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made on the top of La Croix des Gardes. The number of two or three weeks at three stations-namely, at Kinhere varied from 1550 per cubic centimetre, when the wind gairloch, which is situated on the shore of Loch Linnhe, was from the mountainous districts, to 150,000 when it and about fourteen miles to the north of Oban, at Alford came from the town.
in Aberdeenshire, the observations being made at a At Mentone the number varied from 1200 per cubic distance of two miles to the west of that village, and at a centimetre in air from the hills to 7200 in the air coming situation six miles north-west of Dumfries. from the direction of the town.
At Kingairloch the number varied from 205 per cubic Tests were made of the air coming towards the shore centimetre to 4000 per cubic centimetre. At Alford from from the Mediterranean at three different places-at La 530 to 5700 per cubic centimetre, and at Dumfries from I'lage, Cannes, and Mentone. In no case was the amount 235 to 11,500 per cubic centimetre. These three stations of dust small.' The lowest was 1800 per cubic centimetre, were in fairly pure country air---that is, pure as regards and the highest 10,000 per cubic centimetre.
pollution from the immediate surroundings. Observations were also made at Bellagio and Bavero, Tests were also made of the air on the top of Ben on the Italian lakes. At both stations the number was Nevis on August 1, when the number was found to be always great-generally from 3000 to 10,000 per cubic centi- 335 per cubic centimetre at i p.m., and 473 two hours metre. This high number was owing to the wind, during later. On the top of Callievar, in Aberdeenshire, on the time of the observations, being light and southerly-September 9, the number was at first 262, and rose in two that is, from the populous parts of the country. Smaller hours to 475 per cubic centimetre. numbers were observed at the entrance to the Simplon The pollution of the earth's atmosphere by human Pass and at Locarno, at both of which places the wind agencies is then considered, and it is pointed out that, blew from the mountains when the tests were being made. while on the top of the Rigi and in the wilds of Argyll
A visit of some days was made to the Rigi Kulm. On shire air was tested which had only a little over two the first day, which was May 21, the top of the mountain hundred particles per cubic centimetre, near villages the was in cloud, and the number of particles was as low as number goes up to thousands, and in cities to hundreds 210 per cubic centimetre. Next day the number gradually of thousands. The increase, though great, is shown not increased to a little over 2000 per cubic centimetre, after to be in proportion to the sources of pollution, and it is which the number gradually decreased till on the 25th pointed out that part of this is owing to the impure the number was a little over 500 per cubic centimetre at stream of air being deepened as well as made more 10 a.m. On descending the mountain to Vitznau the same impure. day, the number was found to be about 600 per cubic About 200 particles per cubic centimetre is the lowest centimetre at midday, and in the afternoon at a position number yet observed, but we have no means of knowing about a mile up the lake from Lucerne the number was 650 whether this is the lowest possible, or of knowing how per cubic centimetre.
much of this is terrestrial and how much cosmic, formed Most of the observations taken of Swiss air show it to by the millions of meteors which daily fall into our atmobe comparatively free from dust. This is probably owing sphere. Even in the upper strata there seems to be dust, to the vast mountainous districts extending in many as clouds form at great elevations. directions. It is thought that much of the clearness and The effect of dust on the transparency of the atmobrilliancy of the Swiss air is due to the small amount of sphere is then discussed with the aid of the figure in the dost in it.
table. It is shown that the transparency of the atmoOwing to the kindness of M. Eiffel an investigation of sphere depends on the amount of dust in it, and that the the air over Paris was made on the Tower on May 29. effect of the dust is modified by the humidity of the air. The day was cloudy and stormy, with southerly wind. With much dust there is generally little transparency, but Most of the observations were taken at the top of the it is pointed out that air with even 5000 particles per c.c. Tower, above the upper platform, and just under the may be clear, if it is so dry as to depress the wet-bulb lantern for the electric light. The number of particles thermometer 10° or more. By comparing days on which was found to vary very rapidly at this elevation, showing there was the same amount of dust, it is seen that the that the impure city air was very unequally diffused into transparency varied with the humidity on two days with the upper air, and that it rose in great masses into the the same amount of dust ; but the one with a wet-bulb purer air above. Between the hours of 10 a.m. and i ' depression of 13° was very clear, while the other, with a p.in. the extreme numbers observed were 104,000 per wet-bulb depression of only 2°, was very thick. cubic centimetre and 226 per cubic centimetre. This To show the effect of the number of particles on the larter number was obtained while a rain-cloud was over transparency, a number of days are selected on which the the Tower, and, as the shower was local, the descending humidity was the same, when it is seen that when the rain seems to have beaten down the city air. The low wet-bulb was depressed 4°, with 550 particles the air number continued some time, and was fairly constant was clear, medium clear with 814, but thick with 1900. during the time required for taking the ten tests of which From the table a number of cases are taken illustrating the above low number is the average.
