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age, it would probably be found that a not insignificant propor two swarms of dots. Then, for the sake of convenient comtion of those marked as 25 were men who were already older parison, lines corresponding to these threads have been placo) when they came into residence.

J. VENN. on the third diagram. It must, however, be understood thar

have supposed the lines to be drawn straight, merely for er ABOUT eighteen months ago a brief memoir of mine—“Head venience. In making my own final conclusions, I shouli teze Growth in Students at the University of Cambridge”-read into account not only what the swarms of dots appear by the before the Anthropological Institute, was published in Nature selves to show, but also the strong probability that the rale (vol. xxxviii. p. 15). The means obtained by Dr. Venn, of head-growth diminishes in each successive year, and I shoz!! the "head-products” of Cambridge students between the ages interpret the true meaning of the dots with that bias in my of nineteen and twenty-five were there thrown into the form mind.

FRANCIS GALTUS of a diagram, and discussed. The head-product, I may again mention, is the maximum length of the head, x its maximum breadth, x its height above the plane that passes through the following three points : 1 and 2, the apertures of the ears ; 3,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. the average of the heights of the lower edges of the two orbits. I drew curves that appeared to me to approximately represent

LONDON. the true average rate of growth, and deduced from them the Chemical Society, February 6.-Dr, W. J. Russell, F.R.”, following conclusions, in which I have now interpolated a few in the chair. The following papers were read :-Observatius: words in brackets, not because any criticism has been founded on nitrous anhydride and nitric peroxide, by Prof. Ramsı, on their omission, but merely as a safeguard against the pos- F.R.S. The author recommends as the best method of pre sibility of future misapprehension.

paring pure nitrogen peroxide that the deep blue-green ligow (1) Although it is pretty well ascertained that in the masses supposed to be a mixture of this oxide with nitrous andıyánde

. of the population the brain ceases to grow after the age of nine which is obtained by condensing the products of the interaction teen, or even earlier, it is by no means so with University of arsenious oxide and nitric acid, be added to a solutian students.

nitric anhydride in nitric and phosphoric acids, prepared be (2) That men who have obtained high honours have had [on adding phosphoric anhydride to well-cooled nitric acid, dire the average) considerably larger brains than others at the age of agitating the mixture, the upper layer is decanted and distilled

. nineteen.

He assumes that the two oxides interact according to the (3) That they have [on the average] larger brains than others, equation : 1,03 + N.0; = 2N,0. The melting point of the but not to the same extent, at the age of twenty-five ; in fact, peroxide was found to be 10°:14, in agreement with Deville and their predominance is by that time diminished to [about] one Troost's statement. The depression of the freezing point caused half of what it was.

by one part of chloroform in 100 parts of the peroxiile we (4) Consequently, “ high honour” men are presumably, as a 35, and by one part of chlorobenzene o":37, the molecular class, both more precocious and more gifted throughout than depression is therefore 41°. The heat of fusion, w, of the per others. We must therefore look upon eminent University suc oxide, calculated from this number and the observed fusing. cess as [largely due to] a fortunate combination of these two

point, by Van't Hoff's formula W = 0'02T", where T is the helpful conditions.

These conclusions have been latterly questioned by two of freezing-point of the solvent in absolute degrecs and the mole your correspondents, partly on the ground of discordance among cular depression, is 33-7 cals. ; a direct determination gave 333 the data, and partly on that of insufficient accuracy of the indicals. To determine the molecular weight of nitrous anhydnde vidual observations. To this I replied, that materials had since a known quantity of nitric oxide was passed into the peroxide, been accumulating, and that a second batch of observations, and the depression of the freezing point

determined. Assuming about equally numerous with those in the first, were nearly ripe that an amount of nitrous anhydride equivalent to the nitra

. for discussion, and that I thought it better to defer discussion oxide was formed, the results gave the values of 80-9, 927. ap! until these had been dealt with"; then, their agreement or dis- 81'o against 74, the value corresponding with the formula N.O. agreement with the first batch would go a long way towards The author was unsuccessful in freezing nitrous anhydride even settling the doubt.

at -90° by means of liquefied nitrous oxide. It was found :: This second batch of observations has now been discussed by be soluble in this liquid, and it was further observed that u Dr. Venn on exactly the same lines as the first one, and I give evaporation took place nitric oxide gas was given off together wah the results of both in the annexed diagram. The data from

the the nitrous oxide; it would therefore appear that N, O, is unstahl

even at the very low temperature at which nitrous oxide is liqu!

