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MINERALOGY.

JOHN J. GRIFFIN & SONS, LIMITED,

HENSON,

UNDER THE MANAGEMENT OF

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. DENT'S

DENT'S NEW

MANUFACTURERS OF SAMUEL

CHEMICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL 97 REGENT STREET, LONDON, W.

APPARATUS,
ESTABLISHED 1840.
Late 277 STRAND.

HAVE OPENED A NEW
A Large Collection of Beautiful Mineral Specimens, including a VERY
FINE GROUP OF SENARMONTITE CRYSTALS, VERY BRIL-

PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT
LIANT MANGANITES, WULFENITES. VANADIMITES, HAR-
MATOME, from Oberstein and Scotland : NATROLITES, Auvergne ;

ROBERT C. MURRAY. CHILDRENITES, ARAGONITES, and MELAN PHLOGITE. FOSSILS, ROCKS, ROCK SECTIONS, HAMMERS,

Well-fitted Dark Room for Use of Amateurs. CHISELS, and BLOWPIPE APPARATUS.

Free Instruction to Beginners. Precious Stones for Collectors and Mounting.

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Price List upon Application. Lessons given.

Catalogues Free. 22 GARRICK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON, W.C. F.H. BUTLER, M.A. Oxon., A.R.S. Mines, &c. BEST BLACK INK KNOWN. NATURAL HISTORY AGENCY,

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Is cleanly to use, and not liable to Blot. moment of writing. 158 BROMPTON ROAD,

Can be obtained in London, through Messrs. BARCLAY & Sons, FarringFive doors west of his present premises.

don Street ; W. EDWARDS, Old Change; F. NEWBERY & Sons, Newgate

Street; and to be had of all Stationers. Recently received -Specimens of Bertrandite, a Meteorite from Atacama,

BEWLEY & DRAPER Limited), Dublin. and other American Minerals of interest.

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300 Pages, is. ; Postage, 5d. Smaller do., 6d. Pamphlets Free. HUGHES,

Špecialist, Brewster House, Mortimer Road, Kingsland, N. Micro-sections of Rocks in great variety. Cabinets, Glass-topped Boxes, and other Geological Requisites.

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Mr. ACKLAND, Surgeon, daily, at HORNE AND THORNTHWAITE's, MODELS, &c.-MOORE BROS., 49 Hardman Street, Liverpool. Opticians to the Queen, 416 Strand, London. The weak-sighted should Price List, Three Stamps.

read Ackland's “Hints on Spectacles," 6d., post free.

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TRADE

MARK

THOMAS D. RUSSELL,

FOURTH EDITION-NOW READY.

EDWARD STANFORD'S With Portrait and Map, 2 Vols. Crown 8vo, 248. OUR VICEREGAL LIFE IN INDIA : RECENT PUBLICATIONS,

being a Selection from my Journal during the Years 1884-88. By the MARCHIONESS of DÚÉFERIN.

Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. "Just what might have been expected from the talented and popular * Vicereine. As a record it is remarkably complete. There was no province STANFORD'S LONDON ATLAS OF of our teeming Indian Empire which was left uncovered by the Viceregal tours; and an observant eye and lively pen made the best of Lady Dufferin's

UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY. Quarto Edition, Containmg 46 Coloma opportunity."-Pall Mall Gasette.

Maps, carefully drawn and beautifully engraved on Steel and Costa

Plates, and an Alphabetical Index to the Geography of the w "A record of life in India as it presented itself during a sojourn of four Half-morocco, Cloth Sides, Gilt Edges, yor. Site, whes shut, 124 years in all its rich and manifold variety, to the wife of a Viceroy, could only 15; weight, 4 16, 8 oz. fail to be deeply interesting through some deficiency of sympathy or lack of descriptive power. Happily, in neither of these prime requirements for her

“We have already commented on the pains which appear in have v task is Lady Dufferin in any way wanting."-Daily News.

taken to work up the maps to the latest dates, we may add that they *

excellent specimens of engraving and colouring, that the great difficult ! JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

marking mountain ranges, &c., without obscuring the mans, has bee.

cellently surinounted, and that we have detected very low misprint Just Published, with 57 Illustrations and Diagrams, Crown 8vo, 48.6d. what may be called a medium atlas for general use, something berusia THE ELEMENTS OF

cheap but meagre school collections and the elaborate tut ratha cotty. unwieldy library atlases, the 'London Atlas deserves hearty rodinn"

tion."-Saturday Review. LABORATORY WORK.

