« PreviousContinue »
meteorology. The movement of the daily barometric will necessitate the revision of all theories of the oscillations from east to west is only quasi-tidal, being diurnal oscillations of the barometer that have assumed quite different from the manner in which the tides of the a diurnal change of the temperature of the 31ocean are propagated from place to place over the earth's face on which the atmosphere rests as a necessary surface; these oscillations being, undoubtedly, directly cause of these oscillations. The theory of the diumu! generated by solar and terrestrial radiation in the regions oscillations of the barometer submitted by Mr. Buchas where they occur, and it is thus only that the striking may be thus stated: Assuming that aqueous vapour, il variations in the curves of restricted districts compara- its purely gaseous state, is as diathermanous as the tively near each other are to be explained. These dry air of the atmosphere, it is considered that tae peculiarities do not occur over the open sea.
morning minimum of pressure is due to a reiz. As illustrating these variations, reference is made to tion of tension brought about by a comparative the retardation of the time of occurrence of the morning sudden lowering of the temperature of the aur itself to maximum, which is delayed as the year advances, the terrestrial radiation through all its height, and by a latest retardation being in June; and the curves of 14 change of state of a portion of the aqueous vapour fron. stations are given, these stations being situated in the the gaseous to the liquid state by its deposition on the middle and higher latitudes, and in localities which, while dust particles of the air. The morning minimum is the strongly insular in character, are at the same time not due, not to any removal of the mass of air overhead, but far from extensive tracts of land to eastward or south- to a reduction of the tension by a lowering of the fereastward. These barometric curves for June present a perature and change of state of a portion of the aquech graduated series, the two extremes being Culloden, where vapour. the morning maximum occurs at 7 a.m., and Sitka, where As the heating of the air proceeds with the ascenti the same phase of pressure is delayed' till 3 p.m., there the sun, evaporation takes place from the moist surfaces being thus eight hours between them. Another set of of the dust particles, and tension is increased by the simples curves is given from lower latitudes, showing the diurnal change from the fluid to the gaseous state ; and as the diga variation in mid-ocean from the Challenger observations, particles in the sun's rays rise in temperature above that si together with a series of land stations representing the the air-films in contact with them, the temperature of the influence of a land surface in increasing the amount of air is thereby increased, and with it the tension. Under the variation, which reaches the maximum in the driest these conditions the barometer steadily rises with the climates. Latitude for latitude, the maximum daily varia- increasing tension to the morning maximum ; and it is tion occurs in such arid climates as Jacobabad on the Indus, to be noted that the rise of the barometer is not a and the minimum over the anticyclonic regions of the casioned by any accessions to the mass of air overhead great oceans. At Jacobabad the variation from the but only to increasing temperature of the air itself an. morning maximum to the afternoon minimum reaches change of state of a portion of its aqueous vapour. O'187 inch, whereas in the South Pacific it is oo36 inch, By and by an ascending current of the warm air seks and in the North Atlantic only o'014 inch.
in, and pressure gradually falls as the mass of air over. The following are some of the other types of barometric head is reduced by the ascending current flowing back u curves discussed-the curves at high-level stations on an upper current to eastward-in other words, over tie true peaks, and down the sides of the mountain ; the section of the atmosphere to eastward whose temperature curves in deep contracted valleys; those in high latitudes has now fallen considerably lower than that of the regum in the interior of continents where the morning minimum from which the ascending current is rising; and this disappears; and those in high latitudes over the ocean continues till pressure falls to the afternoon miniRE where the afternoon minimum disappears. In the two The back flow to eastward of the current, which has last cases, the curve is reduced to a single maximum ascended from the longitudes where pressure at the time and minimum, which as regards the times of occurrence is at the minimum, increases pressure over the longitudes are the reverse of each other.
