruction of 10 make "designs-in-the-abstract "--who produces pat- some kind ought to be introduced throughout boys' rerns for carpets which cannot be woven, for wall- schools to balance needlework instruction for girls. papers which cannot be printed, for copper that cannot By manual instruction we do not merely mean instruction be beaten, and for wood that cannot be carved-could in woodwork (called, rather unhappily, the “use of tools” be more out of touch with the material in which his in the recent Act), which is evidently only suitable for the designs have to be executed than the educational "re- higher standards, say the sixth and seventh. We doubt if hurmer-in-the-abstract," who sketches fabulous plans for it can be profitably given to children below the age of 11, L'niversal National Systems of Education which have and even in the case of these it can of course only take only one defect--that they are impossible to carry out. the form of the "hand and eye” training---not of specific
VOL. XLI.-No. 1061.
instruction in carpentry. For younger children, however, get, yet of what we may justly press for, in the coming much might be done in the way of modelling (or, as it has English Code. It is, indeed, an enormous advance been called, “ applied drawing”, designed to carry on the Scotch members of Parliament sometimes complain that training of the fingers which are often made so nimble Scotch business attracts no attention at Westminster by the paper-cutting and the Kindergarten exercises of The evil, however, has at least some compensating ad. the infant school, only at present to lose their pliancy and vantages. Unchallenged-almost unnoticed—the officials dexterity by want of practice as soon as the child emerges at the Scotch Education Office can quietly introduce by a from the fairy-land of the Kindergarten into the dull, stroke of the pen the reforms in the Code for which we prosaic atmosphere of Standard I.
in England have to wait year after year. It may serve To introduce this change it will doubtless be necessary a useful purpose if we recount a few of the reforms which to abolish individual examination in the lower standards Mr. Craik has been able to carry out this year in Scotch at least, and assimilate them in this respect to the infant education. Of the abolition of fees we say nothing, for school. Another change will also be necessary, in the that was the result of legislation last session. mode of interpreting the Education Acts which has In the first place, individual examination in the elehitherto been customary at Whitehall. Up to the present mentary subjects, which had already been abolished in time there has been a tendency in the Government the first three standards, is now replaced by collective Departments to decline to recognize manual training as examination throughout the school. This change give a form of instruction contemplated by the Acts, and in much greater elasticity and liberty of classification to the the well-known case of the Beethoven Street Board teacher, and to a great extent modifies the pressure of School, the London School Board were surcharged by the the system of payment by results. auditor with the cost of tools. The School Board failed In the next place, the system of class subjects is ento carry the question to the law courts, and so for a time tirely revised. Several alternative courses in elementary the matter rested. Since then, however, the question has science are suggested, including courses of "naturz entered on a new phase. The Liverpool School Board, knowledge” in “animals," “ vegetables," and "matter," wishing to provide manual instruction in its schools, for each of which simple and suitable suggestive syllabus has obtained the opinion of Sir Horace Davey, Q.C., to are laid down. Any other progressive scheme of teach the effect that such provision clearly comes within the ing may be submitted to the inspector for approval. power of School Boards. The Board has consequently “In elementary science this scheme may be so framed taken steps to make the necessary provision, has appointed as to lead up to the teaching of scientific specific subjects an instructor, and now only waits to be surcharged in It may include the subjects of navigation or the eleorder to carry the whole question to the Queen's Bench.mentary principles of agriculture ; and a course of Other School Boards are following suit, so that we must manual instruction on a graduated system may also be very shortly see the matter settled in one way or submitted.” another. The legal question is interesting, not only in its At the same time the regulation requiring either En, bearing on manual training, but on the general powers of lish or elementary science to be taken as one of the des School Boards to give any extra instruction they please, subjects is rescinded. It is to be noticed that in Sco provided they comply with all the regulations and re- land an attempt was made in the previous Code 1 quirements of the Education Department for the time encourage science teaching by making it alternative to being. If Sir Horace Davey's opinion is sustained, it English as a compulsory class subject. It is somewhat carries with it the right of School Boards to provide any disappointing to be told, as we are in the last Scoto form of technical or manual instruction that can be given Report, that the change has as yet produced but little consistently with the regulations of Whitehall. Up to increase in science teaching. This fact seems to sup the present year, as we stated above, the Education De-port the suggestion of the Technical Association tha partment was not altogether favourable to the views of science instruction (which gives