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had been doubled during the last year. The Society's library wire stretched so as to give a determinate number of vibrations. contains 200 books on Africa. Herr Schiller-Tietz was elected When the bar expands, the wire becomes less tense, and gives I'resident of the Society in place of Councillor Engelke. fewer vibrations, and there is a simple relation between the
A CURIOUS phenomenon is reported from Batoum. On January number of vibrations and the elongation of the bar. The author 15, at 4 p.m., during a complete calm, the sea is said to have cites a case in which a variation of one hundredth of a millisuddenly receded from the shore, leaving it hare to a depth of ten metre in a bar lessens the double vibrations from 99 to 96-5. fathoms. The water of the port rushed out to sea, tearing many | Now, a practised ear will appreciate a difference of one vibration of the ships from their anchorage, and causing a great amount per cent. ; hence it suffices to ascertain variations of length less of damage. After a short time the sea assumed its usual level. than o'oi millimetre. With other methods of measuring
As important addition to our knowledge of the meteorology change of vibration, elongations of thousandths of a millimetre of Central America has been made by the publication of Parts may be ascertained. 1-4 of the Boletin trimestral of the National Meteorological The first careful determination of latitude in Tokio (according Institute of San José, Costa Rica, for the year 1888, under the ' to the Japan Weekly Mail) was made in 1876 by Captain direction of Prof. E. Pittier, The Observatory is situated in Kimotsuki, at that time Director of the Naval Observatory. latinde 9' 56' N., longitude 84 8' W., and its importance may · In 1888, soon after the transfer of the Naval Observatory to the be judged from the fact that no other station of the first order, Imperial University, and its reorganization as the Astronomical possessing self-recording instruments is to be found between Observatory of Tokio, the new Director, Prof. Terao, resolved Mexico, in latitude 19' N., and Rio de Janeiro, in latitude 23o , upon a redetermination of the latitude. The work was en
The bulletin contains observations made several times daily, trusted to Mr. Watanabe, a skilled observer, and the result has and hourly observations of rainfall for five months, also a sum been published as the first of the “Annales de l'Observato.re mary of the observations formerly made in Costa Rica. The Astronomique de Tokio (Université Impériale du Japon, Collège older series of observations show that the mean yearly ex- des Sciences).” The determination was made in two distinct ways: ?remes of temperature at San José were 78°8 and 560-7, while first, by observations of the upper and lower transits of the the mean difference of the monthly means amounted only to about Pole star across the meridian ; second, by observations of the # The daily period of rainfall is very marked. From sunrise zenith distances of 38 different stars, arranged in couples to noon scarcely any rain falls, while between noon and 6h. according to Talcott's method. This latter method only was pini. about 75 per cent of the whole amount falls. The mean used by Captain Kimotsuki in this earlier determination. The duration of rain on a wet day is 2h. 9m. Only two months of earlier ean value for the latitude was 35° 39' 17":492 ; while kvenometrical observations are given ; these show that the the recently obtained mean values were 35° 39' 15":05 by the first maximum velocity at noon is twice as great as the mean velocity method, and 35° 39' 15":41 by the second method. This disduring the night. An interesting summary of the observations crepancy of fully 2" is, in the circumstances, too large to be has been published by Dr. Hann in the Meteorologische regarded as an accidental error, and must be due to some Zulkrift for February.
