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the sections from the top of the Berwyns to Bala. son. Without a report on the fossils, no companion was Murchison concluded, after his brief examination, and possible at that time with Murchison's Silurian seres. told Sedgwick, that the Bala group could not be brought Yet Sedgwick goes so far as to say that the “lipper within the limits of his system. He says: “I believed it Cambrian," which “commences with the fossiliferoes it to plunge under the true Llandeilo flags with Asaphus beds of Bala, and includes all the higher portions of the Buchii, which I had recognized on the east flank of that Berwyns and all the slate-rocks of South Wales which chain." "Not seeing, on that hurried visit, any of the are below the Silurian System," "appears to pass or characteristic Llandeilo Trilobites in the Bala limestone, insensible gradation into the lower division of the Upper I did not then identify that rock with the Llandeilo flags, System (the Caradoc Sandstone) ;" and that many of as has since been done by the Government surveyors' the fossils are identical in species with those of the (Q: J. G. Soc., viii. 175).
Silurian System."ı Respecting the Silurian System he In 1835, the terms "Silurian" and "Cambrian" first refers to the abstracts of Mr. Murchison's papers and appear in geological literature. Murchison named his “his forthcoming work." system the “Silurian” in an article in the Philosophical The Protozoic division included the Highlands up Magazine for July of that year, and at the same time Scotland, the crystalline schists of Anglesen, and the defined the two grand subdivisions of the system : (1.) south-west coast of Caernarvonshire." It is added the Upper Silurian, or the Ludlow and Wenlock beds; “The series is generally without organic remains; bu and (II.) the Lower Silurian, or the Caradoc and Llandeilo should organic remains appear unequivocally in any part beds (Phil. Mag., vii. 46, July 1835).
of this class they may be described as the Proloco During the next month, August, the fourth meeting of System." the British Association was held at Edinburgh, and in In the later part of the same year, 1838, Murchison's the Report of the meeting (Brit. Assoc., V., August 1835), “Silurian System" was published a quarto volonne the two terms, “Silurian" and "Cambrian," are united Soo pages, with twenty-seven plates of fossils, and nine in the title of a communication “ by Prof. Sedgwick and folded plates of stratigraphical sections, besides mam R. I. Murchison," the title reading, “On the Silurian and plates in the text--the outcome of his eight years of Cambrian Systems, exhibiting the order in which the work. Five hundred pages are devoted to the Silurian older sedimentry strata succeed each other in England System. and Wales." Murchison, after explaining his several The dedication is as follows:subdivisions, said that " in South Wales" he had “traced “ To you, my dear Sedgwick, a large portion of whose many distinct passages from the lowest member of the life has been devoted to the arduous study of the older “ Silurian system” into the underlying slaty rocks now British rocks, I dedicate this work. named by Prof. Sedgwick the Upper Cambrian.” Sedg "Having explored with you many a tract, both at home wick spoke of his “ Upper Cambrian group" as including and abroad, I beg you to accept this offering as a memorial the greater part of the chain of the Berwyns, where, he of friendship, and of the high sense I entertain of the value said, “it is connected with the Llandeilo flags of the of your labours." Silurian and expanded through a considerable part of Through Murchison's investigations here recordei, di South Wales”; the “Middle Cambrian group” as he remarks in his introduction with reasonable satisfac“comprising the higher mountains of Caernarvonshire tion, "a complete succession of fossiliferous strata u and Merionethshire”; the “Lower Cambrian group” as interpolated between the Old Red Sandstone and the occupying the south-west coast of Caernarvonshire, and oldest slaty rocks." He observes as follows of Sedg consisting of chlorite and mica schists, and some serpen- | wick :-" In speaking of the labours of my friend, 1 ma tine and granular limestone ; and finally, he “explained truly say, that he not only shed an entirely new light on the mode of connecting Mr. Murchison's researches with the crystalline arrangement or slaty cleavage of the Vorth his own so as to form one general system.”