more trouble and re Sir Horace Davey. But it is rumoured that of late the quires more appliances) should be encouraged by i views of the authorities on the subject have undergone a slightly higher scale of grant than that allotted a change, and that it is probable that manual instruction other class subjects. But it also tends to suggest the may not only be recognized as legal, but actually incor- possibility that part of the price which Scotland has porated as a grant-earning subject in the forthcoming to pay for the ease with which it can get educations Code. The rumour, which we sincerely hope is true, is changes carried out is a certain popular indifferences confirmed by the fact that in the Scotch Code just issued those changes which may go far to make them nugatory a clause is inserted for the first time inviting school Thus it is quite possible that the Departmental invitation managers to submit as a class subject (earning a grant to submit courses of manual instruction may produce far of 25. or is. a head) “a course of manual instruction on less effect on schools in Scotland than would be produced a graduated system.” The Scotch Education Department, in England by a favourable decision of the law courts se therefore, has conceded the whole principle, and though a hotly disputed case such as that which may conta of course Scotland has a separate Act, the admission is before them in connection with the Liverpool School full of significance. It would be a trifle too absurd for Board. The steam which has to be got up on this side of the English Education Department to refuse to recognize the Tweed in order to get a reform permitted will often as educational” a subject which the Scotch Office thinks supply the motive force which will get that reform carried important enough to be encouraged by a grant.
out. The different fate which has attended the Scorch In other respects the new Code just issued from Mr. and the English Technical Instruction Acts hitherto # Craik's office is a valuable index, if not of what we shall case in point. The Scotch Act, passed with ease throng!
an apathetic House, has fallen flat, while the English instruction among the class subjects an unnatural rivalry Act, badly drawn as it is, is arousing a great and in- may be set up between this subject and elementary creasing amount of interest in the country, and within science, which may restrict the spread of both ? All this, the first six months is already in full swing in several however, is a matter for the future. Meanwhile we have districts.
only to congratulate the Scotch on the improvement of Rut this is a digression. The recasting and improve the conditions under which in the future their schools ment of the system of class subjects in Scotland is in. will be carried on, and to express the hope that England teresting not only in itself but as indicating a probable will not lag behind. haage of a similar kind in the English Code. Underi i One word in conclusion. It may be wondered why in these circumstances we must not fail to note the paralle this article, dealing with scientific and technical inchange carried out in the schedule of “specific subjects.' struction in elementary schools, so little reference is most the whole of the schedule which relates to made to the Technical Instruction Act of last session, science subjects-chemistry, mechanics, electricity, light either in respect of the powers which it confers on and heat, physiology, botany, and physical geography-is elementary school managers, or of those which, much to entirely cancelled, and for the detailed syllabuses of these' the regret of many politicians, it appears to withhold. subjects is substituted a simple invitation to school The real fact is that we have our doubts as to the managers to submit graduated courses in subjects not need of any general Technical Instruction Act for elementioned in the schedule. At first sight this seems a mentary schools, and have a suspicion that their excluloss-as though the Department were moving in the direc- / sion from the late Act was in reality a blessing in disguise. tion of paying less instead of more attention to science. Of course, if the opinion of Sir Horace Davey (and now The alteration, however, must be read in conjunction with we are glad to be able to add, of the Scotch Education the reforms in class schedules and the observations on Department) should be upset in the law courts, it may class and specific subjects in the last Report of the Scotch be necessary to rectify the anomaly by a short Act of a Education Department. Commenting on the fact that single clause recognizing the legality of manual instruc* the general development of class subjects tends to restrict tion. But, with this possible exception, no new powers Le specific subjects," the Report proceeds: “this is a are required by School Boards, and no new rate need be result not altogether to be regretted, as the influence of imposed. Mr. Mundella, in complaining of the exclusion the class subjects is general, while that of the specific of elementary schools from the late Act, compared the subjects is restricted to a few selected scholars."
scheme to an educational ladder with the lower rungs left Again, in the instructions to inspectors just issued, Mr. out. Let him be reassured-no rung is wanting so far Craik explains one of the objects of the Department to as legislation is concerned. As at present advised, we se to spread the beneficial results of any such higher feel clear that the managers of a public elementary school, resching as may be given, to the whole school, instead of so long as they comply with the requirements of the Decunfining it to a few selected scholars."
