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the value of the land upon the value of the surrounding the Channel Tunnel, has been carried on for several years. The property. The Commissioners had been pressed year after year following report, by Mr. Francis Brady, C.E., the engineer-ce to apply their surplus revenues to educational purposes. They had chief of the South-Eastern and Channel Tunnel Companies, vs pressed the Government to come to some conclusion on the sub- published in the daily papers on February 20:—"Coal 's ject, as it had been going on for from three to ten years. They reached on Saturday last, the 15th inst., at 1180 feet below the could not go on waiting continually, and the Government at last surface. It came up mixed with clay, and reduced alaost te came to the conclusion-and, he thought, came to a wise con powder by the boring tools. A small quantity of clean bright clusion--to accept the offer. He thought the Committee would coal found in the clay was tested by burning, and proved to be see that they had been very patient. Mr. W. H. Smith, reply. of good bituminous character. The seam was struck after par ing to the objection that the vote ought to have been included ing through 20 feet of clays, grits, and blackish shales belonging in the ordinary estimates, pointed out that if the vote were not to the coal-measures, which at this point lie close under the taken at once, probably it could not be reached before June or Lias, there being only a few intervening beds of sand, limestone July, or even August. It was unreasonable to ask the Commis- and black clay separating them. The correspondence of the sioners to wait until that time. He had resisted the expenditure deposits with those found in the Somersetshire coal-field is the at South Kensington as long as he could, and until he was satis- pretty close, the difference consisting in the absence of the the fied that in the interests of the country it was necessary. He marl at the Shakespeare boring. The lines of bedding in strongly resisted the expenditure before, but when the Commit- shale are distinctly horizontal. This is an indication that the tee they had appointed reported that further accommodation was coal-measures will probably be found at a reasonable desak required, they had no alternative but to carry out their recom- along the South-Eastern Railway to the westward. I beg mendations. The proposal of the Government was accepted hand you herewith two specimens of the clay containing osal, by a majority of 77—the number of those in favour of the re- one taken at 1180 feet, and the other at 1182 feet. I also a duction of the vote being 67, while 144 voted on the other side. close a specimen of clean coal taken to-day at 1183 feet 6 incdes
We regret to notice the death, on February 2, of M. Ch. from the surface.” With regard to this report, Prof. Pasi Fievez, the assistant in charge of the spectroscopic department Dawkins writes to us :-"As the enterprise resulting in the of the Royal Observatory of Brussels, at the comparatively early discovery of coal near Dover was begun in 1886, and is now age of 45. M. Fievez did not enter the Observatory until 1877, being carried on under my advice, I write, after an examinstier having been originally intended for the military profession. M. of the specimens from the boring, to confirm the pablisher Houzeau, then the Director of the Observatory, being desirous report of Mr. Brady, so far as relates to the coal. The celler of creating a spectroscopic department, sent Fievez, to whom measures with good blazing coal have been struck at a depth he proposed to commit its management, to study under Janssen 1160 feet, well within the practical mining limit, and the ques at Meudon, with whom he remained six months. Fievez's most tion is definitely answered which has vexed geologists for mere important work was the construction of a chart of the solar than thirty years. Further explorations, however, now onda spectrum on a scale considerably greater than that of Ångström; consideration, will be necessary before the thickness of the but besides this he was not able to effect much in astronomical coal and the number of the seams can be ascertained. This spectroscopy, owing to the unfavourable position of the Obser- discovery, I may add, with all the important consequence vatory for such observations. He therefore turned his attention which it may involve, is mainly due to the indomitable energy principally to laboratory work, and in this department made a of Sir Edward W. Watkin." detailed study of the spectrum of carbon, besides numerous ex The second meeting of the Australasian Association for periments on the behaviour of spectral lines under the influences Advancement of Science seems to have been in every way mo of magnetism and of changes of temperature. M. Fievez was successful. It was held at Melbourne, and began on January : Correspondant of the Royal Academy of Belgium, and Foreign At the Sydney meeting last year there were 850 members. This Member of the Society of Italian Spectroscopis ts.