CHARTS of the CONSTELLATIONS, from A Course of Natural Science,

the North Pole to between 35 and 40 Degrees of South Delaatiot M By A. G. EARL, M.A., .F. C. S.,

ARTHUR COTTAM, F.R.A.S. 36 Charts, ach o by sa inrra

printed on Drawing Paper, and supplied folded in talrio a Partito Late Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge ; Science Master at Tonbridge or flat if preferred. 62 net per Set. As soon as Sets are ald." School.

Price will be raised to 63 38., and as a few copies uniy now remain at With numerous Questions and Exercises.

application is desirable. London : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.

With one exception (Hydra) each Constellation is starta complete single Chart. The scale is one-third of an inch to a dezte, and all e

Double Stars in the Catalogues of the two Struvei me sun (Dae. Just Published, with 307 Illustrations, Crown 8vo, Price 1os. 6d.

Prospectus, with Specimen Chart, free on application. ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FOR

"Surely this is the very luxury of stellar cartograpby, for, from the ELECTRIC LIGHT ARTISANS and STUDENTS. (Embracing of Bayer downwards, nothing has appeared comparable with the wind those branches prescribed in the Syllabus issued by the City and Guilds series of charts now before us for the special purpose for ntrada en Technical Institute.)

intended.... It has been reserved for Mr. Cortam ko predue at bu By W. SLINGO,

employment with instruments having motions only in altitude and arcu Principal of the Telegraphists' School of Science, Director of the Electrical is as near perfection as any delineation of the celestial concave ona Engineering Section, People's Palace, London, &c., &c.,

surface is ever likely to be. , . . The amount of labour expanded a ta and A. BROOKER,

splendid work must have been enormous. Nawronomial litran Instructor on Electrical Engineering at the Telegraphists' School of Science, Mechanic.

observatory of any pretensions can afford to be without u-ES and at the People's Palace, London. London : LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO,

A TRIP THROUGH THE EASTERN

CAUCASUS, with a Chapter on the Languages of the Comtry. Bu By LIONEL S. BEALE, M.B., F.R.S., the Hon. JOHN ABERCROMBY. Demy Svo, Cloth, with Maps Professor of Medicine in King's College, London,

Illustrations, 148. HOW TO WORK WITH THE MICROSCOPE.

** Among the few travellers who have taken the opportnmry reech Plates. 215. (Harrison and Sons.)

afforded of exploring the little-known region of the Eastero Caucase = OUR MORALITY AND THE MORAL QUESTION. 25. 6d.

honourable place must now be accorded to the Hon. Jelun Abercromby

in this volume has given a very interesting and informative mu punt *** 100 FIGURES OF URINARY DEPOSITS. 5s.

country between Tiflis and Derbend-the scenery, the people, the ardia URINARY AND RENAL DERANGEMENTS AND CAL

logical remains, and the languages. He travelled with

his eys opc, CULOUS DISORDERS, Diagnosis and Treatment. Now Ready, 5s.

his notes on the physical aspects of Daghestan are full of information SLIGHT AILMENTS. Pp. 275. 5$.

Altogether his book is a good specimen of the useful as dating shedi Ér

the picturesque or sensational literature of travel. Three maps as TL THE MICROSCOPE IN MEDICINE, 86 Plates. 215. woodcuts add to the practical utility of the work."-Surffisk Leader BIOPLASM : Introduction to Medicine and Physiology. 6s. 6d. SEAS AND SKIES IN MANY LATIPROTOPLASM. (New Edition preparing.) ON LIFE AND ON VITAL ACTION. 55.

TUDES; or, Wanderings in Search of Weather. By the a

RALPH ABERCROMBY. Demy 8vo. with 3 Map Photogrando THE MYSTERY OF LIFE. 35. 6d.

and 33 Woodcuts by PRITCHETT, WHVMPIR, Coolex, &c. Da LIFE THEORIES AND RELIGIOUS THOUGHT. 5s.6d. Extra, 188. THE “MACHINERY” OF LIFE. 25.

** This is not an ordinary book of travels. It has been writren twaaly & DISEASE GERMS. (Soiled Copies only.) 8s. 6d.

the purpose of calling attention to such phenomena of the sky and we

as Mr. Abercromby has observed in the various parts of the world London: J. & 4. CHURCHILL.