the dependence of the transparency of the air on the The air of Paris was tested at the level of the ground ' number of particles in it, and on the humidity, both dust a the same day, the observations being made through and humidity tending to decrease the transparency. the kindness of M. Mascart in the garden of the Humidity alone seems to have no influence on the transMeteorological Office in the Rue de l'Université. The parency apart from the dust, but it increases the effect of number on this day varied from 210,000 to 160,000 per the dust by increasing the size of the particles. cubic centimetre.
The modifying effect of the humidity is shown to be Very few tests have been made of the air of London. influenced by the temperature. The same wet-bulb The air coming from Battersea Park, when a fresh wind depression which will give with a given number of was blowing from the south-west, on June 1, was found particles a thick air at a temperature of 60° will give a Iv vary from 116,000 to 48,000 per cubic centimetre. The clearer air if the temperature be lower. This is illustrated numbers observed in cities are of no great value, as so by examples taken from the table. The increased mach depends on the immediate surroundings of the thickening effect accompanying the higher temperature position where the tests are made ; so that, while no will be due to the increased vapour-pressure permitting ow number can be observed, a very high one can always the dust particles to attach more moisture to themselves. be obtained. Those recorded were taken where it was These remarks all refer to what takes place in what is thought the air was purest.
called dry air—that is, air which gives a depression of the Observations have been made in Scotland for periods wet-bulb thermometer.
The conclusion come to from the consideration of all The increase in the dust particles which takes place the observations is that the dust in the atmosphere begins when the wind falls, seems to point to a probable increase to condense vapour long before the air is cooled to the of the infection germs in the atmosphere when the weather dew-point. It seems probable that in all states of is calm. As, however, the conditions are not quite the humidity the dust has some moisture attached to it, and same, the organic germs being much larger than most of that, as the humidity increases, the load of moisture the dust particles, and settling more quickly, it may be increases with it.
as well, while accepting the suggestion, to refrain frun Another method of testing the condensing power of drawing any conclusion. dust for water-vapour is then described. In working this In all the fogs tested, the amount of dust has been method the dust is collected on a glass mirror, and its i found to be great. This is shown to be what might now condensing power is determined by placing the mirror be expected from a consideration of the conditions under over a cell in which water is circulated, in the manner of which fogs are formed. One condition necessary for the a Dines hygrometer. The temperature at which con formation of a fog is that the air be calm. But when the densation takes place on the dust and on a cleaned part air is calm both dust and moisture tend to accumulate of the glass is observed. The difference in the two and the dust, by increasing the radiating power of the air, readings gives the condensing power of the dust. One soon lowers its temperature and causes it to condens kind of dust artificially prepared was found to condense vapour on the dust and form a fog. The thickness of vapour just at the dew-point, while another condensed it fog seems to depend in part on the amount of dus at a temperature 17° above the saturation-point. The present, as town fogs, apart from their greater blacknesi atmospheric dust was collected on the mirrors on the
are also more dense than country ones. The great same principle as that used in the thermic filter described amount of dust in city air, by increasing its radiatiny by the author in a previous paper, the dust being deposited power, it is thought, may be the cause of the greater by difference of temperature, the necessary heat being frequency of fogs in town than in country air. obtained by fixing the collecting mirrors on a window At the end of the paper some relations are pointed ou pane. Dust was also collected by allowing it to settle on between the amount of dust and the temperature at the the plates. The atmospheric dust was found to condense time the observations were made, showing that whes vapour at temperatures varying from 10.8 10 4'5 above there was a large amount of dust there was also a he the dew-point. This condensing power of dust explains temperature, and some speculations are entered into a why glass such as that in windows, picture frames, &c., to the effect of dust on climate. But it is at the sarra often looks damp while the air is not saturated ; and in time pointed out that the observations are far 100 feu part it explains why it is so necessary to keep electrical and imperfect to form a foundation for any importan; apparatus free from dust, if we wish to have good conclusi n on that subject. insulation.