Welsh mountains, but also overcame what to most mes Thus, in four years Murchison had developed the true would have proved insurmountable difficulties in detersystem in the rocks he was studying; and Sedgwick like mining the order and relations of these very ances! wise had reached what appeared to be a natural grouping strata amid scenes of vast dislocation. He further made of the rocks of his complicated area. Further, in a united several traverses across the region in which I was es: paper, or papers presented together, they had announced ployed; and, sanctioning the arrangement I had adoptei the names Silurian and Cambrian, and expressed their he not only gave me confidence in its accuracy, tri mutual satisfaction with the defined limits. Neither was enhanced the value of my work by enabling me to ULO yet aware of the unfortunate mischief-involving fact that it with his own ; and thus have our joint exertions Jei to the two were overlapping series.
a general view of the sequence of the older fossiliferou It is well here to note that the term “Cambrian” ante- deposits.” In accordance with these statements many el dates " Taconic” of Emmons by seven years, and also the descriptions and the very numerous sections represent that Emmons did not know-any more than Sedgwick the Cambrian rocks lying beneath the Silurian--though with regard to the Cambrian-that his system of rocks necessarily with incorrect details, since neither Murch was in part Lower Silurian, and of Llandeilo and Caradoc son nor Sedgwick had then any appreciation of the age.
actual connection between the so-called Cambrian and In May of 1838, nearly three years later, Sedgwick Silurian. presented his first detailed memoir on North Wales and The Silurian System, as here set forth, is essentially the Cambrian rocks to the Geological Society. Without that of Murchison's earlier paper of 1835; and through referring to the
characteristic fossils, he divides the rocks the work, as each region is taken up, the rocks of the below the Old Red Sandstone, beginning below, into (1.) Upper and Lower divisions, and their several subdivisions. the Primary Stratified Groups, including gneiss, mica- are described in order, with a mention of the character schist, and the Skiddaw slates, giving the provisional istic fossils. As to the relations of the two grand divename of " Protozoic” for the series should it prove to be sions, he says that, " although two or three species ol fossiliferous, and (11.) the Palæozoic Series ; the latter including (1) the Lower Cambrian (answering to Middle
* Of these fossils, he had mentioned "Bellerophon bilakatus, Prima Cambrian of the paper of 1835), (2) the Upper Cambrian, sericea, and several species of Orthis" as occurring in the Rata linea and (3) the “Silurian," or the series so called by Murchi.
"all of which are common to the Lower Silurian System," in 4 syllabusa" his Cambridge lectures, published in 1837.
Murchison's "Silurian System " bears on its title-page the date nig * An abstract appeared in the Proc. Geol. Soc., ii. 675, 1838. A continua
He states in the Q. J. Geol. Soc., vii. 177, 1852, that the work was reale tion of the paper appeared in 1897, ibid., iii, 541. See also 0. J. Geol. Soc., issued in 1838. The fossil fishes of the volume were described by Ages viii., 1852.
the Trilobites by Murchison, and the rest of the species by Sowerby.
shells of the Upper Silurian rocks may be detected in the thereby to imply the first or lowest formations in which Lower Silurian, the mass of organic remains in each animals or vegetables appear.” roup is very stistinct." Later he makes the number of These facts are in accordance with Sedgwick's acidentical species larger ; but even the newest results do knowledgment, already mentioned. not increase it so far as to set aside Murchison's general The map accompanying the paper as originally prestatement of 1838.
pared, had colours corresponding to five sets of areas, Sedgwick, with all the light which the fossils of the those of the “Carboniferous Limestone," “ Upper Silu
Silurian System" were calculated to throw on his rian," "Protozoic Rocks," "Mica and Chlorite Slate," lopper Cambrian series, found in the work no encroach- “Porphyritic Rocks”; and here again Cambrian, Upper ments on his field or on his views. They were still side or Lower, does not appear, the term Protozoic being fry side in their labours among the hitherto unfathomed substituted. The map, as it stands in the Journal of the liritish Paleozoic rocks.