He gives an account of a voyage round the world, beginning with what

saw in Egypt, and passing on to descriptions relating to Australu & PETROGRAPHICAL TABLES :

Caledonia, Fiji, New Zealand. Cape Horn, and Rio Janeiro.
no means confines this narrative to matters specially attractive to mera-

logists. He takes interest in many different classes of subjects, and An Aid to the Microscopical Determination of Rock something more or less memorable to record about almost all the plans forming Minerals.

has visited. It is, however, meteorology that he keeps chiefly in via

we need scarcely say that on this subject, which he baa so long and career By Prof. H. ROSENBUSCH.

studied, his book is always fresh and instructive."--Nalare. Translated and Edited by Dr. F. II. HATCH, of H.M. Geological WORKS BY JAMES CROLL, LL.D., F.R.S. Survey. 4to, Limp Cloth, 3s. 6d.

CLIMATE AND COSMOLOGY; a Sup“These Tables may indeed be regarded as a summary

plementary Volume to "Climate and Time," Large Pust sro, Cheb

Price 6s. of the same author's invaluable 'Microscopical Physio

By the same Author, uniform in Size and Binding. graphy. The two works together supply a want long CLIMATE AND TIME in their Geological felt by English students-viz. a complete summary of all that has been done in the way of making the optical and STELLAR EVOLUTION, and its Rela

Relations. Large Post 8vo, Cloth, ros. 6d. other characters of minerals available."--Nature.

tions to Geological Time. Large Post 8vo. Cloth, 34. London : SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO.

"All men of science who pay due heed to the ultimate principles o

they are perforce brought in the course of their researches will find this Just Published, Price 1s. ; by Post, 18. 4fd.

deserving a thorough scrutiny. Mr. Croll has swept away a clmul THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY

seemed at one time likely to obscure the general signiñcance of mulutus

---Chemical News. CALENDAR FOR THE YEAR 1890.

London : EDWARD STANFORD, 6 and 27 Cyckspur Street, Chann ondon : MACMILLAN AND CO. Manchester : J. E. CORNISH.

Cross, S.W.

100

The vote was finally carried by 144 to 67, and it is to THURSDAY, MARCH 6, 1890.

be hoped, now that the Government have entered upon the path of progress, they will pursue it with determina

tion. THE SCIENCE COLLECTIONS AT SOUTH No one would urge precipitancy. Due care ought to KEVSINGTON.

be taken that money's value is obtained for money spent ; I T is satisfactory to learn that the Government has but as the question of principle has been decided after

taken the first step towards carrying out the recom- ten years' debate, we have a right to demand that progress mendations of the recent Commission on the South shall not be delayed by mere blind obstruction to every Kensington Museum. The Report of the Commissioners proposal which involves outlay, but that those in whose was to the effect that the Science Museums contained hands the fate of the science collections rests shall make valuable apparatus which ought to be exhibited ; that the up their minds as to what ought to be done, and shall buildings in which it is displayed are inadequate; and

forthwith do it. that the area of the exhibition space ought immediately to be increased by 50 per cent. Between the Natural THREE RECENT POPULAR WORKS UPON History Museum in Cromwell Road and the Imperial

NATURAL HISTORY. Institute Road lies the strip of ground on which the new Glimpses of Animal Life. By W. Jones, F.S.A. (London : buildings must be erected. It belonged to the Commis

Elliot Stock, 1889.) sioners of the 1851 Exhibition, and they were willing to sell at a price somewhat less than the valuation of the Toilers in the Sea. By M. C. Cooke, M.A., LL.D. Office of Works, or at ten shillings for every pound of

(London: S.P.C.K., 1889.) their own estimate.

Les Industries des Animaux. Par F. Houssay. (Paris : The question to be decided was, whether the country

J. B. Baillière et Fils, 1890.) could afford £100,000 to purchase the land necessary to

MR.