year the number rose to 1060. Baron von Müller, F.R.S., Waz Students of paläontology heard with much regret of the the President. Great efforts were made to secure that memben recent death of Prof. von Quenstedt, of Tübingen. He was the from a distance should enjoy their visit to Melbourne, nal the most famous of German palæontologists, and did much im. serious work of the various Sections was varied by pleasant a portant work in mineralogy also. He had an especially profound cursions. An excellent "Hand-book of Melbourne," eliet be knowledge of the Lias of Würtemberg and its fossils. His work Prof. Baldwin Spencer, was issued. on "Der Jura” is well known, and so recently as 1885 a new This year the University of Helsingfors will celebrate us edition, greatly modified, of his “ Handbuch der Petrefacten- two hundred and fiftieth anniversary. It was founded at Alor kunde” was issued. Dr. von Quenstedt died at an advanced but transferred to Helsingfors in 1820. age on December 21, 1889.
At a recent meeting of the French Meteorological Society, A writer who is contributing to Industries a series of Wada, of the Tokio Observatory, gave a résumé of the seems articles on the "Recent Growth of Technical Societies," infers, logical observations made in Japan during 1887. The number from a comparison of the balance-sheet for 1878 with that for of earthquake shocks amounted during the year to 483 The 1888, that the Proceedings of the Royal Society are "evidently hourly and monthly distribution of the shocks at Tokio dari less sought after than they were.” An average of four years the last 12 years shows a slight excess in favour of the nightwould have pointed to an opposite conclusion. For the years time, above the day; and also an excess in winter and spring 1876-79 the average sale was £743 Is. 7d., while that of 1886-89 over the other seasons. The area affected during the year 1897 was £810 38. 31. The writer leaves out of account, moreover, represented five times the superficies of the empire. M. Wada that in 1878 the Royal Society, according to their published list, gave details of the shocks, their direction, intensity, and presented their Transactions and Proceedings to 276 institutions, distribution, while at present they give them to no fewer than 363 insti
TIDINGS of another great volcanic eruption have come from tutions.
Japan. Mount Zoo, near the town of Fukuvama, in the Bm,v Much interest has been excited by the announcement of the district, began to rumble at 8 o'clock on the evening of faunar; discovery of coal in Kent. The search for coal at a point near the 16, and the top of the mountain is said to have been ska South-Eastern Railway, adjoining the experimental heading for “lifted off." There was a din like a dynamite explosion, and
band and stones were belched forth. Stones and earth also fell ward at a public meeting in the Mansion House. This meeting, at Midsanomimura, a village six miles away. No previous will take place on Thursday, April 24, and the Lord Mayor will ruption of Mount Zoo is recorded. Only one man lost his preside. ife, but some cattle were killed, and 55 houses were destroyed. The ninth annual meeting of the members of the Sanitary The total loss entailed by the eruption is estimated at nearly Assurance Association was held on Monday, February 17, Sir 13.500,000
Joseph Fayrer, F.R.S., in the chair. Mr. Joseph Hadley, Two rather strong shocks of earthquake were felt at Rome on Secretary, read the annual report, which concluded as follows :Sanday last, February 23, shortly after 11 p.m. They were “Though the important bearing of the work of the Association nore distinct in the environs than in the city itself, and especially on the public health is not yet fully appreciated by the general k the Rocca di Papa in the Campagna.The Rome corre public, the financial statement for the past year proves that the undent of the Daily News says it was remarked that flocks Association is making progress, and that after nine years' exbf sheep " showed great signs of fear some time before the shocks perience its work continues to be appreciated. The income for Here felt." The correspondent of the Standard notes that in the year was £398 8s. 1od., and after meeting all liabilities a averal public buildings the gas was almost extinguished, that balance is carried forward." The Chairman, in proposing the liect cal apparatus was disturbed, and that electric bells were adoption of the report, said that the more he saw of the work let ringing." "My own experience," he adds, “was that of of the Association, and the need for sanitary improvement, the feeling lifted up from my seat, and then set down again with a more was he interested in its progress, and he expressed a hope light, but sickening, jar, while doors rattled, and furniture was that not only might this Association prosper, but that others noved so as to produce noise in knocking against walls." might be formed, so great was the work to be done. General
ACCORDING to a telegram sent through Reuter's agency from Burne and Dr. Danford Thomas were re-elected members of the Lisbon, a slight shock of earthquake was felt on February 24 Smith were re-elected President and Vice-President respectively.
executive council, and Sir Joseph Fayrer and Prof. T. Roger u Leiria and places between it and the sea coast.
The Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for February Some time ago we referred to the fact that the Manchester itates that the month of January was remarkable for the Field Naturalists' and Archæologists' Society had appointed a tropestuous weather that prevailed almost uninterruptedly over committee for the purpose of promoting the planting of trees he steamship routes. Storms succeeded each other in rapid and shrubs in Manchester and its immediate suburbs. The idea necession, the majority of them having developed inland and has commended itself to the Corporation, and it is expected that noved east-north-east on very similar paths from Nova Scotia evergreen shrubs, planted in boxes or tubs, will soon be placed. und across southern Newfoundland. The most notable storm of in some of the principal squares. Meanwhile, the committee hr month was probably one that developed in the St. Lawrence are trying to obtain the aid of experienced practical men. They alley, and crossed the Straits of Belle Isle early on the 3rd. Tt have issued a circular with the following list of questions :hen moved nearly due east, rapidly increasing in intensity until “What description of trees would you especially recommend for maching the 20th meridian, when it curved to the north-eastward, open spaces ?" "What kind of shrubs, especially such as ini was centrai on the 5th about lat. 55° N., long. 17° W., and would succeed in tubs or boxes ?” “What suggestions can you neappeared north of Scotland. The barometric pressure in
offer as to soil, treatment, and upon any important point relating hun storm was remarkably low, 27'93 inches having been re
to tree culture in towns ?” When the best information that wrial at 4 [1, m. on January 4, about lat. 53' N., long. 23° W.
can be obtained has been brought together, it will be embodied There was a slight increase in the amount of fog experienced ; in a pamphlet, which may, it is hoped, serve as a general guide
was confined for the most part to the regions west of the for tree planting and culture. arand Banks. Much ice has been reported since the 5th ; the At the meeting of the Royal Botanic Society on Saturday, bositions and dates plotted on the chart indicate that the ice the Secretary called attention to several plants of hygrometric team is one of the earliest on record-nearly a month earlier club moss from Mexico, which had been presented, with other han usual. This is due in a great nieasure to the prevalence of specimens, by Mr. A. Gudgeon. The Secretary stated that To'an northerly gales east of Labrador, coincident with the these plants had the power, ascribed to the well-known rose of eavy westerly gales of December and January along the Jericho, of rolling themselves up like a ball when dry, and fransatlantic route.
becoming apparently dead; but that they were able to unfold and Tue Japanese Government, we observe, is about to establish grow again when exposed to moisture. The specimens shown. meteorological observatory in the Loochoo Islands. This is
had been kept for three months in a dry place, but now were ne of the most important positions in the East for meteoro- green, and to all appearance flourishing. >gical purposes, for it fills up the very large gap at present
The following lectures will be given at the Royal Victoria Listing between Shanghai and Manilla in one direction, and Hall during March :-March 4, Mr. F. W. Rudler, on “Geology lung Kong and Tokio in the other. Besides, the Loochoo in the Streets of London”; 11th, Dr. Dallinger, on "The Archipelago is a specially valuable position for observing the Infinitely Great and the Infinitely Small”; 18h, Prof. benomena connected with the course of the typhoons of the Beare, on “ Australia ”; 25th, Mr. W. North, on “Rome.”