systematic error in either the earlier or the later determination. AT a recent meeting of the Paris Geographical Society an More weight will be attached to the new determination, since interesting lecture was delivered by Dr. Hamy, on the history Mr. Watanabe had much superior instruments at his disposal. of scientific missions in France under the old monarchy. He THE stay of some 306 natives from various French colonies, Commenced practically with the reign of Francis I., and de- &c., for about six months, in Paris last year, in connection with scribed many missions abroad, with purely scientific aims, which the Exhibition, was an interesting experiment in acclimatization. are now either forgotten, or the results of which have never Owing to wise hygienic measures (such as vaccination, good been published. Thus, the apothecary to Henri IV. went all water supply, isolation of closets, and surveillance of food), over the globe in search of the peculiar products of each country, these Annamites, Tonquinese, Senegalese, &c., seem to have especially medicinal and food plants ; still earlier, another ex- escaped most of the common endemic disease. According to piorer went to Brazil to study dyeing woods; and, in the last the Semaine Médicale, they had no typhoid fever, scarlatina, century, Condamine, Dombey, Bougainville, and La Pérouse or measles, though these were in Paris at the time. Soine 68 went on their well-known expeditions. The President, Comte natives were attacked by mumps. The fatigues of a voyage and de Bisemont, mentioned that there were still in the archives of the change of climate led to a recurrence of intermittent fever, the Ministry of Marine copies of the instructions given to with grave symptoms, in twenty cases. It was thought at first to travellers and navigators in past centuries, and that these were ' be typhoid fever of a severe type; but the rapid and durable " positively models of their kind, which could not be followed efficacy of sulphate of quinine, given in doses of 2 to 3 grammes to closely now." Prof. Bureau, of the Museum of Natural a day, proved the paludine nature of the disorder. It is noteHistory in Paris, observed that a botanical collection made by worthy that most illnesses of this population, especially that just Paul Lucas in the reign of Louis XIV. still existed in the noticed, and those from cold, appeared during the first part of Museum, and he referred especially to Tournefort, of the same the time, when the weather was mild ; while in the second perical, whom he described as the scientific traveller of former period, with unfavourable atmospheric conditions, the illness times whu perhaps most nearly approached moderns in his ! diminished, whether owing to precautions in the matter of dress methods of observation. He was sent by the King on a bota and food, or to more complete acclimatization. The negroes nical expedition to the Levant, with very precise instructions, of Senegal and the Gaboon seem to have been the greatest amongst others, to collect and observe the plants mentioned by sufferers, while the Indo-Chinese race acclimatized the best. the ancients. He did not confine himself to this, but formed a The first Bulletin issued this year by the Académie Royale de complete herbarium, which is still preserved at the Museum, Belgique contains a note by M. Van Beneden, on a Ziphius and is one of its treasures. He was accompanied by an artist which was stranded in the Mediterranean, and a list of the prize named Aubriet, who brought back a large collection of coloured subjects for 1891. The subjects dealt with are architecture, ensketches, which forms an important part of the unrivalled col graving, painting, and music. Four gold medals are given, łection in the library of the Museum.
having values tooo, two 800, and 600 francs respectively. The A xEW and very simple method of measuring small elonga dissertations may be written in French, Flemish, or Latin, and tions of a har under any influence has been devised by Signor must be sent before June 1, 1891, to M. J. Liagre, Secretary of Cardani (Cusmos). To one end of the bar is attached a metallic the Academy.
Remarks. A SHORT note on diethylene diamine, C.H. C,H,, is
(1) This bright oval nebula is now in a very convenient pour
tion for observation. I am not aware that the spectrum bia contributed to the new number of the Berichte of the German
been recorded. It is about 8' long, and 3 broad, and is the Chemical Society by Dr. J. Sieber, of Breslau. It was obtained
described in the General Catalogue : * Very bright, very larg by the action of ethylene dibromide, C.H.Bro, upon ethylene very much elongated 40°9, gradually much brighter in the NH,
middle." The description is very suggestive of the Gres diamine, C.H. a liquid boiling at 123° C. Upon treat Nebula in Andromeda, and is, as in that case, the spectrum 2 NH,
first appears continuous, closer scrutiny may reveal irregularnie. ing the product of this reaction with caustic potash, an oily The brighter parts, assuming that they exist, should be compared
with the spectrum of carbon. liquid separated, consisting of a mixture of bases. The separ
(2) According to the observations of D'Arrest, Secchi, and ated liquid was next dehydrated as completely as possible, and Vogel, this is a fine example of the stars of Group II. Duam then submitted to fractional distillation, when the portion boiling states that all the bands i to 10 inclusive are excessively wule between 1689-175° was found to consist of diethylene diamine and dark, and that the spectrum is totally discontinuous. The admixed with a little water. The affinity of the base for water is, star, therefore, affords a good opportunity for further observa in fact, so great that it was found impossible to remove the last tions of the bright carbon flutings with the object of establishır. traces of moisture. Diethylene diamine, however, readily forms remarked that the citron band of carbon need not enter into the
the cometary character of the stars of this group. It may be salts which can be isolated in a state of purity, and the analyses comparison, as it will be masked by the dark fiuting und of which prove the composition of the base itself. The hydro-manganese (band 4). NH.HCI
(3) A star of the solar type (Konkoly). The usual differential
observations are required. chloride, C.H. C,H, , crystallizes in beautiful white needles,
(4) A star of Group IV. (Vogel). The usual observations are NH.HCI
required. very soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. The platino
(5) This star has a "very fine" spectrum of the Group VI. chloride, C,H1N,(HCI), PtClų, forms fine yellow needle-shaped type, notwithstanding its low altitude in our latitude (Duner crystals, readily soluble in hot water, but difficultly soluble in the principal bands, 6, 9, and 10, are very dark, and the
secondary bands, 4 and 5, are also well seen. Further obrera boiling alcohol. A very beautiful salt is also formed with mercuric tions, with special reference to line or other absorptions, are chloride, C,H,N,(HCI), HgCl,, consisting of star-like aggregates suggested. of acicular crystals, also soluble in hot water, but reprecipitated (6) A maximum of this short-period variable will occur on Mart by the addition of alcohol.