where temperature is now rapidly falling, and this atmi The atmosphere over the open sea rests on a Aoor or spheric quasi-tidal movement brings about the evca" surface, subject to a diurnal range of temperature so maximum of pressure, which occurs from 9 p.in. 10 small as to render that temperature practically constant midnight according to latitude and geographical position both night and day; but notwithstanding this, the diurnal | As the early hours of morning advance these contributionoscillations of the barometer occur over the open sea, through the upper currents become less and less, and equally as over the land surfaces of the globe. Hence finally cease, and the effects of terrestrial radiation now the vitally important conclusion is drawn that the diurnal going forward again introduce the morning minimum 1 oscillations of the barometer are not caused by the already described. It is during the evening maximum heating and cooling of the earth's surface by solar and that the diurnal maximum of periods of lightning withou: terrestrial radiation and by the effects following these thunder and of the aurora take place, it being during diurnal changes in the temperature of the surface, but this phase of the pressure that the atmospheric conditions that they are primarily caused by the direct heating by result in an abundant increase of ice spicules in the upper solar radiation and cooling by terrestrial radiation of the regions of the atmosphere, which thus serve as a screen molecules of the air and of its aqueous vapour, and the for the better presentation of any magneto-electric de changes consequent on that cooling. It follows that charges that may occur. these changes of temperature are instantly communicated It is interesting to note, in this connection, that the through the whole atmosphere, from its lowermost stratum amount of the diurnal barometric tide falls conspicuoush resting on the surface to the extreme limit of the at- to the minimum, latitude for latitude, within the smemosphere. There are important modifications of the cyclonic regions of the great oceans, where, owing to the barometric curves affecting the amplitude and times of descending currents which there prevail, deposition from occurrence of the principal phases of the phenomena, the aqueous vapour is less abundant on the dust particles over land surfaces, for example, which are superheated From a discussion of the whole of the two-hourla during the day and cooled during the night according to observations of the wind made during the cruise, sorted the amount of aqueous vapour present in the atmo- into those made over the open sea and those made nos sphere. But it is particularly insisted on that the baro- land, it is shown that the velocity of the wind is gretier metric oscillations themselves are independent of any over the open sea than at or near land, the different change in the temperature of the floor of the earth's being from 4 to 5 miles per hour. The most important surface on which the atmosphere rests. It scarcely result is that there is practically no diurnal variation in requires to be added that these results of observation the wind's velocity over the open sea. But as resperts
the winds observed near land, the velocity at the different pleteness not previously attempted. The distribution of hours of the day gives a curve as clearly and decidedly the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere and marked as that of the temperature, the minimum occur- prevailing winds is illustrated by 52 newly constructed ring from 2 to 4 a.m., and the maximum from noon to maps, of which 26 show by isothermals the mean monthly 4 p.m., the absolute maximum being at 2 p.m. The dif- and annual temperature on hypsobathymetric maps, ference between the hour of least and that of greatest first on Gall's projection, and second on north circumvelocity is for the Southern Ocean 65 miles ; South polar maps on equal surface projection ; and 26 show, Pacific, 48 miles; South Atlantic, 31 miles; and North by isobars, for each month and for the year, the mean and South Atlantic, each 3 miles. It is also to be noted pressure of the atmosphere, with the gravity correction to that even the maximum of the day near land in the case of lat. 45° applied, and by arrows the prevailing winds of the none of the oceans attains to the velocity observed over the globe. Two other maps are given in the text, one showapen sea. The curve near land is substantially the same ing for July the geographical distribution of the amount as the curves characteristic of stations on land. Thus, of the barometric oscillation from the morning maximum over the sea, where surface temperature is practically a to the afternoon minimum; and the other, the annual constant day and night, the velocity of the wind shows range of the mean monthly pressure, which, in a sense, no diurnal variation; whereas over land, and also near may be regarded as indicating the relative stability of the 11, where the temperature of the surface is subject to a atmospheric pressure in different regions of the earth. diurnal variation, the wind's velocity is also subject to an For the details of this discussion,