"Our Earth and its Story” (Cassell and Co.) consists of The meeting of the International Congress of Hygiene three volumes, not two, as inadvertently stated in our notice of ad Demography, which is to be held in London in 1891, the work on February 13 (p. 341). vill probably be thoroughly successful. An organizing com A Series of new compounds of hydroxylamine, NH,OH, with illetwith Sir Douglas Galton as President, has been several metallic chlurides, are described by M. Crismer in the immeri, and already delegates have been appointed by the current number of the Bulletin de la Société Chimique. The kadung scientific societies. On Tuesday, February 18, a depu- first member of the series obtained was the zinc compound ballon waited upon the Lord Mayor to discuss the arrangements ZnCl, 2NH,OH, whose existence was unexpectedly discovered bat ought to be made for the meeting. The Lord Mayor, during the course of experiments upon the action of metallic zinc aving heard what Sir Douglas Galton, Prof. Corfield, and other on aqueous hydroxylamine hydrochloride. A ten per cent. members of the deputation had to say as to the importance of solution of this latter salt was treated with an excess of pure he Congress, undertook that the matter should be brought for. | zinc ; no evolution of gas was noticed in the cold, but on warming
over a water-bath a slow disengagement of bubbles was found to
Remarks. occur. After allowing the reaction to complete itself during the (1) “Very bright ; very large; at first very gradually, the course of a few days, the liquid, which had become turbid, was very suddenly much brighter in the middle" The spectrum filtered, allowed to cool, and again filtered from a little more this nebula has not yet, so far as I know, been recorded. flocculent material which separated out, and finally concentrated
(2) Dunér classes this with stars of Group II., but state te and allowed to crystallize. A large quantity of hemispherical to the type. As I have before remarked, Mr. Luckyer'i ar
the spectrum is very feebly developed, and expresses a donar crystal aggregates then separated, which were found on analysis to cussion of the stars of this group seems to indicate that ? consist of the new salt, ZnCl2.2NH,OH. Several other methods spectra which are described as "feebly developed" really nem of obtaining it were investigated; it may be obtained by sent stages in the passage from one group to another. 1.* treating an aqueous solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, example, we consider a rather faint star with the banded qe NH,OH. HCI, with zinc oxide or carbonate, or with a mixture spectrum would no doubt be described as “ feebly developed
trum a little more developed than in the case of Aldebaran. of zinc sulphate and barium carbonate, or by treating an alcoholic if classed with Group II. In such a case the star would solution of hydroxylamine with zinc chloride. But the best more condensed than those in which the spectrum is said to be method, and one which gives 97 per cent. yield, consists in dis- well developed, and the futings would have almost entir: solving ten parts of hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 300 c.c. given way to lines. Line absorptions would therefore indio of alcohol in a flask provided with an inverted condenser ; the other hand, if the star be at a very early stage of cadena c.
that the star belonged to a late stage of the group. On the liquid is then heated to the boiling point and five parts of zinc the flutings would still only be feebly developed, and migh: 5 oxide added, the boiling being continued for several minutes accompanied by bright lines. In any case, further examinatz 1 afterwards. The clear liquid is then decanted and allowed to is necessary, as the star may belong to an early stage of Gr. cool. After the deposition of the first crop of crystals, the
VI., and not to Group II, at all. mother liquor may be returned to the flask and treated with a usual differential observations are required.
(3) A star classed by Vogel with stars of the solar type. Ti further quantity of zinc oxide, four repetitions of this treatment
(4) A star of Group IV. (Vogel). The usual observari... being sufficient to obtain an almost theoretical yield of the salt. are required. The white crystals are then washed with alcohol and dried in the (5) À "superb " example of stars of Group VI. (Duder air. They resist the action of most solvents, water only slightly The principal bands are very wide and dark, and the secunir, dissolving them, and that with decomposition. Organic solvents bands 4 and 5 are also well seen. Bands 7 and 8 are doubts
(6) This variable will reach a maximum about March 7. Tare practically without action upon them. When heated in a period is about 360 days, and the magnitudes at maximum narrow tube, as in attempting to determine the melting point, minimum are 8.2 and <13 respectively. The star is! the salt violently explodes. If a quantity is heated to about included in Dunér's catalogue, but Vogel states that the me 120° C., in a flask connected with a couple of U-tubes, the second trum is of the Group II. type.' Observations before and 2 containing a little water, gas is abundantly liberated, and drops maximum, with special references to changes of specizza
should be made. of hydroxylamine condense in the first U-tube together with a little nitrous acid. The water in the second tube is found to
NOTE ON THE ZODIACAL LIGHT.-In favourable localitios
zodiacal light should now be visible in the evening, and as faria contain hydroxylamine, ammonia, and nitrous acid, while fused
spectroscopic observations are desirable, it may be convenien: zinc chloride remains behind in the flask. A similar cadmium briefly summarize here the results already obtained. Angkas salt was also obtained, CaCl,. 2NH,OH, in brilliant crystals first observed the spectrum at Upsala, in March 1887, and pued which separated much more quickly than those of the zinc salt. the presence of the chief line of the aurora spectrum, at a sm This cadmium compound is much more stable under the action length stated as 5567. Respighi, in 1872, also observed to of heat, gas being only liberated in the neighbourhood of
line, in addition to a faint continuous spectrum, and beliens!