In a short appendix is given the result of some tests made The constitution of haze is then considered. It is between January 23 and 29 of this year at Garelocireai. shown that in many cases it is simply dust, on which there During the gale on Saturday, the 25th, the number war seems to be always more or less moisture. But as what rather under 1000 per cubic centimetre. On Monday. is known as haze is generally seen in dry air, the effect is though the wind was still high, the number fell to abou: principally due to dust.
250; and on Tuesday, when the wind had fallen and Some notes from the Rigi Kulm are given, where veered to the north, the number fell lower than bad beco "glories ” and coloured clouds were seen. The condition of previously observed. The number varied from a little the transparency of the lower air as seen from the top of over 100 to about 90 per cubic centimetre. On this da the mountain is discusse 1 with the aid of the observations the air was remarkable for its clearness, the sun was ver made by observers at the lower levels. These observa- strong, and the evening set in with a sharp frost. tions were kindly supplied by M. Bilwiller, of the Swiss
JOHN AIIKEN. Meteorological Office. The difference observed at the top of the mountain in the transparency of the air in different
P.S.-The author of the paper also showed at the same directions is shown to have been caused by a difference in meeting of the Society the apparatus which have just beca the humidity of the air in the different directions. The constructed from his designs for the Observatory on Ben variation in the number of particles on the top of the Nevis. The apparatus has been constructed by the end mountain is considered, and it is shown that the great in- of a Government grant, obtained by the Council of the crease in the number which took place on the second day Scottish Meteorological Society, for the purpose of carry was probably due to the valley air being driven up the ing on the investigation on the dust in the atmosphere a: slopes, reasons being given for this supposition. The the top of Ben Nevis. Two complete sets of apparatus colouring in clouds, and on scenery at sunrise and sunset, were shown. The one is the large laboratory form of the as seen from the tops of mountains and valleys, is re- dust-counter, and is to be fixed, in the meantime, in the marked upon, and it is shown that there is reason for tower of the Observatory ; the air being taken in to it by supposing that when seen from the lower level the colours instrument, to be used when the direction of the wind . will generally be the more brilliant and varied.
The relation of the amount of dust to the barometric such as to bring the smoke of the Observatory towards the distribution is then investigated—as to whether cyclonic tower. This latter instrument has for a short time been or anticyclonic areas have most dust in them. It is in the hands of Mr. Rankin, one of the Ben Neris shown that there is most dust in the anticyclonic areas. observers, who has been practising with it near EduaThe interpretation of this, however, is shown to be that burgh before beginning regular work at the Observators. the amount of dust depends on the amount of wind at the time, and as there is generally little wind in anticyclonic areas, there is generally much dust. Diagrams are given showing by means of curves the amount of dust on each
A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF RUSSIAN day, and also the velocity of the wind. The curves are
TRANSLITERATION. found to bear a close relation to each other
when the one Up to the presentesimae ienes system of transliteration when the stations where the observations were made are generally adopted. Some of those most interested in the not equally surrounded in all directions by sources of pollu- cataloguing and recording of Russian scientific literatur tion." In that case, even with little wind, if it blows from have therefore arranged the following scheme in order to an unpolluted direction the amount of dust is not great. secure the general use of a system which will enable
B B B &
Not indicated at end
those unacquainted with Russian, not only to transliterate With reference to some of the letters a few words of from that language into English, but also to recover the explanation are necessary. original Russian spelling, and so to trace the words in a gh is adopted in preference to g for r, since this letter dictionary.
is also the equivalent of h in such words as I'n apa, which,
if transliterated gidra, would lose its resemblance to the RUSSIAN-ENGLISH.
word hydra, with which it is identical.
Although i and have the same sound, and with a few Roman.
rare exceptions the letter used in the original may be Written Roman.
recognized by a simple rule, it is recommended that the latter should be distinguished by the sign -, since the use of the same English symbol for two Russian characters is objectionable.