we must refer to the equally well-marked diurnal variation. On the other Report itself, the broad results of which Mr. Buchan thus hand, at high-level observatories situated on true peaks, summarizes :the maximum velocity occurs during the night, and the “The isobaric maps show, in the clearest and most minimum during the day. In deep valleys in mountain- conclusive manner, that the distribution of the pressure ous regions, an abnormally high barometer obtains during of the earth's atmosphere is determined by the geothe night, which is the result of cold currents from the graphical distribution of land and water in their relations adjoining slopes that the cooling effects of terrestrial to the varying heat of the sun through the months of the radiation set in motion. Now since these down-flowing year; and since the relative pressure determines the winds must be fed from higher levels than those of the direction and force of the prevailing winds, and these in mountain itself, the winds prevailing on their tops are their turn the temperature, moisture, rainfall, and in a really the winds of a higher level, and blow therefore very great degree the surface currents of the ocean, it is with the increased velocity due to that greater height. evident that there is here a principle applicable not On the other hand, during the warmer hours of the day, merely to the present state of the earth, but also to the barometric pressure in deep valleys is abnormally different distributions of land and water in past times, low, owing to the superheating of these valleys as con- | In truth, it is only by the aid of this principle that any trasted with the temperature of the surrounding region, rational attempt, based on causes having a purely terthus giving rise to a warm wind blowing up the valleys, restrial origin, can be made in explanation of those and an ascending current close to the sides of the moun- glacial and warm geological epochs through which the tain up to the summit. Now, since no inconsiderable climates of Great Britain and other countries have portion of this ascending current, whose horizontal velo- passed. Hence the geologist must familiarize himself city is necessarily much retarded, mingles with the air with the nature of those climatic changes which necescurrent proper to the level of the peak, the wind on the sarily result from different distributions of land and peak is retarded, and falls to the minimum of the day water, especially those changes which influence most when the temperature is highest.
powerfully the life of the globe.” The results of the averaging of the squalls over the It is evident from what has been said that many of the open sea entered in the Challenger's log show a strongly results of the diurnal and seasonal phenomena of ocean marked diurnal maximum early in the morning, when meteorology are equally novel and important, and, when the effects of terrestrial radiation are at the maximum. combined with the analogous results obtained from land Bur over land the diurnal curves for whirlwinds, torna- observations, enable us to take a more intelligent and dues, and allied phenomena, show the minimum at these comprehensive grasp of atmospheric phenomena in their hours, and the maximum at the hours when insolation is relations to the terraqueous globe taken as a whole than strongest. It is probable that the daily maximum occurs has hitherto been possible. in each case at those hours when temperature decreases with height at a greatly more rapid rate than the normal. The distribution during the day of thunderstorms, and
THE BOTANICAL LABORATORY IN THE of lightning without thunder, is very remarkable. During ROYAL GARDENS, PERADENIYA, CEYLON. th, oruise nichos thundeusterau incurred overhothes open THEfattention of the readers ofx iN arabe
, vbas been 10 p.m. to 8 a.m., and only 4 during the other 14 hours of p. 127) to the opportunities which are before botanists the day. Hence, over the open sea, the diurnal curve of for the study of plants other than those of our own flora. thunderstorms is precisely the reverse of what obtains on | But since the latter of these articles appeared, a step has land. Of the 209 reported cases of lightning without been taken which will justify a return once more to this thunder, 188 occurred during the 10 hours from 6 p.m. to important subject. 4 a.m, and only 21 during the other 14 hours of the day. It is certainly one of the most healthy signs of the The following are the hours of the maxima of these present time that our younger botanists desire not merely phenomena in the warmer months over land and the to pore over minute details of microscopical structure in open sea respectively. Thunderstorms over land, 2 to the laboratory at home, but to become personally ac6 p.Ita ; lightning over land, 8 p.m. to midnight ; lightning quainted with plants in the open. When the somewhat over the open sea, 8 p.m. to 4 a.m.; and thunderstorms sudden reversion occurred some fifteen years ago, from over the open sea, 10 pm to 8 a.m. These facts are a taxonomy as an academic study, to the more detailed valuable contribution to the science, from their intimate examination of the tissues of plants in the laboratory, and connection with the ascending and descending currents the study of their functions, those who took a large view of the atmosphere.