R. JONES'S book is a charming little volume of carry out the Report of one of the strongest Commissions 229 pages, with one illustration forming a frontiswhich has ever investigated such a subject, or whether piece. There are, in all, seven chapters ; dealing, in the great group of Museums for which South Kensington succession, with “Playfulness of Animals," “ Animal is famous was to be cut into two by rows of mansions. Training,” “Musical Fishes” (title ill chosen), “Nest

The Government, which certainly did not err through Building and Walking Fishes,” “ Luminous Animals,” undue haste, felt that a case had been made out, that “Birds' Nests in Curious Places,” and “The Mole.” further delay was useless, that the land ought to be The author has been at immense pains to sift the secured before time and labour were spent in discussing voluminous literature of his subject (a task which he the details of the buildings to be erected upon it, and admits has involved a “somewhat unprofitable course of herefore they brought in a supplementary estimate for romance reading"). We find, as might be expected, the sum required.

citations of the old old stories of our youth ; the climbing Then followed a debate of the kind by which the perch, Cowper's hares, and other time-honoured (if perhaps prestige of ordinary members of the House of Commons too highly coloured) narratives appear; the luminous has been reduced to its present level. One member centipede is not overlooked ; and authorities are ap

affirmed that there were empty rooms in South Kens- pealed to, from Aristotle and the ancient classical writers myton Museum which might well be used for the of the past, down to Lubbock and Romanes ("the Rev. display of exhibits, though a body of Commissioners Dr. Romanes" [sic], p. 25) of to-day. The work is essenappointed to investigate the state of the collections had tially a compilation ; it consists mainly of a collection of reported in a directly opposite sense. Another “could lengthy extracts, and the author has left himself little not understand why all these educational collections room for originality. There results from this an occashould be established close to one another at South sional heaviness of style, which is especially noteworthy Kensington." In other words, he could not see that if in the earlier portions of the volume. Paragraphs there is to be at South Kensington a great training school too frequently lead off with “ Broderip mentions,” for teachers of science and art, it is desirable that the “ Evelyn records," " Humboldt saw,” and the like ; students should have ready access to the national science and not even stories of the gambols between a rhinoceros and art collections, and that the collections themselves and an elephant, or of those of a 60-foot whale, serve to should benefit from the advice of the Professors who are relieve the monotony. It is doubtful whether the author familiar with them. These objections were not, however, has not occasionally erred in the placing of his anecdotes. raised by men who knew the facts. Approval was ex- To take a leading instance ; on p. 32 there is recorded pressed from both sides of the House by those who have the story of a parrot," which, when a person said to it, the interests of education at heart. Sir Lyon Playfair, ' Laugh, Poll; laugh!' laughed accordingly, and the Sir Henry Roscoe, Mr. Mundella, and Mr. Chamberlain, instant after screamed out, “What a fool to make me all spoke in favour of the vote, and Mr. Mundella put laugh!"" This narrative cannot be said to betray any clearly what those who are acquainted with the Museum sense of playfulness on the part of the bird, as would be know to be the truth, when he said this question had been inferred from its position in the text ; it surely should pressing for the last ten years, because for the whole of have found a place under“ Animal Training.” The that period the most valuable national science collections, most serious defect in the book is the absence of an such as no other country in the world possessed, had index. The author has brought together a very rebeen housed in the most disgraceful manner.”

markable series of anecdotes ; and if he would give us an VOL. XLI.-No. 1062,

т

exhaustive index, together with a complete bibliography, pages of a book intended for “the large and increasing his book would befit the more special and advanced section of the nature-loving public who indulge in the student of animal life. Without these it can only appeal use of the microscope as a source of instruction and to the dilettanti; and we shall look for them in a future amusement” (p. 3) is intolerable. It is a remarkable edition. We would point out, at the same time, that the fact that, while the author has reproduced the more com climbing perch is referred to on p. 151 as Perca, and on monplace statements of the earlier writers in their ongine 157 as Anabas (the latter being correct); that “Willmoes” form, he should have chosen to give us the above, is (p. 185) should read Willemoes Suhm; and that Mr. own, rendering of the lucubrations of a Haeckel. la Romanes does not lay claim to the distinction accorded doing this he betrays a sad want of sound judgment him on p. 25 (cf. supra). The author, as he enters into the public have a right to expect that a work of this details not usually met with in books of this kind, might type, irtended to serve (p. 3) " as a preliminary to more advantageously incorporate with his account of the specific knowledge, the direction of which they will there stickleback’s nest, the discovery of Möbius and Prince after be better able to choose," shall be up to date ; bai, that the thread employed in weaving it is secreted by I to fulfil the useful purpose aimed at, such a work should the animal's kidney. So unique a fact in natural history | rest upon a more authoritative foundation than the book should not be allowed to pass unnoticed ; and that i now under review. That is amusing as an example of portion of the work which deals with the luminous fishes editorial piece-work among a somewhat antiquated hiteramight well be brought more completely up to date. ture, and to those familiar with the subjects approached