Geological Society, has, in place of simply “ Protozoic,” In 1840 and 1841, Murchison was in Russia with M. de the words“ Lower Silurian (Protozoic).” * Sedgwick comerneuil and Count Keyserling, and also in Scandinavia plains, in his paper of 1852, pp. 154, 155, of this change and Bohemia, seeking to extend his knowledge of the from his manuscript, and attributes it to Mr. Warburton, elder fossiliferous rocks and verify his conclusions; and saying that “the map with its explanations of the colours in 1845 the great work on the “Geology of Russia and plainly shows that Mr. Warburton did not comprehend the Urals" came out, with a further display of Upper and the very drift and object of my paper." "I gave one Lower Silurian life. In his Presidential addresses of colour to this whole Protozoic series only because I did .842 and 1843, reviewing the facts in the light of his new not know how to draw a clear continuous line on the map observations, he went so far as to say that the Lower between the Upper Protozoic (or Lower Silurian) rocks Silurian rocks were the oldest of fossiliferous rocks, and and the Lower Protozoic (or Lower Cambrian) rocks.” rhat the fossiliferous series of North Wales seemed to “Nor did I ever dream of an incorporation of all the exhibit no vestiges of animal life different from those of Lower Cambrian rocks in the system of Siluria." Sedgthe Lower Silurian group.
wick also says on the same point: “I used the word Still Sedgwick made no protest. He states definitely Protozoic to prevent wrangling about the words Camon this point in his paper of 1852 (Q. J. Geol. Soc., viii. brian and Silurian.” But this is language he had no 153, 1852), that from 1834, the time of the excursion with disposition to use in 1843, as the paper of 1843 shows. Murchison, until 1842, he had accepted Murchison's con Page 155 has a footnote. In it the aspect of the clusions, including the reference of the Meifod beds to facts is greatly changed. He takes back his charges, The Caradoc or Silurian, without questioning ; but that saying, “ I suspect that, in the explanation of the blank from that time, 1842, he began to lose his confidence in portion of the rough map exhibited in illustration of the stability of the base-line of the “Silurian System." my paper I had written 'Lower Silurian and Protozoic,' He adds that in 1842, Mr. Salter, the palæontologist, in- and that Mr. Warburton, erroneously conceiving the formed him that the Meifod beds were on the same two terms identical, changed the words into Lower horizon nearly with the Bala beds; and he accepted this Silurian (Protozoic).” “I do not by any means accuse conclusion to its full extent, using the words, “if the Mr. Warburton of any intentional injustice-quite the Meifod beds were Caradoc, the Bala beds must also be contrary ; for I know that he gave his best efforts to the Caradoc or very nearly on its parallel.” Thus the infer- abstract. But he had undertaken a task for which he ence of Murchison was adopted, and discrepancy between was not prepared, inasmuch as he had never well studied chem deferred. And on the following page he acknow- any series of rocks like those described in my papers.” ledges that all his papers of which there is any notice in Sedgwick here uses Protozoic in the Sedgwick sense, the Proceedings or Journal of the Geological Society not, as above, in the Murchison sense. Sedgwick again, between 1843 and 1846 admit this view as to the Bala in 1854, speaks of "the tampering with the names of my beds and certain consequences of it-"mistakes," as he reduced map.” But these explanations of his should pronounced them six years later, in 1852 (Q.J. Geol. Soc., take the harshness out of the sentence, as it was in 1843 VIL, 154, 1852)
to 1846 out of all his words. In 1843, Sedgwick read before the Geological Society The paper has further interest in its long lists of fossils 10 June, a paper entitled "An Outline of the Geological in two tables : (I.) "Fossils of the Older Palæozoic (ProStructure of North Wales," which was published in tozoic) Rocks in North Wales, by J. W. Salter and J. abstract in the Proceedings (iv. 251); and in November de C. Sowerby,” showing their distribution; and (2) “ Fosof the same year, one “On the Older Palæozoic (Proto- sils of the Denbigh Flagstone and Sandstone Series." zoic) Rocks of North Wales" (from observations by him. Thus, until 1846, no serious divergence of views had elf in company with Mr. Salter), which appeared, with a been noted by Sedgwick. This is manifested in his map, in the Journal of the Geological Society (i. 1). The paper on the "Slate-rocks of Cumberland," read before the abstract in the Proceedings was prepared by Mr. War- Geological Society on January 7 and 21, 1846 (Q. J. Geol. luurton, the President of the Geological Society, and the Soc., ii. 106, 122, 1846), which says, on the last page but paper of the following November makes no állusion to one: “ Taking the whole view of the case, therefore, as this fact, or any objection to the abstract.