8. Gore gives the period as 26-76 days, and the magnitude 1 Drs. WILL AND Pinnow communicate to the same journal maximum and minimum as 6:2 and 76 respectively. There » their report upon the analysis of the remarkable meteorite of catalogue, Vogel writes it 11.a? III.a, giving the magnitude
still a little doubt with regard to its spectrum. In his
spectrascopic Carcote, Western Cordilleras, Chili. The great mass of this the time of observation as 73. In all probability the specten meteorite, 80 per cent., is found to consist of two silicates. is intermediate between Group II. and Group IIL, perbapa One of them is readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and something like Aldebaran.
A. FOWLER. possesses the composition and optical characters of olivine, THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF DECEMBER 22, 1889 – (MgFe),SiO. The other is unattacked by hydrochloric acid, M. A. De La Baume Pluvinel, who was located in Royal Island, and exhibits the chemical and crystallographical characters of a about 30 miles north of Cayenne, during this eclipse, communimember of the diopside group. Interspersed among the silicates cated his results to the Paris Academy on the 17th cl. are smaller quantities of chrome ironstone, bronze-like sulphide (Comptes rendus, No. 7, 1890). An examination of the photo
graphs of the corona which were obtained leads to the of iron, probably troilite, and light steel-grey nickeliferous iron.
conclusions thatThe latter is not only found in minute particles, but also fre (1) The corona presented the same general aspects on quently in small plates which show the Widmannstadt figures in January 1, 1889. the form of an extremely fine rectangular network. Here and (2) The extension of the corona was small, being about 18 * there are found silver-white crystals of rhabdite, one of the forms the solar equator, and about 6' at the poles, and in this respect of nickeliferous iron. By far, however, the most interesting intimate relation that exists between the intensity of extra-solar
resembled the coronæ of 1867 and 1878, thus confirming the substance contained in the meteorite, is a form of crystalline phenomena and the frequency of sun-spots. elementary carbon, dull black in appearance and of extreme (3) The aspect of the luminous aigrettes which constitute the hardness, at least 9. It is, in fact, a variety of black diamond, corona, and notably the curved form of the aigrettes in the and its presence in the meteorite affords considerable ground for neighbourhood of the poles, seem to prove the existence a speculation. Carbon is further present in the form of organic normal to the solar sphere, and a centrifugal force developed by
streams of matter submitted to two forces-a force of projectina substances soluble in ether, and these substances carbonize upon the sun's rotation. heating, evolving the usual odour of burning organic matter.!
COMETS AND ASTEROIDS DISCOVERED IN 1889.Hence this meteorite is an extremely interesting one, and forms
Comet a 1889.---Discovered on January 15, a little before another addition to the fast-accumulating list of those in which | dawn, by Mr. W. Brooks at Geneva, N.Y., U.S.A. The come carbon forms a not insignificant ingredient.
was moving rapidly from east to west, and was not afterwards
observed. OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
Comet / 1889.-Discovered by Mr. Barnard, of the Lak
! Observatory, on March 31 ; it was then very feeble and difficult OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE.
to see. After perihelion passage, the comet was observed Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m. on March 6 = Ann Arbor on July 22, near the position assigned to it by M. Sh. 58m. 195.
Comet ( 1889.-Also discovered by Mr. Barnard, on June Colour. R.A. 1890. Decl. 1890. 23, as a faint nebulosity without condensation or tail
. No observed after August 6. Dr. Berberich determined the ele ments of this comet on the hypothesis of an elliptic orbit
, an! (1) G.C. 1713
found that its period was 128 years.
+33 50 (2) 120 Schj. Reddish-yellow.
Comet d 1889.—This comet
, the most interesting of these (3) a Hydra Yellow.
observed last year, was discovered by Mr. Brooks, of Geners (a) u Cancri
Yellowish-white. (5) 124 Schj. Reddish-yellow.
U.S., on July 6. It is periodic, the time of revolution being 6) T Monocerotis
+ 787 7'04 years. On August 1, Mr. Barnard found that the principal
comet was accompanied by four companions. Mr. Chanika
h. m. s.