The semi-vowels, 6 and b, must be indicated when f
present, except at the end of a word, by the sign' placed bicolo x x x x
above the line; otherwise, the transliteration of two kh
Russian characters might give the same sequence as one цк | 24 и
of the compound equivalents, and it would become difficult tz
to trace the words in a dictionary: T g "
As regards the compound equivalents, nine out of the
twelve may be at once recognized, since h must always d II G U u sh
be coupled with the preceding, and y with the succeeding,
letter. Е е Ee ili in Uly ug sheh
Where proper names have been Russianized, it is
better whenever possible to use them in the original * HH
form rather than to re-transliterate them ; there is no o o
reason why Wales should be rendered Vel's, or Wight
written as Vait. When a Russian name has a more of word. familiar transliterated form, it is advisable to quote this
as well as an exact transliteration with a cross reference. ui
The system will be adopted without delay in the follow
ing publications: the Catalogue of the Natural History K. KH
Museum Library; the Zoological and Geological Records ; K
the publications of the Royal Society, the Linnean, Zoo1.1 1
logical, and Agricultural Societies, and the Institution of
of word. Civil Engineers; the Mineralogical Magazine, and the Axi M M m
Annals of Botany ; and it is hoped that the system will be ቴ ቴ |%ራ
An expression of grateful thanks is due to those who ээ o
have assisted in the arrangement of this system by
criticisms and suggestions ; more especially to Madame
yu Tn II
de Novikoff and N. W. Tchakowsky.
The undersigned either accept the proposed system in P P Р
the publications with which they are severally connected, O Cc
or express their approval of the same :C C
W. H. Flower, C.B. ... Director, Natural History Museum. VV
W. R. Morfill
Reader in Russian, &c., Oxford. т
University, St. Petersburg.
U.S. Geological Survey.
W. Topley ...
I. Bayley Balfour
Annals of Botany.
Index to Mineralogical Papers.
Natural History Museum Library. ck 4 K
J. W. Gregory
Natural History Museum,
THE BOTANICAL INSTITUTE AND MARINE
STATION AT KIEL.
Centralblatt a very interesting account of the Botanical Institute at Kiel, and of the Marine Station attached to it, as far as they are employed for botanical researches.
The harbour of Kiel is remarkably favourable for the observation of marine Algæ and the investigation of their life-history. In brown seaweeds the immediate neighbourhood is exceedingly rich, being scarcely inferior in the number of species to any other spot on the coasts of Europe. One important order, the Dictyotaceæ, is
altogether wanting ; but another very interesting order, variations of temperature in the water during the summer the Tilopterideæ, is well represented. In green Algæ, months. Next spring it is proposed to build an aquarian the large Siphoneæ of the Mediterranean and other for seaweeds for public exhibition in connection with the warmer seas are represented only by Bryopsis. Of red Institute. Algæ, the number of species and genera is inferior to The Government of Prussia has rendered great assis that found in the Mediterranean or on the coasts of Eng- ance in the establishment of the Botanical Institute ! land and France; but almost all the different types of growth are well represented. Although the Baltic has, like the Mediterranean, no tides, the sea level of Kiel harbour falls so considerably with a south wind, that many littoral Algæ are then completely exposed.
The growing-houses consist of a horse-shoe-shaped block of buildings, on one side of which is a long low house, and of a detached underground house. In designing the plan, the object specially kept in view was to furnish favourable conditions for the cultivation of all the important types of warmer climates; and the houses were therefore not built higher than seemed absolutely necessary. The chief part of the block consists of a higher and a lower cool-house, a higher and a lower hot-house, and a propagating-house. The higher houses are eight, the lower four metres in height, and the propagating-house still lower. Each of the lower houses is again divided into two, for different temperatures. The warmer division of the lower hot-house contains three basins for the culture of tropical freshwater plants. The propagating-house is, in the same way, divided into two. The underground house is a long building entirely buried, the glass roof alone projecting above the surface of the ground. The heating is effected by hot-water pipes.