In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper, Mr. A


A AND C Pickering pointed out, with reference to Prof. Ramsay's dete PRODUCTS

mination of the heat of fusion of nitric peroxide, that observations on substances which exercise an appreciable influence on each other cannot safely be used in deducing the heat of fasis Thus in the case of mixtures of water and sulphuric acid, sale tions containing 29'5, 18:5, 86, Io, and 0'07 per cent of acid, gave respectively the values 37'4, 58'3, 79'9, 749, and 5632 the heat of fusion of water, instead of 79:6. In reply to Mr. Wynne, who remarked that nitric oxide alone should inter with nitric anhydride in the way attributed to N, O, Prol. Ramsay stated that he had not examined the action of nitné

oxide on nitric anhydride.-Note on the law of the freening AGES 19 20 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24

points of solutions, by Mr. S. U. Pickering. --The action chromium oxychloride on nitrobenzene, by Messrs. G. 6

Henderson and Mr. J. M. Campbell.-Studies on the constitution first batch, which formed the basis of the above-mentioned of the tri-derivatives of naphthalene ; No. I, The constitution memoir, are here shown by dots with little circles round them; of B-naphthol- and B-naphthylaminedisulphonic acids R. and G. those from the second batch by crosses.

naphthalenemetadisulphonic acid, by Prof. H. E. Armstrong, To the best of my judgment, the conclusions that were reached F.R.S., and Mr. W. P. Wynne. After alluding to the great before are now confirmed. No person can, I think, doubt that theoretical importance of a study of the tri-derivatives of naphtha the swarm of the A dots, and that of the C dots, are totally lene, the authors draw attention to the necessity of determining distinct in character. I have avoided drawing curves through the constitution of those tri-derivatives which are employat either of them, lest by doing so the effect of the marks, when 'technically in the manufacture of azo-dyes in order that the standing alone, should be overpowered, and it might be pre- dependence of colour and tinctorial properties on structure may judiced. In their place, small arrow-heads are placed outside be determined ; and especially is this the case, since all are nel each diagram, to indicate the direction of the stretched thread equally valuable-B-naphtholdisulphonic acid G. (Gelb), like that seemed most justly to represent the general trends of the Bayer's B-naphtholmonosulphonic acid, interacting but slowly

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rith diazo-salts, whilst the corresponding B-naphthylamine derived from the rocks of oceanic islands, and the absence of isulphonic acid G, like the Badische modification of B-naphthyl deep-sea deposits in continental strata of various ages, he prominemonosulphonic acid, is incapable of forming azo-dyes with ceeded to the points connected with the geographical distribution e majority of diazo-salts. The method adopted in this and the of animals and plants, and gave reasons for believing that llowing papers consists frstly in displacing the NH, radicle by Sclater's zoological regions, founded on passerine birds, were ydrogen by v. Baeyer's hydrazine method and determining the inapplicable to other groups of animals or plants, and that any stitution of the resulting naphthalenedisulphonic acid, and evidence of continental permanence based on such regions was econdlyinsubstituting chlorine forthe NH,radicle by Sandmeyer's worthless. He also showed that both elevations and depressions set hod, and characterizing the resulting chloronaphthalene exceeding 1000 fathoms had taken place in Tertiary times, and isulphonic acid and the trichloronaphthalene derived from it by gave an account of the biological and geological facts in support reatment with phosphorus pentachloride. B-naphthylamine- of a former union between several lands now isolated, and Lisulphonic acid R is in this way found to have the constitu- especially between Africa and India via Madagascar, and ion (XH, : SOH : SO,H