9 4 6
8 52 30 9 45 59 6 19 20
has found that in 1880 this comet must have approached near to arms being specially noted.” Afterwards, the bridge was reJupiter, and his investigations seem to show that it is identical crossed, and in the middle of the north connecting girder the with the lost comet of Lexell.
train stopped to allow the Prince of Wales to perform the cereComet e 1889.-Discovered by Mr. Davidson at Branscombe, mony of driving the last rivet. “A temporary wooden staging," Mackay (Queensland), on July 22, and visible to the naked eye says
the Times, had been erected there, and upon it His Royal at first as a star of the fourth magnitude. It moved rapidly Highness stepped, along with Lord Tweeddale, Lord Rosebery, towards the north, and at the same time diminished in bright and Mr. Arrol. The hydraulic rivetter was swung from one of ness, remaining visible, however, up to November.
the booms, the
pressure being supplied from an accumulator at Comet f 1889.-Discovered by Mr. Lewis Swift at Rochester, Inchgarvie. Two men were placed on the boom below to L.S, on November 17. From observations extending over manipulate the machine. The gilded rivet having been placed twenty days, Dr. Zelbr was led to conclude that the comet was in the bolt-hole, and the silver key having been handed to His periodic, the time of revolution being 6'91 years.
Royal Highness by Lord Tweeddale, the Prince, with Mr. Comet z 1889.- Discovered by M. Borrelly at Marseille, on Arrol's assistance, finished the work in a few seconds, amid December 12. It was then feeble, but rapidly increased in cheers. The rivet is in the outside of the boom, and holds brightness. Although the declination of this comet on discovery together three plates. Around its gilded top there is an inscripwas - 48° 55', it moved so quickly towards the south, that it was tion stating that it is the ‘last rivet; driven in by His Royal kost to our latitudes about January 10, 1890. The first observa. Highness the Prince of Wales, 4th March, 1890.' The train Fions fixed the perihelion passage at January 26, 1890.
stopped a second time at the south great cantilever pier, where Six asteroids were discovered in 1889, viz. :
another platform bad been erected, upon which several ladies
were standing. Here the Prince again left the train, at half-past Discovered by M. Charlois at Nice on January 28. I o'clock, to make the formal declaration of the opening of the
bridge. As the wind was blowing a perfect gale, so that His
Royal Highness had difficulty in retaining a steady foothold, it May 29.
was impossible to make a speech. He therefore simply said ;
'Ladies and Gentlemen, I now declare the Forth Bridge open.' August 3.
Hearty cheers greeted the announcement, and the Prince having M. J. Palisa at Vienna on August 3.
returned to his carriage, the train moved slowly along to the
Forth Bridge Station." ,, Dr. Peters at Clinton, U.S., October 13.
At 2 o'clock a banquet was given in the model-room at the
bridge works, the chair being occupied by Mr. M. W. ThompMass of SATURN. - The Transactions of the Astronomical son. The Prince of Wales, responding to the toast of "The Otsservatory of Yale University, vol. i. part ii., contains some Prince of Wales and other members of the Royal Family," spoke rescarches with the heliometer by Mr. Asaph Hall, for the as follows :determination of the orbit of Titan and the mass of Saturn. "I feel very grateful for the kind words which have fallen from
Frota observations made at the oppositions of 1885-86, 1886- the chairman in proposing the toast, and I thank you all most 87, the mean value of the semi-major axis of Titan's orbit was heartily for the cordial way in which you have received it. The retermined as
day has been a most interesting day to all of us, and especially 176" 570 0* 0243 ;
so to me, and I feel very grateful that I have been asked to take ani the mass of Saturn
part in so interesting and important a ceremony as the one at
which we have all assisted." I had the advantage, nearly five 3500*5 + 1:44'
and a half years ago, of seeing the Forth Bridge at its very comthe sun being unity.
mencement, and I always looked forward to the day when I
should witness its successful accomplishment. I may perhaps Struve showed that the value found by Bessel from Titan
say that in opening bridges I am an old hand. At the request should be 350245, while the values found by Struve himself from
of the Canadian Government I performed the opening ceremony laçetas and Titan are respectively 3500 2 # 0·82 and 34957 #1'43. Prof. Hall, with the great Washington refractor, found
30 years ago of opening the Victoria Bridge over the St. Lawfrom Iapetus by means of differences of right ascension and being one million. To-day I have performed a similar ceremony
rence at Montreal, putting in the last rivet, the total of rivets declination, the mass 34812 + 0'65, and by distances and posi- for the Forth Bridge, but on this occasion the rivets number titomi-angles 3481-4 0-97; from Titan the values corresponding nearly eight millions instead of one million. The construction to the same methods are 3496'3 + 184, and 34699 € 1.49, but there seem to be grounds for questioning these results, so
of the bridge has been on the cantilever principle, which has. fiscorslant with those found by Struve, and at Yale College.