I know it, I would divide the older Palæozoic rocks of A remarkable feature of the November paper is that it our island into three great groups-(3) the upper group, nowbere contains the term "Upper Cambrian” or even exclusively Upper Silurian; (2) the middle group, or * Cambrian," although the rocks are Sedgwick's Upper Lower Silurian, including Llandeilo, Caradoc, and perCambrian, together with Murchison's Upper Silurian. haps Wenlock; (1) the first group, or Cambrian;" dif
A second fact of historical interest is the use of the fering in this arrangement from Murchison only in the term " Protozoic," not in the sense in which it was intro- suggestion about the Wenlock. The italics are his own. duced by him in 1838, but in that in which introduced in He adds :2818 by Murchison, on p. 11 of his "Silurian System," “This arrangement does no violence to the Silurian where he says:
system of Sir R. Murchison, but takes it up in its true ** Bor the Silurian, though ancient, are not, as before place; and I think it enables us to classify the old rocks stated, the most ancient fossiliferous strata. They are, in in such a way as to satisfy the conditions both of the Truth, but the upper portion of a succession of early fossil and physical as well as mineralogical development.” deposits which it may hereafter be found necessary to But before the year 1846 closed, not only the overlap«lescribe under one comprehensive name. For this pur- ping of their work was recognized, but also the consepose I venture to suggest the term 'Protozoic Rocks quences ahead, and divergence of opinion began.
In December a paper was presented by Sedgwick to “Silurian System "-since the publication of which the Geological Society, on “The Fossiliferous Slates fourteen years had passed. He closes with the word of North Wales, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lanca- (p. 168): shire ” (Q. J. Geol. Soc., iii. 133, December 1846), which "I affirm that the name 'Silurian, given to the great contains a protest against the downward extension of the Cambrian series below the Caradoc group, is historical Silurian so as to include the Cambrian. It is excellent unjust. I claim this great series as my own by the ur in spirit and fair in argument. Many new facts are given doubted right of conquest ; and I continue to give it the respecting sections of the rocks in South Wales and North name 'Cambrian' on the right of priority, and, moreorer, Wales, in some of which occur the Lingula flags, and as the only name yet given to the series that does n. characteristic fossils are mentioned. In describing some involve a geographical contradiction. The name 'Silurten South Wales sections, Sedgwick uses the term “ Cambro- not merely involves a principle of nomenclature that is = Silurian” to include, beginning below: (1)“conglomerates war with the rational logic through which every oltre and slates, (2) Lower Llandeilo flags, (3) slates and grits Palæozoic group of England has gained a permanent (Caradoc sandstone of Noeth Grug, &c.), (4) Upper i name, but it also confers the presumed honour of a coLlandeilo flag, passing by insensible gradations into Wen- | quest over the older rocks of Wales on the part of one lock shale." The Cambrian series is made to include: who barely touched their outskirts, and mistook his way (1) the Festiniog or Tremadoc group ; (2) roofing-slates, as soon as he had passed within them. &c., the "Snowdonian group,” fossiliserous in Snowdon, “I claim the right of naming the Cambrian rocks be &c. ; (3) the Bala group; and then(4) "the Cambro-Silurian cause I flinched not from their difficulties, made out at group," comprising "the lower fossiliferous rocks east of general structure, collected their fossils, and first con the Berwyns between the Dee and the Severn--the Cara- prehended their respective relations to the groups abune doc sandstone of the typical country of Siluria-and the them and below them, in the great and compbcites Llandeilo flags of South Wales, along with certain asso-Palæozoic sections of North Wales. Nor is this all-' ciated slates, flags, and grits." The extension of the claim the name Cambrian, in the sense in which I have term Silurian down to the Lingula flags, or beyond, is used it, as a means of establishing a congruous nomenclaopposed, because the beds below the Llandeilo are not ture between the Welsh and the Cumbrian mountains, and part of the Silurian system ; the term Silurian [derived bringing their respective groups into a rigid geological from the Silures of South-East Wales and the adjoining comparison ; for the system on which I have for many part of England] is not geographically applicable to the years been labouring is not partial and one-sided, bik* Cambrian rocks; and because the only beds in North general and for all England." Wales closely comparable" with the Llandeilo flags are Sedgwick does not seem to have recognized the taso at the top of the whole Cambrian series.” This last that Murchison had the same right to extend the Silurial reason later lost its value when it was proved, as Sedg- system to the base of the Llandeilo beds, whatever i wick recognized years afterward, that Murchison's Llan- horizon, that he had to continue the Cambrian to the top deilo flags were really older than Sedgwick's Bala rocks. of the Bala beds.