= 2:3:3' (for nomenclature, see between Africa and South America. From these and other NATURE, vol. xxxix. P: 598)], and B-naphthylaminedisulphonic considerations it was concluded that the theory of the permanence ecid G, the constitution (NH, : SO,H : SO,H = 2:1:3'). of ocean-basins, though probable, was not proved, and was From the latter acid by the hydrazine method naphthalenemeta certainly untenable to the extent to which it was accepted by issulphonic acid, the fifth known naphthalenedisulphonic acid, some authors.-The ballot for the Council and Officers was has been prepared; this yields a disulphochloride melting at taken, and the following were duly elected for the ensuing year : 37, and 1: 3-dichloronaphthalene melting at 61°:5. The further ---President : A. Geikie, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents : Prof. T. G. nvestigation of derivatives of this acid is expressly reserved by Bonney, F.R.S., L. Fletcher, F.R.S., W. H. Hudleston, he authors. The results obtained in the case of the G acid F.R.S., J. W. Hulke, F.R.S. Secretaries : H. Hicks, F.R.S., make it evident that, as in the case of the Bayer B-naphthol- J. E. Marr. Foreign Secretary: Sir Warington W. Smyth, alptronic acid [OH : SO, H = 2 : 1'] and Badische B-naphthyl. F.R.S. Treasurer : Prof. T. Wiltshire. Council : Prof. J. F. munenulphonic acid (NH, : SO,H = 2:1), the action of diazo. Blake, W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., alts is either retarded or prevented by the protecting influence" | James Carter, John Evans, F.R.S., L. Fletcher, F.R.S., esercised by an a-1-sulphonic group.-Studies on the constitution A. Geikie, F.R.S., Prof. A. H. Green, F.R.S., A. Harker,

the tri-derivatives of naphthalene; No. 2, a-amido-1: 3. H. Hicks, F.R.S., Rev. Edwin Hill, W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S., naphthalenedisulphonic acid, by the same. The constitution of J. W. Hulke, F.R.S., Major-General C. A. McMahon, J. E. he acid known technically as a-naphthylamine-e-disulphonic Marr, H. W. Monckton, E. T. Newton, F. W. Rudler, Sir zed us found to be [NH, : SO,H : SO,H = 1': 1:3), a result Warington W. Smyth, F.R.S., W. Topley, F.R.S., Rev. G. F. agreeing with that arrived at by Bernthsen (Ber. der. deut. Whidborne, Prof. T. Wiltshire, H. Woodward, F.R.S.

e. Gesellsck .22, 3327).--Studies on the constitution of the ri-derivatives of naphthalene; No. 3, a-naphthylaminedisulphenic acid, Dahl, No. iii., The constitution of naphthol-yellow

PARIS. by the same. a-naphthylaminedisulphonic acid No. iii, of Ihl's patent (Germ. pat. No. 41,957), which when diazotised

Academy of Sciences, March 3.-M. Hermite in the chair. nd warmed with nitric acid yields naphthol-yellow S., is found -On the absorption of atmospheric ammonia by soils, by to have the constitution (NH, :SO,H : SO,H = 1:4:2'), M. Th. Schloesing: Experiments were made on the quanwhence it follows that naphthol-yellow S. has the constitution tities of ammonia absorbed in a given time by various soils—viz. O: NO, : NO, : SO, H = 1:2:4 : 2'). The trichloro- non-calcareous earths, similar to those previously used in a phthalene prepared from the a-naphthylaminedisulphonic acid the fixation of free nitrogen, earths containing 40 per cent. atonis a remarkable case of dimorphism : it is sparingly soluble of calcareous matter, and entirely calcareous earths. The in hat alcohol from which it crystallizes in slender needles melting analytical results are given for each case.-Contribution to ** 66 : if the melting-point be redetermined as soon as solidifi- the chemistry of the truffle, by M. Ad. Chatin.-Upon the *4: uo has taken place, it is found to be 56°, but if determined method of using, and the theory of, seismographic apparatus ; atier a longer interval, 66°, as in the first 'instance. The tri- note by M. G. Lippmann. The theory of the deduction of the chlorataphihalenes prepared by Cleve from nitro-1 : 3'-dichloro true movement of the soil from the apparent movement, as in. uphthalene (m.p. given as 65), and by Widman from 1:4dicated by the instruments, is mathematically discussed. A exchloronaphthalene-B-sulphochloride (m.p. given as 56") are general solution of the problem is given, and applied to some found to be identical with this compound, and to behave in the special cases.-An historical note on batteries with molten elec "ane way on fusion,