this to demonstrate the identity of the aurora and zodiacal 190°-200°, and only a little hydroxylamine distils over. The He found, however, that at the same time the beight line 25 barium salt, BaCl,. 2NH,OH, is a specially beautiful substance, visible in almost every part of the sky, and this led to the crystallizing from water in large tabular prisms, which are very gestion that it originated from a concealed aurora. Prof. Pe much more soluble in water than either of the salts above Smyth, in Italy, observed nothing but a faint continuas se described.
trum, extending from about midway between D and EWF
A. W. Wright's observations led him to the following r* The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the clusions :-(1) The spectrum of the zodiacal light is continens past week include an Esquimaux Dog (Canis familiaris 8), and is sensibly the same as that of faint sunlight or twigs bred in England, presented by Mr. W. Tournay ; two Barbary this spectrum. (3) There is no evidence of any connection >
(2) No bright line or band can be recognized as belongings Turtle-Doves (Turtur risorius) from North Africa, presented between the zodiacal light and the Polar aurora" Capac by Miss Teil ; a Bonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus ®), a "* Auroræ," p. 69). Mr. Lockyer believes the discal ligte
: Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus 8) from India, a be due to meteoritic dust, which is to a certain extent Common Raccoon (Procyon lotor) from North America, de luminous, as indicated by the bright line in the spectrum, posited ; a Green Monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus) born in argues in favour of a connection between auroræ and the zod=31
light (Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 45, p. 247). He says :-"Ti: the Gardens.
observations of Wright and others, showing that the sport is continuous, are not at variance with Angström's oberen
for we should expect the spectrum to be somewhat varialde. OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
is probable that the observations showing nothing but contare OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE.
spectrum were made when the temperature was only sufiae Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m. on February 27 =
to render the meteoritic particles red hot. That the radiaca 8h. 3om. 43s.
light does consist of solid particles, or, at all events of particket capable of reflecting light, is shown by the polariscope." He
also quotes from a letter in which Mr. Sherman, of Vale C+ Name. Mag. Colour. RA. 1890. Decl. 1890. lege, states that he has reason to believe that the appearance
the bright line in the zodiacal light has a regular period.
On January 20 I saw the zodiacal light very well at Wesport (1) G.C. 1711
on-Sea, but was unable to detect anything beyond a tot 12) 58 Hydræ, U.A. Yellowish-red.
continuous spectrum. (3) S Hydra
Yellowish-white. (4) e Hydra
Mr. Maxwell Hall's observations at Jamaica (see Natcas: Yellowish-white. (5) 115 Schj. Yellowish-red
February 13, p. 351) also record continuous spectra, but (6) W lauri | Reddish-yellow.
remarkable changes in the region of maximum intensity. suggests comparative observations with the spectrum of wlewa
h. m, s. 8 45 37 8 39 53 84) 36
0 8 49 It 4 21 45
10 45 + 6 22 + 6 49
In connection with the suggestion of the variability of the with the Island of Savo. The lecture was illustrated with -pectrum, it is important to secure further observations. If the photographs of natives of Guadalcanar and other places, as existence of the bright line at some periods be established, we well as specimens of rude architecture, by means of the may then safely conclude that the luminosity of the zodiacal dissolving-view apparatus. light is not entirely due to reflected sunlight.
ACCORDING to the Copenhagen correspondent of the Frank
furter Zeitung, an Expedition for the exploration of Greenland OBSERVATIONS OF URSÆ MAJORIS AND B AURIGÆ.—The will start next summer from Denmark. The plan of work has periodic duplicity of the K line in the spectra of these stars before been arranged by the Naval Lieutenant Ryder. The party will noted (January 23, p. 285) led Prof. Pickering to conclude that consist of nine persons. They will have three boats, and a the time of revolution of the former system was 104 days. In
steamer will convey them to the eastern coast as soon as the the current number of the Sidercal Messenger, however, Prof.
condition of the ice will allow of a landing. It is proposed that Pickering adds a note, dated January 11, 1890, in which he the region lying between 66° and 73° north latitude shall be records that later observations make it probable that the period
explored in the course of the summer, and that the party shall of Ursa Majoris is 52 days instead of 104, and that its orbit is push as far as possible into the interior. Sledges will be emnoticeably elliptical. The velocity of the components of B
ployed during the winter. The Expedition will be provisioned Aurige seems to be 150 miles per second, their period 4 days,
and equipped for two years, at the end of which time the steamer their orbit nearly circular, with a radius of 8,000,000 miles,
will return to take them away, cruising along the east coast till and their masses OʻI or 0-2, that of the sun being unity.
they get down to the shore. The expenses have been estimated COMET Brooks (d 1889). — The following ephemeris is given to £16,100), and the project is so popular, and looked on so
at from 250,000 to 290,000 kroner (equal to from about 41 3,900 by Dr. Knopf in Edinburgh Circular No. 5, issued on the favourably by the Government, that it is practically certain that 22nd inst.
the Diet will grant the money.