partment, may teach what extra subjects they please. It is clear, therefore, that the changes in the fourth and
The rating power possessed by a School Board is limited fifth schedules (which are probably the precursor of only by the wishes of the ratepayers. What really retards m.milar changes in the English Code) are dictated by a the introduction of technical and manual instruction is esire to extend class instruction in science, even if at the the want of imperial grants (which may and ought to be expense of specific subjects ; in other words, to transfer given through changes in the Code), the want of time, the ratural science from its former position, as a smattering of ' pressure of other subjects, the ignorance of the public, a few special branches of physics imparted to a few ' and the parsimony of the ratepayers. But none of these pupils, to its proper place as a course of general stimulat-'obstacles can be removed by legislation. What legislation ing instruction in the elements of "nature knowledge," : could and probably would do, would be to restrict the given as an integral part of the school course to the present powers of School Boards by defining them; and, hool as a whole. More specialized science teaching perhaps, even to confine the rate for technical instruction can still be provided if desired in the form of specific within the limit of a penny in the pound. But this can instruction framed to suit local wants by the various hardly be what Mr. Mundella wants. school managers, or it may be given, as is already the case in many elementary schools, by means of science classes in connection with the Science and Art Department.
| A DICTIONARY OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY. We cannot doubt that the Scotch Department is right in its policy, but the probable extension of class teaching A Dictionary of Applied Chemistry. By T. E. Thorpe, sier the new and more elastic régime suggests a doubt
B.Sc. (Vict.), Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. Assisted by Eminent
Contributors. In Three Volumes. Vol. I. (London : whether the proper way of introducing manual instruction is by means of including it among the class subjects, so
Longmans and Co., 1890.) Imre, at least as the possible number of class subjects nis THE first volument of the Dictionary of Applied previously recognized for boys--has already been put out addition to our scientific books of reference, and forms an side the range of class subjects. Needlework—the only admirable companion to the “ Dictionary of Theoretical other manual subject in the Code---may be taught either Chemistry,” the second volume of which was reviewed 13 a class subject or as part of the ordinary curriculum of the some weeks ago. school is there not a chance that in including manual In the preface Prof. Thorpe points out that, as this
work has special reference to the applications of As we all know, it was Pasteur who first directed attentios chemistry to the arts and manufactures, it deals but to those other forms of Saccharomyces known as "will" sparingly with the purely scientific aspects of the science, yeasts in fermenting yeasts and beer ; but it is not !' unless these have some direct and immediate bearing on commonly understood that it was Hansen who taught the business of the technologist. How direct and how how to introduce into the liquid a seed yeast really free immediate such a bearing is at the present day, and how from "wild” forms. Since 1883 carefully selected type difficult, not to say impossible, it is to separate theory of yeast from pure cultures, according to Hansen's to from practice, may be judged of by turning over the searches, have been introduced into Denmark, Norway, pages of this most useful volume.
and Bavaria, with the most satisfactory results, whilst o Take, for example, the article on the azines, written by England nothing of the kind has yet been done, althougt. the most competent authority on that subject, Dr. Otto at Burton several experiments have been made in this Witt, of Berlin. The untrained technologist will be com- ' direction. Sufficient has already been done to show tha: pletely at sea with the honeycomb of benzene rings with several varieties of Saccharomyces cerevisie can be which he clearly explains the constitution of such well- ' separated, which, however, do not differ morphologicall. known compounds as the safranenes, the splendid yellow | but may be distinguished from each other, inasmuch 2: dyes so ably investigated by Dr. Witt himself, whereas they give entirely different results, both as to flavou the manufacturer who has the theory of the subject at brightness, attenuation of the beer, and to the mode de command is complete master of the situation. Or, again, separation of the yeast. The proportion of these differee! let us turn to the next article, on the azo-colouring matters, varieties in various breweries seems to remain constan communicated by another equally trustworthy authority,' and to give the peculiar flavour and appearance which Prof. Meldola, covering 28 thickly-printed pages, in which the various fermented liquors possess. the same necessary connection is seen. And no other! Another article is that by Prof. Noel Hartley example, perhaps, indicates more forcibly the enormous cements, a subject which though of great importance u advance which applied chemistry has made in the last ten not usually considered of great chemical interest, bu: * years, and its entire dependence upon abstract research. has been made so by the writer. He points out the fact In proof of this, it needs only to be pointed out that the certainly not known to the majority of chemists, that se article concludes with a list of no less than 95 distinct owe to Lavoisier the first explanation of the phenomena patents on this one group of colouring matters, from of the baking and hardening of plaster of Paris. At March 12, 1878, to June 30, 1888, all of which are the so early an age as 21, he published a short note result of original, chiefly German, research.