been known to the Chinese for ages, and specimens of it may be seen likewise in Japan, Tibet, and the North-West Provinces of India. Work of this description has hitherto been carried out
on small dimensions, but in this case the engineers have had to THE OPENING OF THE FORTH BRIDGE. construct a bridge in 30 fathoms of water, at the height of 150 feet MUCH interest was excited all over the country by the open- | above high water mark, and crossing two channels, each oneing of the Forth Bridge on Tuesday. The ceremony was
third of a mile in width. Had it not been for the intervening simple, and all the arrangements were carried out successfully. island of Inchgarvie the project would have been impracticable There was no rain, and although the wind blew stifly, it was It may perhaps interest you if I mention a few figures in con"comparatively mild.” The special train conveying the directors nection with the construction of the bridge. Its extreme length, and invited guests left the Waverley Station, Edinburgh, in two i including the approach viaduct, is 2765 yards, one and one-fifth portions, the first at 10.45, the second, to which the Royal of a mile, and the actual length of the cantilever portion of the carriages were attached, ten minutes later. At the Forth Bridge bridge is one mile and 20 yards. The weight of steel in it Station Sir John Fowler, Mr. Benjamin Baker, Mr. William amounts to 51,000 tons, and the extreme height of the steel Amol
, Mr. Phillips, and other gentlemen connected with the structure above mean water-level is over 370 feet; above the building of the bridge, awaited ihe arrival of the Royal party bottom of the deepest foundation 452 feet, while the rail-level from Dalmeny. By the special desire of the Prince of Wales, above high water is 1565 feet. Allowance has been made for who wished to have an opportunity of examining some details of contraction and expansion and for changes of temperature to the the structure, the Royal train steamed very slowly across the extent of one inch per 100 feet over the whole bridge. The windbridge. As seen from the shore, the long train of large saloon pressure provided for is 56 lb. on each square foot of area, amountarrages is said to have looked like "a mere toy as it passed ing in the aggregate to about 7700 tons of lateral pressure on through the stupendous framework of tubes and girders at the cantilever portion of the bridge. About 25 acres of surface Inverkeithing." From the North Queensferry Pier the steam will have to be painted with three coats of paint. As I have launch Delprin conveyed the Royal party and the directors said, about eight millions of rivets have been used in the
bridge, over the Firth, so that the bridge might be seen from the
and 42 miles of bent plates used in the tubes, about the distance and another vessel followed, containing the rest of between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Two million pounds have the company. Both vessels steamed out to the middle been spent on the site in building the foundations and piers ; in of the Firth; and, according to the Times, the view
the erection of the superstructure ; on labour in the preparation was much enjoyed "as each cantilever was passed in suc
of steel, granite, masonry, timber, and concrete; on tools, cranes, cession, the junction of the girder bridges with the cantilever drills, and other machines required as plant; while about two
and a half millions has been the entire cost of the structure, tionality of the men who had been engaged in that constriche, of which £800,000 (nearly one-third of this amount) has the bridge possessed an international character. He also prebeen expended on plant and general charges. These figures dicted that the bridge would last for many, many years, and he will give you some idea of the magnitude of the work, and cordially acknowledged the workmanship and ability of all aš will assist you to realize the labour and anxiety which all had assisted in its erection. As to the workmen themises those connected with it must have undergone. The works he said they had done admirable work, and had never knowingly were commenced in April 1883, and it is highly to the credit scamped a rivet. of everyone engaged in the operation that a structure so Mr. Arrol also acknowledged the toast, and Mr. Baker, 'n stupendous and so exceptional in its character should have been response to calls from the audience, made a few remarks completed within seven years. The opening of the bridge must Mr. John Dent, Deputy Chairman of the Forth Bridge Ruilnecessarily produce important results and changes in the railway way Company, in proposing the toast of ** The Guests, " service of the east coast of Scotland, and it will, above all, place gratulated the recipients of the special honours bestowel by rks the valuable manufacturing and mineral-producing district of Queen, and he spoke of the universal reputation which bei Fife in immediate communication with the south side of the become attached to the bridge, which stred as a moqumeni ve Firth of Forth. When the Glenfarg line, now nearly completed, industry, of genius, and of ability. is