Sedgwick's paper was followed, on January 6, with one Murchison's reply was made at the meeting of the by Murchison (0. J. Geol. Soc., iii. 165, January 1847) Geological Society in June (Q. J. Geol. Soc., viii
. 17 objecting to this absorption of the Lower Silurian, and 1852). He remarked, with regard to Sedgwick's allusion reiterating his remark of 1843 that the fossiliferous Cam- to the excursion of 1834, that, “if I lost my way in going brian beds were Lower Silurian in their fossils, and downward into the region of my friend, it was under has arguing, thence, for the absorption of the Cambrian, to own guidance ; I am answerable only for Silurian and this extent, by the Silurian. Having, eight years before, Cambrian rocks described and drawn as such within niny in his great work on the “Silurian System,” described own region.” the Lower Silurian groups with so much detail, and In his closing remarks Murchison says :with limits well defined by sections and by long lists of "I am now well pleased to find that, with the exceptu fossils, over a hundred species in all, many of them of my old friend, all my geological contemporaries in my figured as well as described, and having thus added a own country adhere to the unity of the Silurian System long systematized range of rocks to the lower part of the and thus sustain its general adoption. Palæozoic series, he was naturally unwilling to give up the “No one more regrets than myself that Cambrian name of Lower Silurian for that of Upper Cambrian or should not have proved, what it was formerly supposed to Cambro-Silurian. Moreover, the term “ Silurian," with | be, more ancient than the Silurian region, and thus buve the two subdivisions of the system, the Upper and Lower, afforded distinct fossils and a separate system ; bus as had gone the world over, having been accepted by geo things which are synonymous cannot have separate Games, logists of all lands as soon as proposed, become affixed there is no doubt that, according to the laws of scientific to the rocks to which they belonged, and put into use in literature, the term ''Silurian must be sustained as memoirs, maps, and geological treatises.
applied to all the fossiliferous rocks of North Wales In 1852, the controversy, begun by encroachments not Lastly, let me say to those who do not understand the intended on either part, reached its height. Sedgwick's nature of the social union of the members of the Geo earnest presentation of the case (Q. J. Geol. Soc., viii. logical Society, that the controversy which has prevailed! 152), and appeal before the Geological Society in between the eloquent Woodwardian Professor and myself February of that year--making the latter part of a has not for a moment interrupted our strong personal memoir by him on the “Classification and Nomen- friendship. I am indeed confident we shall slide down clature of the Lower Palæozoic Rocks of England and the hill of life with the same mutual regard which animated Wales"--argues, like that of 1846, for the extension of us formerly when climbing together many a mountain the Cambrian from below upward to include the Bala both at home and abroad." beds, and thereby also the Llandeilo flags and Caradoc Murchison was right in saying that all British geologists sandstone, although he says, " my friend has published a were then with him, even in the extension of the name magnificent series of fossils from the Llandeilo flag- Silurian to the lower fossiliferous Cambrian rocks; and stone.” Sedgwick also expresses dissatisfaction with this was a chief source of irritation to Sedgwick. It was Mr. Warburton's abstract of his paper of June 1843, also, with scarcely an exception, true of geologists elseand with the change made in his map of November "One important fact is pointed out in this paper in a kte frumo MC9. 1843, but, as shown above, he has no blame for on p. 143-that the May Hill group, which Murchis had referred tulee Murchison and little for Mr. Warburton. He also points point was the subject of a paper by Sedgwick in the next volue (vol...*
Caradoc series, really beltsged by its fossils to the Upper Silurian. Tau out some errors in the stratigraphical sections of the the Journal of the Geological Society.