The Geographical Society of Vienna issues a circular letter, March. h. m. 1 2 21 54 +17 586 15 2 49 26
dated February 1890, announcing the election of officers made 3
17 53 17
20 25 3
last December. The new President is Herr Hofrath Ritter von 5 18 36 919
Hauer, Intendant des naturhistorischen Hofmuseums.
3 0 59 20 59'1 38 1 19 14°1 23
4 51 21 15'6
LOCUSTS IN INDIA. The brightness on March 1 0'24, and on March 25 = 0'17, that at discovery being unity.
IN 1889, parts of Sind, Guzerat, Rajputana, and the Punjab New SHORT-PERION VARIABLE IN OPHIUCHUS.-Mr. Edwinstructive creatures is being prepared under the direction of the F. Sawyer announces the discovery that the star 175 (Uranomeiris Argentina) Ophiuchi, R.A. 17h. 45m. 575., Decl. - 6°67 information about them, with specimens, may be obtained from
trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta ; and, in the hope that 1875-0), is a variable of short period (Astronomical Journal, persons who have had opportunities of observing them, Mr. E. No. 210). "The range of variation appears to be from 62m. to 195m., and the period slightly greater than 17 days.
C. Cotes, of the Indian Museum, has issued a preliminary note,
summing up some of the principal facts that have already been OBSERVATIONS OF THE MAGNITUDE OF IAPETUS.-In the brought together. This note is very interesting, and has been January number of Monthly Notices is found an interesting com- compiled chiefly from the records of the Revenue and Agricultunication to the Royal Astronomical Society by Mr. Barnard, tural Department of the Indian Government. of the Lick Observatory, on the eclipse of this outermost satel The generally received idea is that the locust which invades lite in the shadows of the globe, crape ring, and bright ring of India belongs to the species usually spoken of as Acridium Saturn. Hy frequent comparison of the light of Iapetus with peregrinum, and supposed to have been the locust of the Bible. that of Tethys and Enceladus, the effect of the shadow of the The identity of Indian locusts has not yet, however, been defitrape ring on the visibility of the satellite was tested, seventy. nitely ascertained, and this is one of the points which require five comparisons being made. It was found that, after passing elucidation. As far as we at present know, there seems reason through the sunlight shining between the ball and the rings, to believe that while Acridium peregrinum extends its ravages lapetus entered the shadow of the crape ring: As it passed into the dry plains of the Punjab and Rajputana, the locust leeper into this, there was a regular decrease in light until it which proved injurious in Madras in 1878, and in the Deccan in de ppeared in the shadow of the inner bright ring. From the 1882-83, belongs to a very different species, which is probably uservations it appears that the crape ring is truly transparent, Acridium succinctum. In order to settle the question it will be the sunlight sifting through it. The particles composing it cut necessary to examine further specimens taken from destructive off an appreciable quantity of sunlight, and cluster more thickly, flights which have appeared in various localities, the material in o the crape ring is denser, as it approaches the bright rings. the Indian Museum being at present insufficient.
Dealing with the natural history of locusts generally, Mr.