of the progress of the science must have seen with regret The second part of the Report, dealing with the monthly that the change, however valuable in itself, brought with and annual phenomena, aims at giving a comparative it a new danger. Those who as students were first view of the climatologies of the globe to a degree of com- introduced to plants as subjects of microscopic study ran
the risk of failing to appreciate the importance of external Harvard College. The following are the more importan form: they acquired a knowledge of the minute structural passages :details of certain plants, but did not acquire a strong Henry Draper Memorial.-The first research on the grasp of the external characters of plants as a whole. spectrum of over ten thousand of the brighter stara is not But the pendulum which thus swung rapidly over to an nearly completed and is partially in print. The photoextreme position is now returning to the mean. While graphs required for the second research on the spectrum duly appreciating the value of microscopic examination, of the fainter stars are also nearly complete. The eleverthe younger botanists are awake to the advantage, or inch telescope has been in constant use througtune even the necessity, of a wide knowledge of plants. The nearly every clear night in photographing the spectrum whole area of facts upon which those who are now of the brighter stars. This work is approaching corengaged in teaching draw in the course of their lectures pletion for all stars bright enough to be photographed by is much wider than it was ten years ago, and the exten- means of our present appliances, with the large dispersen sion has, perhaps, been most marked in the province of now employed. Good progress has also been made with external morphology.
the classification of the spectra, and the study of the This being so, there will be no need to press upon the slight differences in different stars. By the use of an men who are starting upon a career as botanists the improved process for staining plates with erythrosin, toe importance of a visit to the tropics: they will look upon yellow and green portions of the spectrum, even of the the collections in our Botanic Gardens, which they are fainter stars, can be advantageously studied. Numeros hardly allowed to touch, as only a temporary substitute experiments have been made with a device for measuring for a tropical jungle, where they may cut down plants the approach and recession of stars, by means of as they please, in order to obtain specimens illustrating achromatic prism in front of the object-glass. Several mature or developmental characters. Moreover, those peculiar spectra have been studied, especially that w characters of a tropical flora which are the most striking $ Ursa Majoris. The periodic doubling of its lines seems and characteristic are often those which must remain to be due to the rotation of two components too close to entirely unrepresented in our glass houses at home. An be distinguished by direct observation. The detection of expedition to the tropics should, in fact, become a recog- bright lines in one of the stars in the Pleiades suggesta 2 nized item in the programme of preparation for a career possible explanation of the legend that seven stars were as a teacher of botany.
formerly visible in this group. The advantages offered by the Royal Gardens at During last spring an expedition was sent to Peru in Peradeniya have already been pointed out in NATURE charge of Mr. S. 1. Bailey, assisted by Mr. M. H. Bailey (vol. xxxiv. p. 127); but since that article was written a station was selected on a mountain about six thousand steps have been taken by a Committee of the British feet high and about eight miles from Chosica. lll Association to add to them. Backed by a grant of supplies for the station, including water, must be carried money, they have undertaken the establishment of a per- by mules for this distance. Two frame buildings coverca manent laboratory in which visitors may carry on their with paper have been erected, one for an observatory, tite work. A room has been set apart for this purpose in the other for a dwelling-house.' Since May 9 the Bache official bungalow by the directorate of the Royal Garden. telescope has been kept at work during the whole of It has every advantage of position, being placed centrally every clear night. 1236 photographs have been obtained in the garden, and within easy reach of the herbarium, The plan proposed will cover the sky south of -15° four &c. while, since it is under the same roof as the Director's times, once with photographs of spectra having an office, visitors would have the great advantage of the posure of an hour, which will include stars to about the presence of Dr. Trimen himself as a referee in recognition eighth magnitude; secondly, with an exposure of ten of the plants of the rich native flora. In this room are to minutes, giving the brighter stars; thirdly, with charts be found such apparatus and reagents as are ordinarily having an exposure of one hour, permitting a map of the required for laboratory work, and steps are being taken southern stars to the fourteenth magnitude inclusive : to add other facilities.