opened for traffic, the distance between Edinburgh and Perth After a clever speech from Lord Rosebery, Herr Mehrte, will be reduced from 69 to 47 miles, and instead of the journey of the Prussian Railway Department, replied for himsell mi occupying, as at present, two hours and 20 minutes, an express in the name of his companions from Saxony, Austria, 24 will be able to do it in an hour. Dundee, likewise, will be Hungary, He expressed their feelings of thankfulness that they brought to within 59 miles of Edinburgh, and Aberdeen 130 had been permitted to be present on so interesting an occan miles, and no sea ferries will have to be crossed. The construc- and their admiration at all the wonderful things they had as tion of the bridge is due to the enterprise of four important that day. That day, he said, marked the commencement of railway companies (1) North British (the bridge is in its district), new era in iron bridge building. He congratulated Grex (2) North-Eastern, (3) Midland, and (4) Great Northern--and Britain, which had led the way in iron bridge building, on a the design is that of two most eminent engineers, Sir having the largest span bridge and the strongest bridge in the John Fowler and Mr. Benjamin Baker. The contractor was world. Mr. William Arrol, and the present Tay Bridge, and the M. Picot, on behalf of the railway engineers of France, .. bridge which I have inaugurated to-day, will be last- replied in a speech in which he eulogized the bridge ant": ing monuments of his skill, resources, and energy. I have engineers and contractors. much pleasure in stating that, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, the Queen has been pleased to create Mr. Matthew William Thompson, Chairman of the Forth Bridge Company and of the Midland Railway Company, and Sir UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL John Fowler, engineer-in-chief of the Forth Bridge, ba ronets of
INTELLIGENCE. the United Kingdom. The Queen has also created, or intends to create, Mr. Benjamin Baker, Sir John Fowler's colleague, a
CAMBRIDGE. - The General Board of Stedies annonce bira Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, they will this
term appoint an additional Lecturer in Botany in and to confer on Mr. William Arrol, the contractor, the honour three years, from the beginning of the Easter term 1890 The of a knighthood. I must not allow this
opportunity to pass stipend is 100 a year. Names of candidates are to be sen. "a without mentioning the valuable assistance which has been the Vice-Chancellor on or before March 8. rendered to the companies by Mr. Wieland, their able and in
The Syndics of the Press propose that a gift of books pule! defatigable secretary, who deserves especial praise for the
lished by them shall be made to the Library of the University admirable way in which he has carried out the important finan.
Toronto, lately destroyed by fire, cial arrangements essential in a scheme of such magnitude.
The discussion by the Senate of the proposal to aocept it Before concluding I must express my pleasure at seeing here Newall telescope was on the whole favourable to the pmpoz' Major-General Hutchinson and Major Marindin, two of the though the difficulty of finding the funds required for its adequate
maintenance and use has not yet been made. From remark nspecting officers of the Board of Trade. Although in this country great undertakings of the kind which we are it regards the purchase of a large reflecting telescope as the lus:
made by members of the Observatory Syndicate, it appears 162" celebrating this day are wisely wholly left to the enterprise clain on the sheepshanks Fund ; and it is unwilling to deplee
: and genius of private individuals without aid or favour from the State ; yet, in connection with these particular works, Parlia
the fund until this purchase can be effected. Prof. Loveing ment, I am informed, for the first time associated officers of the referred to the recent development of astronomical physics, at Board of Trade with those practically engaged in the construc- said the University was bound to further it. The Newall take tion of this magnificent bridge from its commencement by re. scope was specially suited for physical researches, and to reja quiring the Board of Trade to make quarterly reports to be laid it as a " white elephant” would damage the liniversity
by u before Parliament as to the nature and progress of the works. couraging other benefactors. The matter is to be referred to the This most important and delicate duty has been performed by
Financial Board. Major-General Hutchinson and Major Marindin; and I now
At the meeting of the Philosophical Society on March to, la congratulate them on the completion of their responsible duties, following papers
are promised :-W. Gardiner, on the germenta which they have carried out in a way that redounds credit to tion of Acacia spherocephala ; M. C. Potter, the thickening, themselves and to the department which they so ably serve.
the stem in Cucurbitaceae ; Dr. Lea and W. L. Dickinson, wale Allow me again, gentlemen, in thanking you for the kind
way skulls of Egyptian mummified cats.