Cotes observes that all the different species which occur in GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
various parts of the world breed permanently in barren elevated
tracts where the vegetation is sparse. In years when they inAr the ordinary meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, crease inordinately they descend in flights from their permanent
Monday, Mr. C. M. Woodford read a paper on “Further breeding-grounds upon cultivated districts, where they destroy Explorations of the Solomon Islands." He has visited these the crops, lay their eggs, and maintain themselves through one wands three times, and in the present paper he described what complete generation, but are unable to establish themselves perhe saw sturing his third visit, in 1888. He took up his residence manently, usually disappearing in the year following the invasion, to the small island of Gavotu, off the coast of Gola, or Florida to be succeeded, after an interval of years, by fresh swarms Island, a place centrally situated for visiting Ysabel, Guadal from the permanent breeding-ground. canar, and other islands. He stayed with a trader named Lars Generally speaking, the life circle of a locust extends through Vielen, who had since been killed and eaten by the natives, one year, in which period it passes through its various stages of
sad also three of his boys. Since last June no fewer than egg, young wingless larva, active pupa, and winged locust, aun white men had been murdered by the natives of the Solomon which dies after laying the eggs that are to produce the next stoup, out of a total white population estimated at about thirty. generation. The eggs are laid in little agglutinated masses in Mr. Woolford's principal object in his last journey was to holes, which the female bores with her ovipositor in the ground. Mentify the places visited by the Spanish Expedition under In temperate climates the eggs are usually deposited in the Menulain that discovered these islands in the year 1568. In this
, autumn, but in sub-tropical countries, such as India, where there be thought he might say, he had been entirely successful. The is but little winter, the winged locusts live on through the cold Spaniards related that when they were between Florida and season, and only die off after depositing their
eggs in the followCigadalcanar they passed an island in the centre of which was a ing spring. In this case the eggs hatch after lying in the ground hurnmg volcano. This island was now conclusively identified for about a month. In both temperate and sub-tropical regions
alike, the young wingless locusts, on emerging from the eggs in Sawantwadi in 1883-84, no further injury of a serious calore the spring or summer, feed voraciously and grow rapidly for two seems to have occurred. or three months, during which period they moult at intervals, The injury occasioned to the rain crops hy the locusts was TET finally developing wings and becoming adult. The adult insects con-iderable, over a great portion of the Deccan and Konkan fly about in swarms, which settle from time to time and devour both in 1882 and 1883. But it was found, at tbe end of the the crops. The damage done by locusts is thus occasioned in invasion, that abundance of the cold weather crops had oor the first instance by the young wingless insects, and afterwards pensated to so great an extent for the injury done to the ra. by the winged individuals into which the young are transformed crops, that, on the whole, no very widespread suffering te after a couple of months of steady feeding.
arisen. In Rajputana and the Punjab in 1869 the flights were said to In 1878, when the Madras Presidency was invarter, the yout: have come chiefly from the vast tract of sand hills (Tecburs) be- locusts began to appear in January, and were found in gren: tween the Runn of Kutch and Bhawulpore, and partly from the numbers in different districts from then on till September ! Suliman Range in Afghanistan. Locusts wer: reported as October, the earlier swarms heing found in the west ani wa usually to be found in the autumn in the Teeburs, and it is of the Presidency, and the later ones in the north 20 : thought that this tract is probably a permanent breeding.ground. Winged locusts were first observerl, in the end of March as The whole question, however, of the permanent breeding grounds beginning of April, in the hills to the south-west (Wyunad of these locusts is one that requires further investigation. The Nilgiri), where they may be supposed to breel permanen'ly winged flights appeared throughout Central Rajputana in the Thence, aided by the south-west monsonn, they grariually works! latter part of the hot weather, and laid eggs which hatched as their way over the Presidency to the east and norili, finale the rains set in ; the old locusts dying after they had deposited disappearing about November and December. their eggs. From these eggs were hatched young locusts which be The information hitherto obtained hardly justifies anys came full grown and acquired wings in August and September. decided conclusion as to the life history of the locust. Pat The eggs laid by the original flights at the end of the hot may be noticed that locusts were observed pairing in the Sena weather were distributed throughout the whole of Central District, in the latter part of June, and also that the gay Rajputana, and a vast amount of injury was done, the crops locusts, which were found, in the early part of May, i. tt. being damaged, in the first instance, by the young locusts before Udamalpet Taluk, were supposed to be the offspring of the they acquired wings, and afterwards by the winged swarms which large fights of winged locusts which had appeared in the pas Aew about the country and settled at intervals to eat what had ceding February in the same taluk The connection betwee escaped the ravages of the young wingless locusts,