and fourthly, with charts having an exposure of ten The mere mention of these facts will probably suffice minutes, including stars to about the tenth magnitude to attract those who were not previously aware of them. The weather for the first four or five months was a The chief deterrent will be the cost of the journey. It cellent, being clear nearly every evening. Foga and has already been stated that £200 to £250 will suffice for cloud which often covered the adjacent valleys and the all expenses of an expedition of six months' duration, city of Lima did not reach to the top of the mountain while if two club together the individual cost would bé The cloudy season is now beginning and the work wil considerably smaller. Though the Committee of the be more interrupted. But nearly one-half of the entire British Association have no power to use the money programme has already been carried out. A large entrusted to them as a personal grant, still it is wel number of interesting objects have been detected, amon known that there are sources from which such grants may others several stars having bright lines in their specits be obtained in order to assist those who are engaged on Including the photometric work described below, the a definite line of research. Bearing all these facts in amount of material so far collected is unexpectedly large mind, the value of such an expedition as that to Peradeniya Boyden Fund.—The climate of Southern California cannot be too strongly urged on those who are about to seems especially favourable to the undertaking desired by enter definitely on a career as professed botanists. The Mr. Boyden. An expedition under the direction of Pred widening of view, and opportunity for research, which any William H. Pickering was accordingly sent in November man of originality would obtain by it would amply repay 1888 to the summit of Wilson's Feak, in the vicinity * him for his expenditure of time and money. Applications Los Angeles. In order that as much useful work for the use of the laboratory, which is at present vacant, possible might be accomplished, the thirteen-inch tele should be made to Prof. Bower (University, Glasgow), scope and the eight-inch telescope now in Peru were ses who is the secretary to the Committee.
to Willows, California, where the total solar eclipse >>
January 1, 1889, was successfully observed. Forty-seves THE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY OF
photographs were obtained by the party during the thres
minutes of totality, and the instrumental equipment was HARVARD COLLEGE.
much superior to any previously used for such a purpos. PROF. EDWARD. C. PICKERING
has presented to it was not until May 11, that the large telescope was su the Visiting Committee the forty-fourth Annual cessfully mounted on Wilson's Peak, by Messrs. Es Report of the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of King and Robert Black, but since then it has been kepe
at work throughout every clear night. The number of very faint stars. It is hoped that those of the sixteenth photographs obtained is 1155. The objects photographed magnitude and fainter can be photographed. Its principal are selected from a list of 625 double stars, 143 clusters use will probably be for the study of the distribution of the ind other celestial bodies, such as the moon and planets. stars, for complete catalogues of clusters, nebulæ, and As these same objects have been repeatedly photographed double stars, and for the spectra of faint stars. The al Cambridge with the same instrument, an accurate com- amount of material accumulated will be enormous, and the parison of the atmospheric conditions of the two places best method of discussion will form a very difficult and may be made. It will of course be impossible to derive a important problem. tinal conclusion until the observations have extended over at least a year, but the evidence already secured shows that in summer results can be obtained at Wilson's Peak which cannot be obtained here. The difference is very
NOTES. pronounced for such objects as the markings on Jupiter. Clusters like that in Hercules are well resolved, so that The bulletins relating to the health of Sir Richard Owen, the individual stars are easily measured, which cannot be who is suffering from a paralytic stroke, have called forth many done with the best Cambridge photographs. As a test- expressions of sympathy from the general public, as well as from object the sixth star in the trapezium of the Orion nebula men of science. Hopes of his recovery are entertained, but at is clearly photographed for the first time. A new variable his advanced age the process must necessarily be slow. star has been discovered in the midst of the cluster G. C. 3636. A beginning has been made of the measurements of
A CIRCULAR letter from the Conseil Général des Facultés de the position and brightness of the double stars, and it is Montpellier, issued March 1, 1890, and addressed to the chief hoped to extend this work to the clusters, and thus furnish learned bodies, sets forth that on October 26, 1289, a Bull of in extensive addition to this department of micrometic Pope Nicolas IV. “ érigeait en Studium generale les Facultés de astronomy.