on the action of rennin and fibrin-ferment; W. Bateson, in some in which you have received this toast, to assure you of the great pleasure and gratification it has been to me to have been present on this occasion to inaugurate this great success of the skill of engineering." Sir John Fowler, in acknowledging the toast of the Forth
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. Bridge, said he begged to return his most grateful thanks to His
LONDON. Royal Highness the Prince of Wales for the flattering manner Royal Society, February 20.-"A Comparative Study of in which he had spoken of their work. It was now seven years Natural and Artificial Digestions" (Preliminary Account). I ago since the foundations of the bridge were commenced, but up A. Sheridan Lea, Sc D., Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. to two years ago they had to endure not only the legitimate Cambridge, University Lecturer in Physiology. Communicated anxieties of their duties, but the attacks and evil predictions by Prof. Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. which were always directed against those who undertook en The objects of the investigation were (i.) to obtain in artificis gineering work of novelty or exceptional magnitude. It was digestions some closer approximation to the general condition very curious to watch the manner of retreat of these prophets of under which natural digestion is carried on in the body, and (! failure. The results had proved them to be mistaken. But he to apply the improved methods of carrying on artificial dige could tell some very curious stories connected with the bridge. tions to the elucidation of some special differences, which so far He pointed out how, from the nature of the materials which had have appeared to exist between the natural and artificial pro been used in the construction of the bridge, and from the na cesses.
An apparatus was described by means of which digestions can
PARIS. be carried on in a dialyzer in such a way as to provide for the Academy of Sciences, February 24.-M. Hermite in the constant motion of the digesting mixture and the removal of chair.—The proofs of the separation of the south-east extremity
iigestive products: by this method a partial reproduction of of the Asiatic continent during recent times, by M. Émile iwu of the most important factors in natural digestion is Blanchard. The author advances proofs from the resemblance of provided
animal and vegetable life in Further India, on the peninsula of So far the method has been employed for 1 The salivary digestion of starch. Experiments conducted Gaudry. The relation of Dryopithecus to the ape and to man
Malacca, and Sunda Islands.--The Dryopithecus, by M. Albert under otherwise similar conditions in the dialyzing digester and has been investigated. -A contribution to the chemical study of
flask, showed that-(i.) The rate of digestion in the former is the truffle, by M. Ad. Chatin. always greater than in a flask, and at the same time the tendency i directed to the quantitative determination of the organic and
The researches have been jalyzer. (ii.) The total sugar formed and small residue (4-29 tention of urine, by M. F. Guyon. - Transformations in kineamount of starch converted into sugar is always greatest in the other matter in truffles. --Scrotal pneumocèles, by M. Verneuil
. er cent.) of dextrin left during an active and prolonged diges- matic geometry, by M. A. Mannheim.-On the constitution of tion in the dialyzer justify the assumption that, under the more favourable conditions existing in the body, the whole of the note on the periodic recurrence of doubles and triplets in the
the line spectra of elements, by M. J. R. Rydberg: This is a Zarch taken is converted into sugar before absorption. The above results afford an explanation of the existing dis- enables the spectrum of an element to be found by interpolation
spectrum of an element. It is shown how this periodicity cordant statements as to the nature and amount of products when the spectra of elements of the same group are known, the Sormed during starch digestion. IL The tryptic digestion of proteids. The experiments made the principle.--Electrical oscillations in rarefied air, without
case of gallium being given as an example of the verification of dealt chiefly with the formation of leucin and tyrosin, and were electrodes; demonstration of the non-conductivity of the amiertaken, initially, in order to find out why these crystalline vacuum, by M. James Moser. It is well known that vacuumproducts are formed in large amount during an artificial diges
tubes become luminous when near an inductirn coil in action. fun, while they have so far been described as occurring in mere The author, by enveloping one vacuum-tube with another, in traces during natural digestion. The results of the experiments which the rarefaction could be varied, finds that the excitation •tzring natural digestion. Examination
of the contents of the may take place without any electrode. If the pressure in the
outer tube be equal to 760 mm., the inner tube, under the wall intestine during proteid digestion showed that, contrary influence of the coil, becomes luminous and of a clear blue lu existing statements, leucin and tyrosin are formed in not in- colour ; if, however, the pressure be diminished to i mm. of cosiderable quantities during the natural process.