where. This state of opinion was partly a consequence or is not, needed. In the progress of geology, the time of Murchison's early and wonderfully full description of finally was reached, when the name Cambrian was bezhe Silurian rocks and their fossils, which made his work lieved to be a necessity, and “ Cambrian " and "Silurian" 2 key to the Lower Palæozoic of all lands. Sedgwick's derived thence a right to follow one another in the Cambrian researches and the palæontology of the region geological record. were not published in full before the years 1852-55, “To follow one another ;” that is, directly, without a when appeared his "Synopsis of the Classification of the suppression of “Silurian” from the name of the lower 13ritish Palæozoic Rocks," along with M'Coy’s “ Descrip- subdivision by intruding the term “ Ordovician," or any tions of British Palæozoic Fossils."
other term. For this is virtually appropriating what is But this general acceptance was further due to the fact claimed (though not so intended), and does marked inthat the discovered fossils of the Cambrian, from the justice to one of the greatest of British geologists. Lingula flags downward, or the "Primordial,“ were few, Moreover, such an intruded term commemorates, with and differed not more from Silurian forms than the harsh emphasis, misjudgments and their consequences, Silurian differed among themselves ; and also, because which are better forgotten. Rather let the two names, the beds were continuous with the Silurian, without a | standing together as in 1835, recall the fifteen years of break. Geologists under the weight of the evidence, friendly labours in Cambria and Siluria and the other American as well as European, naturally gravitated in earlier years of united research. JAMES D. DANA. the Murchisonian direction, while applauding the work of Sedgwick.
In 1853, Mr. Salter showed, by a study of the fossils (Q. J. Geol. Soc., x. 62), that the Bala beds from Bala in
THE WEATHER IN JANUARY. Merioneth, the original Bala, were included within the THE month of January, which is generally the
coldest period of the Caradoc. Sedgwick subsequently in the
month of the year, was so exceptionally warm this preface to the Catalogue of the Woodwardian Museum year, and in other ways the whole period was so unby J; W. Salter) divided his l'pper Cambrian into (1) usual, that a few of the leading features in connection be Lower Bala, to include the Llandeilo flags (Upper with the weather may not be without interest. The month Llandeilo of the Geological Survey, the Arenig being the opened with a short spell of frost
, but, after the first few Lower); (2) the Middle Bala, corresponding to the days, mild weather set in, and continued until the close Caradoc sandstone, the Bala rocks, and the Coniston of the month. limestone (Geological Survey); and the Upper Bala or
The stations used by the Meteorological Office in the the Caradoc shales, Hirnant limestone, and the Lower compilation of the Daily Weather Report scarcely repreLlandovery (cited from Etheridge, in Phillips's “Geology," sent sufficiently the weather at inland stations, but yet ii. 77, 1885).
they will give an approximate idea of the prevailing conIn 1854, the Cambrian system not having secured the ditions. These reports show that the warmest weather place claimed for it, Sedgwick brought the subject again
was experienced in the south-western parts of the Kingbefore the Geological Society. Besides urging his former dom, the stations in the north-east of Scotland being
On arguments, he condemned Murchison's work so far as to about 5° colder than in the south-west of England. imply that none of his sections "give a true notion of the the east coast the mean temperatures of Wick, Aberdeen, geological place of the groups of Caer Caradoc and Spurn Head, and Yarmouth were each about 41oo. Liandeilo”, and to speak of the Llandeilo beds, in a for a number of stations in all parts of the British
The following table gives the mean temperature results note. as "a remarkable fossiliferous group (about the age of the Bala limestone) of which the geological place was
Islands:entirely inistaken in the published sections of the Silurian System." There were errors in the sections, and that with regard to the May Hill group was a prominent one; but this was sweeping depreciation without new argument; and, in consequence of it, part of the paper was refused
Station. publication by the Geological Society.
The paper appeared in the Philosophical Magazine for 1854 (fourth series, vol. viii. pp. 301, 359, 481). It contains no bitter word, or personal remark against Murchison. Sedgwick was profoundly disappointed on finding, when closing up his long labours, that the Cambrian system had no place in the geology of the day. He did Wick ...
140-5 +2.8 45'2 +3903597 +297 4 not see this to be the logical consequence of the facts so
41'6 +4'3 47'I +5.2 36'1+34 13 far as then understood. It was to him the disparagement
4141 +3.21456 +3:236-5 +32 7
Leith ... and rejection of his faithful work ; and this deeply moved
142'2 +30 48.2: +36 36-2 +2.5 15 Shields
142-3 +34 47:8, +47)36 81 +21 14 him, even to estrangement from the author of the success York ...