The various study-rooms are devoted partly to morphological and systematic, partly to physiological work. The former comprise a large herbarium in the top story, and four roomy work-rooms on the ground floor, in which are also kept those portions of the herbarium which are required for reference for the work in hand, and the whole of the dried Algæ. The first story is devoted to the residence of the Director. One of the work-rooms is devoted entirely to marine Algæ ; each is fitted up with microscopical apparatus, and they are furnished with a very extensive reference-library. The second portion comprises a room with a small chamber opening out of it for chemico-physiological work; a room with stone floor, facing the north, for physico-physiological work; and a dark chamber with a balcony in the top story. Before the balcony a large sandstone slab is let into the wall of the building for the erection of a heliostat. In the basement story is a dynamo-machine.
For the collection of the seaweeds both row-boats and steamers are employed. For scraping the larger species Marine Station at Kiel through its Minister for Educa off the rocks, Dr. Reinke has contrived a special drag- tion. The Director is very anxious that, especially 10 net, of which a drawing is appended, furnished with a row the department of marine Algæ, the herbarium and of sharp teeth at the mouth. The culture of seaweeds presents greater difficulties complete, by the addition of specimens or of treatise
library, already so rich, should be rendered still mort in summer than in winter. They continue to grow in the published in journals in which it may still be deficient. Baltic at any temperature above zero C.; and, in cultivation, a low temperature is much more favourable to their growth than a high one. In the Institute they continue to fructify through the winter in the cool houses if pro
SIR ROBERT KANE, LL.D., F.R.S. tected from actual frost, the smaller species going through SIR ROBERT KANE was born on September
fiftieth King ing spore; but a frequent change of the sea-water, or George Ill. and the tenth of the Union. Shortly after the addition of nutrient substances, is desirable. In wards his father established chemical works on the North summer the incidence of direct sunlight must be carefully Wall, by the side of the River Liffey, which in time avoided, and the temperature of the air must be kept as developed into important and well-known sulphuric acid low as possible. For this purpose ice-cupboards have and alkali works.' His mother was Ellen Troy, of winse been built. Prof. Reinke has
contrived a special arrange- family Dr. Troy, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. ment for the cultivation of seaweeds in their native was a member Sir Robert Kane very early in his life habitat. In the harbour near to the Botanic Garden, a developed a taste for chemical knowledge, and in 1871 wooden buoy is anchored, from which is suspended a his first paper, “On the Existence of Chlorine in the wire basket by chains from 3 to 4 metres in length. In Native Peroxide of Manganese," was published, and folthis floating aquarium the seaweeds grow exposed to lowed by a series of contributions on kindred theme their most favourable natural conditions of currents and He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1829, and pro
ceeded to his B.A. degree in the spring commencements and more petty the dispute the more time seemed to be of 1835, taking the LL.D. in the summer of 1868. In expended. Now, as we have pointed out more than once, 1634 he was appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy
enormous waste of time is inevitable where the suitors in patent to the Dublin (now the Royal Dublin) Society, and he at
cases, especially in cases which involve scientific details, as most this period devoted himself with great ardour to original research in the field of chemistry, as the long list of his
of them do at the present day, have to appear before a judge who papers in the Royal Society's list will testify. He studied is not himself a man of science. They have to begin by teachin Germany during his summer vacations under both
ing his lordship the rudiments of that branch of science of which Liebig and Mitscherlich, and passed some time under the disputed patent is a practical application. That our judges Dumas at Paris. In 1831 he was elected a member of are painstaking, rapid, and acute pupils may readily be granted, the Royal Irish Academy; he was Secretary of its but still time has to be consumed in the task, and there is someCouncil from 1842 to 1846, and was elected President in thing pathetic in the spectacle of an able and conscientious 1877. In 1849 he was made a Fellow of the Royal lawyer wrestling with the problems presented by the highest Society : shortly afterwards he was selected by the Government as head of the Museum of Irish Industry, scientific witnesses are contradicting each other all round him.
applications of, say, electricity or chemistry to industry, while which post he held until appointed the first President of the Queen's College, Cork. He was a Fellow of the King
We fear that judicial time will continue to be wasted so long as and Queen's College of Physicians, Ireland, a Com judges without a knowledge of science are left unaided to decide missioner of National Education, and a Justice of the questions which demand long scientific training. There can be Peace, Ireland.