Much experimental work has also been done at Cam- Droit, de Médecine et des Arts, qui existaient déjà depuis longbridge, as is shown by the fact that nearly a thousand temps dans notre ville.” It is proposed, therefore, as we have photographs have also been taken there. Moreover, the already noted, that during the present year the University shall expedition to Peru is largely supported by the Boyden commemorate its entry upon its seventh century. The fête will Fund. The meridian photometer will be used to extend probably be held towards the end of May. two large series of observations to the south pole. These are the Harvard Photometry," and the zones used in the AFTER the reading of the papers at the ordinary meeting of revision of the Durchmusterung. This work will furnish the Royal Meteorological Society on Wednesday, March 19, photometric magnitudes of stars as bright as the ninth the Fellows and their friends will have an opportunity of inmagnitude in all parts of the sky. The Messrs. Bailey specting the Exhibition of Instruments illustrating the application have observed 67 series, one of them including 293 stars. of photography to meteorology, and of such new instruments as In all, during less than six months, about 6700 stars have have been invented and first constructed since the last Exhibition. been observed, which have required 26,800 settings.
The Bruce Photographic Telescope. For the last six The Exhibition will, at the request of the Secretary of the Sears experiments have been in progress here on the use Institution of Civil Engineers, be open in readiness for their of a photographic doublet in the preparation of maps of meeting on Tuesday evening the 18th instant, and will remain the stars. The eight-inch telescope now in Peru is of this open till Friday the 21st instant. form and was mounted here in 1885. Since then 4500 photographs have been taken with it. With an exposure
An International Exhibition of Mining and Metallurgy will of an hour twice as many stars can be photographed as be held this year at the Crystal Palace from July 2 to September are visible with a telescope having an aperture of fifteen | 30. The Lord Mayor is the patron, the Duke of Fife the Hon. inches, and as many stars as can be photographed in the President, and the list of Hon. Vice-Presidents contains the same time with a telescope of the usual form having an names of Lord Wharncliffe, Lord Brassey, Lord Thurlow, Sir aperture of thirteen inches. Moreover with a doublet a por- Frederick Abel, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir F. Dillon Bell, tion of the sky covering twenty-five square degrees can be Sir Graham Berry, Sir Charles Clifford, Sir James Kitson, Sir photographed with good definition, while only three or Roper Lethbridge, M.P., Sir John Lubbock, M.P., Sir John four degrees can be covered equally well with telescopes Pender, Sir E. J. Reed, M.P., Sir Saul Samuel, Sir Warington of the usual form. The time required to photograph the entire sky will be reduced in the same proportion. With W. Smyth, Sir Charles Tennant, M.P., Sir Edward Thornton, a doublet each hemisphere could be covered in one year Sir Charles Tupper, Sir H. Hussey Vivian, and Prof. Robertswith eight hundred plates. In 1885 it was proposed to Austen. Mr. Pritchard Morgan, M.P., is chairman, and Mr. photograph the entire sky with the eight-inch telescope, Henry Cribb deputy-chairman of the Executive Council, which enlarging the plates three times. The results would consists of 20 gentlemen well known in engineering and mining resemble in scale and size the charts of Peters and Cha- matters. The following are the subjects likely to be included corac. The generous aid of Miss Bruce mentioned / within the scope of the Exhibition :--Machinery, mining in above will permit this result to be attained in the original gold and silver, diamonds and precious stones, ironstone and photographis, without enlargement. A contract has been iron-ore mining, the manufacture of iron and steel, lead, tin, made with Messrs. Alvan Clark and Sons for a telescope copper, and coal mining, petroleum and salt industries, and a having an aperture of twenty-four inches and a focal length of eleven feet. Meanwhile nineteen foreign Ob