Dr. Cooke's treatise is one of 369 pages, with 4 litho- it suggests reflections. graphic plates, 70 woodcuts, and an index. It deals with The volume by M. Houssay is one of 312 pages, with marine invertebrata, in their especial relations to skeleton 47 woodcuts intercalated in the text (38 only are acknowformation ; and the volume is especially designed to make | ledged on the title-page). The bulk of the work is divided good the shortcomings of the Rev. J. G. Wood's work, | into six chapters, dealing respectively with modes of cap entitled " Homes without Hands." The book has its ture of prey, of defence, of transport and storage of food, good points; the chapter on “Coral Reefs and Islands,” of provision for the young ; of constructing or acquiring and the “Introduction,” are fairly well done. The last- nests and habitations, and of preservation and protectin named deals with generalities as affecting life and the 1 of the same. The illustrations are, for the most part, conditions of life in the ocean depths; it gives a record | admirable ; some, which we take to be original, are fit en of important explorations, from that of Ross in Baffin's rank with the famous woodcuts in Brehm's "Thier-Leben." Bay, to the Challenger; the Bathybius controversy is while others are already familiar to us from the pages of abstracted, and alternative theories of reef-formation are that work. In the introduction the author justly asserts summarized, both being presented in concise and impar- , that the naturalist of to-day lives more in the laboratory tial language. On perusal, however, of the main portion than in the field, that the scalpel and microtome have reof the book, we meet with a preponderance of antiquated, placed the pins of the collector, and that the magnifier and often erroneous information. Lengthy citations from pales beside the microscope. This is, alas ! too true. li the writings of authorities of the last two or three de- cannot be denied that our present systems for the mos: cades are flaunted as if expressive of current knowledge part take insufficient heed of field-work, and we fully en and opinion. The question of sponge affinities is discussed dorse the author's further remarks upon the changes as though settled by Clark and Kent ; that of the sig- aspect of affairs. The introduction as a whole deals with nificance of the yellow bodies of the Radiolarians as generalities in direct bearing upon those facts which though set at rest by the misconceptions of Wallich. We follow; and by no means its least satisfactory feature is are told that there is no proof that the Millepore is a that it clearly sets forth what the author would have bus Hydroid, and so on. Upon the ill-effects which must readers understand by the title of his work. The mam result from this method of procedure it is needless to portion of the book is confined to bare records of obenlarge ; but in justice to the author it must be admitted served fact, systematically arranged, and, where necessary, that he has made some use of recent literature. He ap- brought into special relationship by cross-references peals to the Challenger volumes. His quotations from That" talkee-talkee” so often forced into books of this these are, however, very capricious, and in some instances kind is here withheld. Such comments as are indulged iz inaccurate. It cannot be said that the spines of the are either confined to the introduction, or to a few concise Radiolaria are“ never tubular," for Haeckel (whose Re- paragraphs which make up the author's "conclusion' port the author quotes) has given their tubular character and the latter is, as might be expected, devoted to a brie! as a diagnosis of his Phæodaria. Writing of “sensation consideration of animal intelligence. In place of an index in the Radiolaria,” the author indulges (p. 103) in a re. there is furnished a zoological table, in which the generic markable paragraph, which concludes as follows:

names of the animals written about are arranged in “Prof. Haeckel considers that the central capsule con- classificatory order, each being accompanied by a pages tains the common central vital principle, which he terms reference and a mention of that particular habitos the cell-soul,' and that it may be regarded as a simple industry dwelt upon. It is a pity that the author takes ganglion cell, comparable to the nervous centre of the no cognizance of animals lower in the scale than the higher animals, whilst the pseudopodia are analogous to Arthropods ; but we nevertheless heartily recommend a peripheral nervous system."

his book to our readers. It is throughout popular, and These are not the words of the author cited, and, even written in that peculiarly pleasing, yet didactic, style, 20 if they were, the introduction of such silly stuff into the characteristic of the works of the more successful of

ΤΗ

French popularizers of science, which has made them for mathematical readers ; and the appendices contain masters of their art.

numerous tables giving the flow of water in pipes under

pressure, as well as in open channels, for practical use in The above-named volumes are three of a number of English measures, derived from the formula, and also a similar treatises which have lately appeared. The ap- diagram for the graphical determination of the values of preciation of the beautiful and generally interesting in the factors in the formula, adapted to English measures Sature must always precede the study of the more useful by the translators. and special, and it is the highest function of works like Most of the hydraulicians who had investigated the the present to awaken this preparatory appreciation. Of question before Darcy and Bazin, such as De Prony, such works those are the most valuable whose authors Dubnat, Eytelwein, D'Aubuisson, Downing, and others, can claim a sound elementary knowledge of the facts with agreed in adopting a formula of the form V = CVR5, which they deal, and a familiarity with current research. of which Brahms and Chezy are said to have been the Only on these terms can a popular natural history rise authors in the latter half of the last century, in which V above the level of the too well-known type, in which the is the velocity, R the hydraulic radius, and S the slope. Scissors supply the knowledge and the paste usurps the Different values were assigned to the factor c by the place of the co-ordinating intellect.