no change for the better until judges have sitting on the After over twenty-two years of hard and earnest work bench with them scientific assessors as they have now nava in the development of the Cork College, he resigned the assessors, or until scientific cases are passed on as a matter of presidency in 1873, and took up his residence in Dublin, i course to qualified referees as cases involving accounts are. It where he died on Sunday, the 16th instant.
requires at least as much special training, and is as far outside Sir Robert Kane, in addition to the very numerous the experience of ordinary lawyers, to settle a scientific case, as papers above referred to, was the author of a large and to decide whether a ship has been properly navigated, or whether most important work on the industrial resources of Ire, a set of accounts tell in favour of a plaintiff or a defendant. land, a theme which he handled in a painstaking and judicious manner. In his very early days he had acquired
On Tuesday evening there was some discussion in the House a practical knowledge of the value and importance of of Commons as to the supplemental vote of £100,000 for the many of the neglected industries of Ireland, and from his purchase of a site at South Ken-ington for a suitable building chair in the lecture theatre of the Dublin Society, he for the housing of the science collections. Mr. Jackson exoften called attention to this subject, one which through- plained that the extent of the land was four and a half acres, out his long life he never lost sight of. It is not without and the sum at which it was valued included a building for interest to note the fact that much is owing to the Royal Dublin Society for the ready help afforded to their two
which the Government now paid a rent of £1500 a year, which Professors, now both deceased, Sir Richard Griffith and would, of course, fall out of the Estimates when the Government Sir Robert Kane, in their efforts to advance the industries became the proprietors of the land in question. No commission ai Ireland.
was to be paid to any person on either side in respect of this In 1841, Sir R. Kane was awarded by the Royal transaction, which was a direct one between the Commissioners Society a Royal Medal for his researches into the chemical of the 1851 Exhibition and the Government. Sir H. Roscoe history of archil and litmus; and in 1843, the Cunningham thought it desirable that the money should be voted at once.
old Medal of the Royal Irish Academy, for his researches The plot of land was the only one ever likely to be available for on the nature and constitution of the compounds of am- the purpose. Mr. Mundella said that as he had been pressing monia. These memoirs will be found published in the upon Governments for the last ten years the necessity for them Transactions of the respective institutions.
In recognition of his scientific labours, and on his to acquire this land, he thought that he ought to say something appointment to the presidency of Queen's College, Cork, in defence of what the Government had done in asking for be received knighthood in 1846 from Lord Heytesbury, the sum on the present occasion. He did not approve tise then Irish Viceroy. On the passing of Mr. Fawcett's of supplementary estimates, and he thought that no one Ac in 1875, which altered the constitution of the Uni- would be more glad to get rid of them than the versity of Dublin, and appointed a Council, Sir Robert Government themselves. This question, however, had been Kane was elected one of the first Roman Catholic pressing for the last ten years, because for the whole of that members of that body, a post which he held until 1885, period the most valuable national science collections, such as no when the late Dr. Maguire was elected.
other country in the world possessed, had been housed in the In this brief obituary notice, it is not necessary to most disgraceful manner. The Treasury had all along resisted by Sir Robert Kane, but it is impossible to conclude it the demands made upon them to sanction the expenditure neceswithout a tribute of respect and affection to the many sary for the erection of a Museum to hold these collections, notbugh and excellent qualities of the man, who in the withstanding that three departmental committees had reported various positions of Professor, head of a young educa- in favour of that expenditure. The only question, therefore, ronal establishment, or President of an Academy, won was whether the Government were getting good value for their equally, from all with whom he came in contact, regard money in making this purchase
. He knew something of the value of the land, which had been fixed by eminent surveyors at £200,000, while the Government were going to get it for
£70,000. The money which the Commissioners would receive NOTES.
in respect of the sale would be appropriated to providing l'au. Sruuster has been elected Bakerian Lecturer for the scholarships for the promotion of technical education to the present year. The lecture is to be delivered in the apartments amount of £5000 per annum, which were to be open to all suhe Royal Society og March 20.
schools of every denomination in the United Kingdom. He
therefore urged the Committee to agree to this proposal at LAST week Mr. Justice Kay complained that judicial time is once. Sir L. Playfair explained that the Commissioners sarlly wasted aver patent cases, and he declared that the smaller of the Exhibition of 1851 had formed their estimate of