the Comptes rendus of February 17, 1765, in which is An examination of other important articles written by showed that water is removed from the gypsum nts specially-qualified contributors indicates that each sub- stages, that the first three-quarters of the combined ject is brought up to the level of the present state of our water must be removed in order that the plaster shall knowledge. Let us look for a moment at the article on afterwards set, but that if the whole of the combinec ammonia, contributed by Prof. Lunge, of Zurich. Here water be removed, the gypsum becomes overburnt ad we find detailed reference to the newest forms of appa- I loses its value as plaster, ratus for the manufacture of ammonium salts, illustrated It is probable that this volume will have even a larger by excellent woodcuts of the Feldmann-still. Again, sale than that of the corresponding " Dictionary of Pare turning to the article on chlorine, we have to note the Chemistry," and, as with that important work, so with. same completeness and technical grasp of the questions this, the public may well be congratulated on possessing discussed. Thus, on p. 526, we find the method patented such a valuable book of reference so creditable ta zh so long ago as 1866 by Mr. Brock, of Widnes, and now concerned in its production.
H. E. ROSCOE for the first time coming into general use, which has for its object the treatment of the exit gases from the bleaching-powder chambers by means of a dry lime OATES'S ORNITHOLOGY OF INDIA. sprinkler, this not only removing a serious nuisance in the manufacture, but also recovering chlorine otherwise The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon az wasted.
Burma. Published under the authority of the Secretar, Prof. Hummel, of Leeds, contributes an excellent
of State for India in Council. Edited by W. T
Blanford. Birds. Vol. I. By Eugene W. Oates. article on bleaching; and here again we see that the newest processes are fully described, e.g. on p. 323 the
Pp. i.--XX., 1-556. (London: Taylor and Frana, Mather-Thompson bleaching process is fully noticed, and
1889.) the electrical bleaching process of Hermite likewise re
The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds. By Allan ( ferred to. As regards this latter, the conclusion arrived
Hume, C.B. Second Edition. Edited by E. W. Oato at is that now generally admitted by practical authori
Vol. I. Pp. i.-xii., 1-397. (London : R. H. Portes. ties, viz. that electrolytic bleaching cannot reasonably be
1889.) expected to replace bleaching-powder at a price of £7 | THEates was recently published
, will supply a much per ton.
One of the most valuable articles in the book is written needed want. The period of twenty-six years whuch las by Mr. John Heron on brewing, in which he not only elapsed since the publication of Jerdon's " Birds of India describes the most modern forms of brewing plant and has been prolific in ornithological work, to such as processes, but gives a clear statement of the important re- extent that a new adjustment of the scattered den searches of Pasteur and Hansen on the alcoholic ferments, which had accumulated since that time had becomes
absolute necessity. Mr. Oates has already won his spurs in writing the “ Catalogue of Birds," he has found it hard in the field of Indian ornithology; for his “ Hand-book of to be consistent, and he certainly varies somewhat in his the Birds of Burma," published in 1883, has always estimate of characters in different families. Thus he been looked upon as a standard work ; and by coming to divides the Bulbuls into a number of slenderly defined England, at great personal sacrifice, to write the bird genera, yet he places the Rook and the Jackdaw in the volumes of the " Fauna of British India," he has deserved same genus, Corvus, as the Raven. What was sauce for the gratitude of all zoologists. Those of us who are a Bulbul ought to have been sauce for a Rook ! It is very acquainted with the “ Hand-book " before mentioned, will interesting to notice the immense strides which our knownot be surprised to find that in the present volumes Mr. ledge of Indian ornithology has made in the last twenty Oates has done his work in a thoroughly conscientious years. This is mostly due to the energy of Mr. Allan Hume, manner. Without commencing, as Jerdon did, with a whose marvellous collection of Oriental birds was given Ineral outline of ornithology, for which space was not by him to the British Museum in 1885. Since that date available, Mr. Oates has contrived to give a condensed the registration and arrangement of the Hume Collection, introduction, which will give the student some small idea has occupied the bulk of our own time and that of our of classification of passerine birds, with which this colleagues in the Bird Room, so that the whole of the volume deals. We could have wished that the author Indian Passeres have been placed conveniently at Mr. had followed a more natural arrangement of passerine