the autumn broods of locusts and those which appeared in tiIn the Punjab, fights of locusts, from the Saliman Range, early part of the year has not been made out satisfactorily. Afghanistan, appeared in the western border, in the end of Mr. Cotes ends his paper with an account of the chel April and in May. Eggs and young locusts were also found measures which have at different times been adopteri in Indu about this time near the hills in the sandy tracts of the same against locusts, pointing out that, the locust of North-Wet Inch district. The flights seem generally to have moved from west being distinct from that of South-West India, measures huan' to east, and by July to have spread themselves throughout the useful in one invasion are not necessarily applicable in another. Punjab; but the laying of eggs and the hatching out of young went on, at least in the south-erst, throughout August and September In Bombay, locusts were noticed in May and June 1882, in
FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON WHEAT IN the south west of the Presidency ; but they attracted little atten
ITALY. tion, such swarms being annual visitors of tha Kanarese forests; prof. GIGLIOLI, of the Agricultural College at Partis, material injury. With the setting in of the south-west monsoon, has given to the Association of Proprietors and Farmers • however, they spread in flights over the Presidency to the north Naples a voluminous and most carefully compiled Repourt en and north-east, and early in the rains proceeded to lay their eggs the results of the first year's experiments on wheat-growing si tu and die. These eggs hatched in the end of July and beginning experimental field of Suessola, about six kilometres fom Atema of August, and the young locusts did a large amount of damage, The field is on the estate of Count Francesco Spinelli, uh over a wide area, through the months of August and September. generously lends it to the Association for experimental purposes In the early part of October, with the setting in of the north. The district was celebrated in olden time for its feruility, k' east monsoon, the young locusts, which had by this time acquired was afterwards long neglected on account of its marshy nzus. wings, took flight, and travelled with the prevailing
wind in a and the land beca ne sour and productive of disease. You south-westerly direction, doing some injury in the Poona Col again, drainage and improved cultivation have changed the lectorate as they passed. They then struck the Western Ghâts, marshes into some of the best land of a fertile district. T:and spread slowly over the Konkan in November, and thence soil of the experimental field is easily worked, friable, and hex travelled into the Native States of Sawantvadi and the Kanara
a good natural vegetation; no analysis of ir, however, ! district. During the remainder of the cold season and the furnished. Giglioli points out that it is in too high coadition : following hot weather (December 1882, to the end of My 1883), present for coinparative manuring experiments, but admira! the flights clung to the Ghâts, occasionally venturing inland into suited for comparing different varieties of core and differes Belgauin, Dharwar, the Kolhapur State, and Satara, and devouring the spring crops in the Coast Dis-ricts, but ordinarily keeping Weedon system.
methods of sowing and cultivation, as by dibbling and the love in the vicinity of ihe bill ranges. With the commencement of the south-west monsoon, in the latter part of May 1883, the different manures, each plot being about 43 square metres; !
There are in all 102 plots devoted to trying the effects flights began to move in a north-easterly
direction, as they had unmanured plots of a similar size devoted to different varier done the preceding year, but in larger numbers.
of wheat ; and 3 plots, each about twice the above-menteri At the commencement of the rains they began to alight in vast size, used for different methods of seeding, and cultivarka numbers over an immense tract of country, comprising six Deccan Paths were made round each plot, the paths being at rathe Collectorates and three Coast Collectorates. They deposited lower level than the plots themselves' The author disc their eggs and died ; and early in August the young locusts the question of large and small plots, but concluded that was hatched out in countless numbers, but were apparently more the conditions obtaining, small plots were the best for use there backward, and possessed of less strength and stamina than were
On the 102 manured plots, Scholey squarebesd wheat :) those of the previous year. The unusually heavy rainfall killed sown, with a great variety of manures-organic, nitrepere vast numbers of them in some parts of the country, and else: phosphatic
, and potassic, but it was afterwards found in where the insects seemed stunted and feeble, and grew but variety of wheat was, unfortunately, not well suited to slowly. They were destroyed in vast numbers by the vigorous climate and to the general purpose of these experiments, measures initiated by Government officers, and were also said to The 18 varieties experimented with, on the second series is be diseased and attacked by worms and other parasites. As late cluded several well-known English varieties, such as Haltels as November, the mass of the young locusts appeared still unable pedigree white and red wheats, Chiddam, golden dror, Hunter to fly, and made no general move, as they had done the year before, towards their permanent home in ihe south-west. The
1 " Resultati del Primo Anno di Esperimento sulle Varietà e sota
del Frumento al Campo Sperimentale di Saessola bell Am Am invasion was in fact at an end, and though swarms appeared in 1887-88." By Italo Giglioli. Pp. 508. (Naples, 1889.)