The last part of the communication dealt with the probable mercury, the air in the outer tube becomes luminous and of a physiological importance of the formation of amidated bodies pronounced red colour, thus reversing the phenomena.-Upon
The variation, with the temperature, of the bi-refractions of during tryptic digestion, and a view was put forward as to the
quartz, barytes, and kyanite, by MM. Er. Mallard and josible and probable importance of amides in the chemical
H. Le Chatelier, This variation has been studied by the cycle of animal metabolism. The experiments are being extended to the pancreatic digestion : a singular point is detected at 570°, at which temperature the
: aid of a photographic spectroscopic method : with quartz of larch.
law of variation suddenly changes; a similar phenomenon is Linnean Society, February 20.-W. Carruthers, F.R.S., ! indicated as occurring in the case of kyanite somewhere between President, in the chair.-Mr. G. C. Druce exhibited specimens 300° and 600°:—The vapour-pressure of acetic acid solutions, by i Agrostis canina, var. Scotica, and a small collection of flower
MM. F. M. Raoult and A. Recoura. It has been previously ing plants dried after treatment with sulphurous acid and alcohol,
shown by one of the authors (Comptes rendus, May 23, 1887; and showing a partial preservation of the natural colours of the Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 6th series, t. xv., 1888) that, Pasters.-Nr. F. P. Pascoe exhibited a series of Coleopterous if f represents the vapour-tension of a solvent for a certain temxd Lepidoplerous insects to show the great diversity between perature, f' the vapour-tension under similar conditions when a ituects of the same family. - The Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock, non-volatile body is in solution, P the weight of substance disBaft., M.P., P.C., then gave an abstract of four memoirs which solved in 100 grms. of the solvent, M the molecular weight of he had prepared : (I) on the fruit and seed of the Juglandiæ ; the dissolved body, and M' the molecular weight of the solvent,
) on the shape of the oak.leaf ; (3) on the leaves of Viburnum; then for dilute solutions16d (4. oo the presence and functions of stipules. An interest
K=100 f - f') M ing discussion followed, in which Mr. J. G. Baker, Mr. John
f'P M Fraser, Mr. D. Morris, and Prof. Marshall Ward took part.
K being a constant generally near to unity. Employing the
dynamical method, the mean value of K for acetic acid is found EDINBURGH.
to be 1'61, taking 60 as the molecular weight of acetic acid ; Royal Society, February 17.--Sir W. Thomson, President, but if the molecular weight of a liquid be the same as that of the in the chair.-Prof. Crum Brown communicated a paper, by saturated vapour, the apparent anomaly disappears, for with Mr. Tolver Preston, on Descartes' idea of space and 'Sir w. molecular weight 97 (deduced from density of saturated acetic Thomson's theory of extended matter.—The following communi- acid vapour at 118°, viz. 3-35), the above formula gives K=1.cations from the chemical laboratory of the University were The action, in the dry way, of various arseniates of potassium and
:-a! Prof. Crum Brown, on a new synthesis of dibasic sodium upon the oxides of the magnesia series, by M. C. Lefèvre. organic acids. The method proposed was the electrolysis of -Note on the volumetric estimation of copper, by MM. A. Etard Inaltassium ethyl salts of lower dibasic acids which would take and P. Lebeau. A method of titration is given by the authors, pilace according to the scheme
for which they claim a rapidity and accuracy comparable to the 2E100C.R".COOK=EtOOC.R".R".COOEt + 2C0, +2K,
permanganate method for iron ; it is based upon the formation
of a characteristic violet coloration on the addition of concen. hm giving the diethyl ether of a higher acid of the same series.
trated hydrobromic acid to a solution of the copper salt, and ) Prof. Crum Brown and Dr. James Walker, on the electrolysis the subsequent decoloration of the solution by standardized of potassium ethyl malonate, and potassium ethyl succinate.
stannous chloride solution containing much hydrochloric acid ; The reaction actually takes place in great measure in the above
thusindicated sense, the yields of pure succinic ether and of adipic ether respectively being from 20 to 30 per cent of the theoretic
2CuBr2 + HBr + SnBr2 = SnBr + Cu,Br + HBr. ally obtainable quantities. The method is thus proved to be of Coloured.
Uncoloured. practical as well as of theoretical importance." (c) Dr. John Gitson, on the action of bromine and carbonate of soda in - Preparation of hydroxycamphocarbonic acid from camphozolations of cobalt and nickel salts.--Mr. W. Calderwood read carbonic acid, by MM, A. Haller and Minguin.-Upon the or* paper on the swimming bladder and Aying powers of Dactylo-ganization of left-handed Prosobranchiate Gastropoda (Neptunea *77*1 Twitans.
contraria, Linnæus), by MM. P. Fischer and E. L. Bouvier.