41:8, +36 47-9, +47 356 +2.5 15 ful Śilurian system.
Loughborough 142*2 +4'048'4'+4'936'0 +3'1| 17 Conclusion.
4386 +3.2147'3'+29 39.8 +3:41 6 The ground about which there was reasonably a Donaghadee 426 +2.2147*71+33 37-5+1'2 15 disputed claim was that of the Bala of Sedgwick's region Holyhead
44*7 +2.2 48.7 +2.840671+1°7 18 and the Llandeilo and Caradoc of Murchison's. Respect
43*2 +3 4 48.5'+46 37.8 +2.2 16
Parsonstown ing this common field, long priority in the describing and
42'2 +1948-8 +28 35.5'+09 16 7 defining of the Llandeilo and Caradoc beds, both geo- Roche's Point
45-6 +0-451*1 +1°340*0--0-521 3
457 + 1950-2 +2 3|4162 +15 23 logically and palæontologically, leaves no question as to
146'0 +3.1 49'2 +34 42:8 +29 17 Murchison's title. Below this level lie the rocks studied Scilly ...
48-3 +21151'5 +2.4445'0' +1°7 25 chiefly by Sedgwick; and if a dividing horizon of suffi
466 +4.250*5 +4 5426 +39 24 cient geological value had been found to exist, it should Hurst Castle 45'4 +4:2 49-8 +4.5/40-9, +39 23 have been made the limit between a Cambrian and a London
14347 +4'1149-5 +47 378 +34 20 5 Silurian system.
Mean of max. and min.
Difference from average
15 years, 1871-1885.
Difference from average
15 years, 1871-1885.
Difference from average
15 years, 1871-1885.
Number of days with 50°
and above. Number of nights with 32°
142-5'+3'4148-1 +4'3 368 +2'415 The claim of a worker to affix a name to a series of Cambridge... 1419 +36 489 +50349 +23/ 19 rocks first studied and defined by him cannot be disputed. Yarmouth
40:8, +26 45-6, +37|36'0 +1°5 6 7 Kut science may accept, or not, according as the name is,
From this it is seen that the excess of temperature was The Academy of Sciences of Berlin has presented the followleast at the extreme western stations, the mean at Valencia ing sums of money: £90 to Dr. Rohde, of Breslau, for a journe only exceeding the average for 15 years by oo4, whilst to Naples to continue his observations on the central nervous the night temperature was even below the average. In system of sharks and echinoderms at I'rof. Dohrn's zoologica" nearly every case it is seen that the excess of the day station ; £80 to Prof. Matthiessen, of Rostock, to further be temperatures over the average was larger than that of the researches on the eyes of whales at the stations of the North her night temperatures. A feature of especial interest in the fisheries ; £25 to Prof. Dr. Winkler, of Breslau, for a journey table is the large number of days on which the tempera- to St. Petersburg to make researches on the Turkish, Samoyed
. ture reached 50° or above.
It is interesting to notice the very great difference and Tungusian languages; £30 to Dr. Schellong, the Nes between the temperature in January this year, in com- Guinea traveller, to publish the results of his anthropologies parison with that which occurred in January 1881, studies. when the weather was exceptionally cold. At Loughborough, the mean temperature this year exceeded that
It is proposed that the following address shall be presente! in 1881 by 17°, which is 4° in excess of the difference to Prof. Stuart on the occasion of his resignation of his Professorbetween the average temperature for January and May; ship at Cambridge :-“We, the undersigned resident members there were also several stations in nearly all parts of the of the Senate, having learned from your letter to the Vict Kingdom with an excess of 12° and 13°.