G. B. H. various investigators ; but it was always regarded as a

constant, applicable to any sized stream in most cases,

to any slope, and to any state of the bed. Mr. Darcy A GENERAL FORMULA FOR THE FLOW was the first who directed attention to the influence the OF WATER.

condition of the sides of channels and pipes exercised on À General Formula for the Uniform Flow of Water the discharge ; and he instituted a series of experiments,

in Rivers and other Channels. By E. Ganguillet carried out after his death by Mr. Bazin, by which the and W. R. Kutter. Translated from the German by flow of water in regular uniform channels, under different Rudolph Hering and John C. Trautwine, Jun. (London : conditions of slope, form, and roughness of bed, was Macmillan and Co., 1889.)

measured by careful gaugings and gauge-tubes. A few HE general formula devised by Messrs. Ganguillet years previously, Messrs. Humphreys and Abbot had

and Kutter for caculating the flow of water in both carried out their well-known gaugings of the flow of the large and small channels, under varied conditions, was Mississippi by means of double floats, and deduced a brought under the notice of English-speaking engineers formula for the results obtained. Messrs. Ganguillet and by the publication, in 1876, of a translation by Mr. Kutter found that the formula derived from the MissisJackson of some articles on the subject written by Mr. sippi experiments, relating to a large river with a very Kutter, which appeared in the Journal der Cultur- slight slope, was not applicable to the small streams with Ingenieur in 1870. This translation, however, was not steep slopes of which they measured the flow in Switzerauthorized by Mr. Kutter, and contained some incomplete land, and also that Mr. Bazin's formula was not suitable, ables inserted by Mr. Kutter in his articles at the request in its original form, for large rivers with irregular beds. of a friend. The present volume is a translation of the This led Messrs. Ganguillet and Kutter to search for a second edition of the treatise on the formula, written by formula applicable to very different slopes and sizes of Messrs. Ganguillet and Kutter, engineers in Berne, who channel, and adaptable to various conditions of bed. have added a preface to the translation. Mr. Kutter died They took as the basis of their formula the various exwhilst this translation was in progress; and a short perimental results obtained in France and America, memoir of him, with a list of his works, is appended to together with their own independent observations on the translators' preface.

channels with steep slopes, so as to include the extreme The book commences with an historical sketch of the varieties of flow within the range of a single formula. attempts to arrive at a formula for the flow of water in Starting from Mr. Bazin's formula, V

RS open channels; and the insufficiency of the earlier formula

B

at 15 pointed out. The investigations of Messrs. Darcy

R and Bazin, and the gaugings of the Mississippi by Messrs.

where c =

they eventually found it expedient Humphreys and Abbot, are then concisely described, and

B the formulæ which they deduced from the results of their

R experiments are given, the history of the subject, in a

in which, brief form, being thus brought down to the period at which to express the value of c in the form

It Messrs. Ganguillet and Kutter commenced their investigaLions. This forms a sort of introduction to the account though they at first assumed y and x to be constant for of the conception and development of the general formula, any given state of bed, they finally modified them to of which the various steps are described in detail. The expressions varying with the slope. The alterations in modifications for various amounts of roughness are classi- the formula were effected by aid of graphical representafied; and, finally, the formula is tested by the comparison tions of the various sets of gaugings. It was found, in inof its results with a number of gaugings under very differ- vestigating the various experimental'results, that the factorc ent conditions; and these results indicate, in considerably varied generally with the slope; but a somewhat anomalous the greater number of cases, a closer approximation to result was also noted-namely, that whereas in the Missisthe actual measurements than those obtained with the sippi observations c increased with a decrease in the formula of either Humphreys and Abbot, or Bazin. A slope, it on the contrary decreased with a decrease of supplement gives a more direct derivation of the formula | slope in the gaugings of small channels, unless the wetted

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