Oates's disposal for the present work. It may, indeed, families, as his scheme of arrangement results in some be said that Mr. Hume sowed, the officers of the British very incongruous affinities, but these will doubtless be Museum watered, and Mr. Oates came over from India further explained when the author gives a detailed in time to gather the increase. It must be a great arrangement of the orders and families of birds in his pleasure to Mr. Hume, and to Major Wardlaw Ramsay, third volume. As the furlough which has been granted who gave the Tweeddale Collection and Library to the in Mr. Oates is quite insufficient for him to finish the Museum two years ago, to see that already their magniwork in anything like a reasonable period, we are glad to ficent donations have been turned to such good account. learn that a representation has been made to the The number of new species described by Mr. Oates is, Government of India, by some of our leading men of as might be expected, small; but ornithology has now science, for a further extension of leave, to enable the reached a stage when the description of new species will author to finish the work, which he has begun so be surpassed in interest by the study of greater facts, of creditably. It would be a thousand pities to see the com- which the geographical distribution of birds is likely to pletion of this book intrusted to less capable hands, of prove the most absorbing. For this purpose the splendid which there seems to be some fear expressed in Mr. Collection of skins amassed by Mr. Hume will be invaluBlanford's preface.
able, for in most instances the specimens in the Hume Since Mr. Seebohm, in the fifth volume of the “Cata- collection trace out definitely the range of each species, logue of Birds in the British Museum," laid stress on the and Mr. Oates has shown great talent in condensing into importance of the plumage of the young as distinguish- his limited space the large amount of material which was ing characters between the Thrushes and the Warblers, at his command. It is, in fact, impossible to speak too this character has been thoughtfully considered by many highly of the way in which he has performed his task. omnithologists; but Mr. Oates has been the first to apply The volume before us is profusely illustrated with it in any large measure to the bulk of the passerine birds, woodcuts, which will undoubtedly be of great service to and it enables him to divide them into five sections, the student in enabling him to identify the species of characterized by the plumage in the nestling. This birds which are to be met with in India. These woodarrangement brings about some rather startling results, cuts are, almost without exception, well executed, and are for the Titmice (Parida) become merged in the family the best specimens of ornithological work which we have
vide, and the Dongos (Dicrurida) range in close seen from the pencil of Mr. Peter Smit. We are not proximity to the Nuthaches (Sittide) and the Creepers quite able to grasp the plan on which the names of Indian (Certhüda). This character of the plumage of the nest- localities have been altered in the present book to bring lings, like all single characters, carries the author too far, them into a recognized system of correct orthography, and it is becoming more and more plain every day that but we suppose that there is some sound reason for the the natural classification of birds in the future will be changes. If, however, our old friend “Mooleyit” is to founded on a combination of characters, not on any single become “Muleyit," and “ Malewoon” to become " Malaone alone. Mr. Oates himself, in his arrangement of the wun," why does not “ Masuri ” take the piace of Crateropodidæ, shows how this can be done.
“Mussoorie"? Surely it is pedantic to alter the specific It is impossible to praise too highly the method in name of “nipalensis” to “nepalensis,” because it suits which the present book has been worked out, though it modern notions to speak of “ Nepal” instead of “Nipal.” 3. to be regretted that four volumes were not allowed for As this mode of orthography does not appear in any of the birds, instead of three, for the constriction of the Mr. Oates's previous writings, we suppose that the editor work has compelled the author to treat of 563 species is responsible for the changes in the spelling of the names in 544 pages, which is an allowance of less than a page of places. We would gladly adopt a complete method of to each species, including the space necessary for family spelling the names of Indian localities, but that adopted characters and "keys" to genera and species. We notice in the present work seems neither one thing or the that the author has been driven to create a good many other. new genera, but we are not disposed to quarrel with him It was a happy idea of Mr. Oates's to issue the new on this account, though we notice that, like ourselves, edition of Mr. Hume's “Nests and Eggs of Indian