number of other kindred subjects. Ambulance practice and servatories have united in an Astrophotographic Congress the condition of miners will also be illustrated. to prepare a map of the stars to the fourteenth magnitude with telescopes of the usual form having apertures of Ancient Monuments in Egypt will be held at the rooms of the
A GENERAL meeting of the Society for the Preservation of thirtcen inches. The plans have been matured with great care and skill. The courteous reference to the Royal Archäological Institute to-morrow (Friday), at 5 p.m. Bruce telescope and its proposed work by Admiral Attention will be specially called to the wanton excision of porMouchez shows that both plans can be carried out with
tions of the well-known fresco paintings in the tomb of the syut disadvantageous duplication. Doubtless each plan Colossus on a sledge, dating from the Twelfth Dynasty, or will possess certain advantages over the other. The between 2000 and 3000 years B.C., at Der-el-Barsha, the Eruce telescope will be especially adapted to studying the chipping out of cartouches of different Sovereigns from the Sixth
Dynasty tombs at the same place, the mutilations of tombs at and the Infinitely Small," to an audience numbering about 400. Beni Hassan, the malicious removal of curious bas-reliefs at Tel. composed principally of working men. The lecture we illus el-Armana, and other recent acts of vandalism. Such outragestrated by numerous lantern-views, and was evidently muck as these ought surely to be made practically impossible. All appreciated. that is needed is that the matter shall be seriously taken in hand
In the Engineer of the 7th inst., there is an excellent article by the Foreign Office.
on the latest express compound locomotive on the North-Easter An attempt is being made by the Society of Antiquaries of Railway. This engine is for the east coast Scotch traffic on the London to raise a fund, the interest of which shall be used from section between Newcastle and Edinburgh-about 123 miles time to time to defray the expense of excavations, or to advance A trial was made with a train of thirty-two coaches tota
. archæological knowledge in such other ways as may seem suitable weight of train 270 tons) between Newcastle and Berwick, i to the President and Council of the Society. The object is one distance of sixty-seven miles; and the time was seventy-enci which ought to commend itself to all who interest themselves in minutes, or three minutes less than the Scotch express. With archæology. The Society wants a capital sum of only £3000. the heaviest loads an assistant engine will not be necessary. I Subscriptions should be sent to the treasurer, Dr. E. Freshfield, another trial with a special train of eighteen six-wheeled coacher 5 Bank Buildings, E.C.
a speed of about ninety miles per hour was obtained. This is the MR. GLADSTONE has consented to open the new Residential highest recorded speed by several miles. Diagrams were take Medical College at Guy's Hospital on Wednesday, March 26, at various speeds, one set at a speed of eighty-six miles per bun at 2 p.m.
on the level. This speed was carefully measured by stop-wites
and mile-posts; the highest speed observed was just over ta The treasures of the Ruskin Museum at Sheffield are being seconds per quarter mile run. It is evident from these facts chu: transferred from the small building at Walkley, in which they passengers to the north will not waste much time on the journey have hitherto been kept, to more convenient premises. The when the summer traffic begins on the east coast route. Museum will be reopened by Lord Carlisle on July 15.