Chancellor your intention of resigning your Professorship in the At Greenwich Observatory the mean temperature ob- University, desire to express our sense of the great public service tained from the mean of the maximum and minimum which you have rendered in connection with the University Ex readings was 43°4; and with the exception of 43° 5 in 1884 and 43°6 in 1846, this has not been exceeded in January tension movement. By yourself first delivering specimen coure during the last half-century. The mean of the highest of lectures, and afterwards strenuously advocating and ably day temperatures was 480-5, which is higher than any organizing their wide-spread establishment, you did for the January during the last fifty years, and the only other country at large, and for our own and other Universities, work instances of 48°, or above, were 48°-1 in 1877 and 1851, which we regard with sincere respect and admiration. The and 48oo in 1846. There were six years with the mean degree in which Cambridge has, during the last twenty years, maximum between 47° and 48°, but only eighteen in all come into useful relations with sections of the community which above 45°, whilst in January 1879 the mean of the maxima were previously regarded as beyond the sphere of its influence e, was only 35°1, or 130:4 colder than this year, and in 1881 we hold, largely attributable to your inspiring initiative, and to it was only 36° 2. There have been three Januaries the wise principles of administration which, mainly under your during the last half-century with a higher mean night temperature, but in no year was the excess more than 1. guidance, the University laid down." In January this year the mean minimum was 380-2, and AMONG the lectures to be delivered at the Royal Institution in 1884 it was 39o2. The Greenwich observations also of Great Britain after Easter we note the following :-On Tues show that there were in January 17 days with a tempera: days, April 15, 22, 29, three lectures on the place of Oxford ture of 50° or above, whereas in the corresponding period during the last 50 years there has been no similarly high University in English history, by the Hon. George C. Emi number of days with this temperature. It was reached rick; on Tuesdays, May 27, June 3, 10, three lectures un the 14 times in 1877, 1853, and 1846 ; 13 times in 1873 and natural history of society, by Mr. Andrew Lang; on Thurs 1849 ; 12 times in 1884 ; 11 times in 1874, 1869, 1852, and days, April 17, 24, May 1, three lectures on the heat of these 1851 ; and in 28 Januaries 50° or above was only attained moon and stars (the Tyndall Lectures), by Mr. C. V. Bayr, 5 times or less.
F.R.S. ; on Thursdays, May 8, 15, 22, 29, June 5 12. 51 The warm weather was very intimately connected with lectures on flame and explosives, by Prof. Dewar, F.R.S. the heavy wind storms which occurred throughout the on Saturdays, April 19, 26, May 3, three lectures un colom month, the storm systems which so frequently arrived on and its chemical action, by Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.5. our coasts from off the Atlantic being the natural carriers of warm moist air. Scarcely a day pa sed during the THE De Candolle Prize has been awarded to Prol. E month without the arrival of some fresh disturbance from Buchenau, of Bremen, for his monograph of the Juncaginer. the westward, but with one or two exceptions the central areas of the storm systems skirted the western and A CONGRESS for Viticulture will be held in Rome from the 2 northern coasts and did not pass directly over our islands. to the 27th of the present month. The principal object of the The disturbances, however, passed sufficiently near to us Congress will be the discussion of remedies for the Feronerieru to cause winds of gale force, and there was scarcely a viticola and other diseases of the vine caused by vegetable parzday throughout the
month that a gale was not blowing in sites. There will be an International Exhibition of apparatus for some part of the United Kingdom. In the North Atlantic the month was exceptionally stormy, and vessels trading the cure of these diseases, and numerous prizes will be awarded between Europe and America experienced unusually heavy weather.
The annual general meeting of the members of the German The month was also marked by the prevalence of in- Botanical Society is to be held this year in Bremen late in fluenza, and, in addition to this, a general unhealthiness September. pervaded all classes of the community. The death-rate, from all causes, in London, for the four weeks ending
APPENDIX I. of the kew Bulletin, just issued, contains a list January 25, corresponded to an annual rate of 297 per of such hardy herbaceous annual and perennial plants ani 1000 of the total population, wbich is excessively high. of such trees and shrubs as matured seeds under cultivation in The rates for the corresponding period in the last four the Royal Gardens, Kew, during the year 1889. It is explained years were 21*7 in 1889, 23-2 in 1888, 227 in 1887, and that these seeds are available for exchange with Calonial, India, 22 6 in 1886.
CHAS. HARDING. and Foreign Botanic Gardens, as well as with regalar corre
spondents of Kew. The seeds are for the most part only available NOTES.
in moderate quantity, and are not sold to the general public. The subject of the Bakerian Lecture, which, as we announced The Nachtigal Gesellschaft of Berlin, for German research dast week, is to be delivered by Prof. Schuster on March 20, will in Africa, has just completed its second year of business. It was be“ The Discharge of Electricity through Gases."
announced at the last general meeting that the list of members