Some time ago we referred to a paper in which Dr. Daniel G. The March number of the Kew Bulletin opens with an account | Brinton developed the theory that the ancient Etruseans were of Indian Yellow, or Purree, about the origin of which there used
an offshoot or colony of the Libyans or Numidians of Northern to be much uncertainty. Some time ago, in consequence of Africa—the stock now represented by the Kabyles of Algere inquiries made in India at the request of the authorities at Kew, the Rifians of Morocco, the Touaregs of the Great Desert, and the mystery was cleared up ; and full information on the subject the other so-called Berber tribes. This paper Dr. Brintoa hua will be found in the present paper. Another paper deals with followed up by another, in which he compares the proper names Bombay aloe fibre, and there are sections on the commercial preserved in the oldest Libyan monuments with a series of value of loxa bark, and on barilla.
similar names believed to be genuine Etruscan. The resensAn industrial and artistic Exhibition will shortly be opened blances in many cases are certainly striking, and Dr. Brinton's in Ouéno, the most beautiful park in Tokio. M. de Lezey, ideas on the subject deserve to attract the attention of scholars. writing to La Nature on the subject from Tokio, says that the At a meeting of the Royal Botanic Society on Saturday, Exhibition will be particularly rich in collections of Japanese reference was made to a very interesting collection of seeds uf antiquities.
economic and food plants, timber trees, &c., of Uruguay, pee On February 22 the Johns Hopkins University celebrated the sented by Consul Alex. K. Mackinnon. On the table were twelfth anniversary of its opening. It was announced that, of plants in flower of Narcissus poeticus, lately received from China, the various pressing needs of the University for expansion, that and several varieties of the same flower from the Scilly Isles, of the chemical laboratory was to be met by turning over to it illustrating the cosmopolitan nature of this family of plants, la for reconstruction the ill-ventilated Hopkins Hall.
the Scilly Isles narcissi are grown by the acre, and over ten tops
of the flowers are sent off weekly to market. The collections belonging to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia grow so rapidly that the accommodation provided
In the current number of the Revue des Science natural for them is wholly inadequate. A new building is to be erected, appliquées, M. Mégnin has a valuable paper on the existence of and the State Legislature has voted $50,000 as a contribution tuberculosis in hares. About two years ago he described ? towards the expenditure. It is hoped that another "appropria- peculiar disease brought on by the presence of some species con tion ” of the same amount will be made, and that the rest of the Strongylus in the lungs of hares. The disease dealt with in the money required will be privately subscribed.
present paper is wholly different. GERMAN papers announce the death of Dr. Karl Emil von Natural History, has published an elaborate monograph on te
M. H. BEAUREGARD, aide-naturaliste in the Paris Museum Schafhäut!, Professor of Geology, Mining, and Metallurgy at Vesicant tribe of insects. It is illustrated by many fine plats. Munich University, keeper of the geognostic collection of the Bavarian State, and member of the Academy of Sciences. He was
The skeleton of a mammoth has been discovered in the ņot only an eminent physicist and geologist, but also a theoretical Russian province of Tula, and the Moscow Society musician of some note. He was born at Ingolstadt on February Naturalists have sent a commission to excavate it. 26, 1803, and died at Munich on February 25 last.
Messrs. MACMILLAN AND Co. are issuing a thoroughh The death of Victor, Ritter von Zepharovich, is also announced. Roscoe, F.R.S., and C. Schorlemmer
, F.R.S., and have just
revised edition of "A Treatise on Chemistry," by Sir H. E. He was Professor of Mineralogy at the German University of published Part II.
. III., dealing with the chemistry of the Prague, a member of the Academy of Sciences at Vienna, and hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Since this part of the work author of the “Mineralogical Dictionary of the Austrian was published in 1884, many additions have been made to Empire," and many valuable mineralogical and crystallo- knowledge of this department of organic chemistry, and the graphical works. He was born at Vienna on April 13, 1830, authors, as they themselves explain, have sought to represent and died at Prague on February 24 last.
the present position of the science by introducing the results vé On Tuesday evening, Dr. Dallinger delivered an interest the latest and more important researches, with the effect tha: ing lecture at the Royal Victoria Hall, on “ The Infinitely Great the greater part of the volume has been re-written.