trolytes, by M. Henri Becquerel. It is shown that M, Lucien

Poincaré was not justified in claiming the invention of such Geological Society, February 21,--Annual General Meeting. batteries, as M. Jablochkoff, so long ago as 1877, proposed the -In W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., President, in the chair. After combustion of carbon in the nitrates as a source of electricity :. the reading of the reports of the Council and of the Library and and still earlier, thirty-five years ago, M. A. C. Becquerel Vussum Cornmittee for the year 1889, the President handed the studied similar methods.-A facsimile atlas to illustrate the Wollaston Medal to Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., for transmission history of the earliest period of cartography, by M. A. E. 1. Prof. W. Crawford Williamson, F.R.S. the Murchison Nordenskiöld.—Observations of the new minor planet, Luther Wsdal to Prof. E. Hull, F.R.S. ; the Lyell Medal to Prof. T. (238) (Hamburg, February 24, 1890), made at the Paris ObserFapert Jones, F.R.S. ; the balance of the Wollaston Fund to Mr. vatory (equatorial of eastern tower), by Malle. D. Klumpke. W' A. E Ussher; the balance of the Murchison Geological-On the transversal magnetization of magnetic conductors,

and to Mr. E. Wethered; the balance of the Lyell Geological by M. Paul Janet.-On the localization of interference fringes Tudi to Mr. C. Davies Sherborn ; and a grant from the proceeds produced by Fresnel mirrors ; note by M. Charles Fabry.-of the Barlow-Jameson Fund to Mr. W. Jerome Harrison.—The Researches upon the dispersion of aqueous solutions, by MM. Fresadent then read his anniversary address, in which, after Ph. Barbier and L. Roux. The authors find, for concentrated Tuing obituary notices of several Fellows, Foreign Members, and solutions, that, if B be the dispersive power and p the weight of Foreign Correspondents deceased since the last annual meeting, anhydrous substance dissolved in unit of volume of the solution, including the Venerable Archdeacon Philpot (who was the senior the relation B = Kp + b holds, 6 being always sensibly equal to Fellow of the Society, having joined it in 1821), Dr. H. von the dispersive fpower of water. The specific dispersive power Teacher (the oldest Foreign Member, elected in 1827), Mr. is practically a constant quantity for each substance. - On Kobert Damon, Mr. J. F. La Trobe Bateman, Mr. W. H. Bristow, the vapour density of the chlorides of selenium, by M. c. Tor John Percy, the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, Mr. Thomas Chabrié. -Upon some derivatives of erythrite, by MM. E. Iławkins, Prof. F. A. von Quenstedt, Prof. Bellardi, Dr. Leo Grimaux and Ch. Cloez. The writers, by investigating the Lequereux, and Dr. M. Neumayr, he referred briefly to the transformations of hydrofurfural, have attempted to establish andnion of the Society during the past twelve months, and to a its constitution and the method whereby it is formed from few warka on palæontological subjects published in the same erythrite. They conclude that hydrosursurane may be repreperiod. He also mentioned the finding of coal in situ in a

CH.CH, Terring at Shakespear Cliff, and then proceeded with the main sented by the formula ll 0.--Derivatives of heptasahject of his address--namely, the question of the permanence

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October 1o, 1888.
Amongst several unsolicited Testimonials the two

DEAR SIR, -The Watkin Aneroid only reached me
following have been received by the maker :-
three weeks ago. I am very much pleased with it, and

EDINBURGH, May 31, 1889,
have given it a pretty severe trial with very satisfactory

Dear Sir,- I have just returned from a six weeks'
stay at the Ben Nevis Observatory, and while there
had an opportunity of testing the admirable qualities of
your new “Watkin" Aneroid. The result has been
most satisfactory, the extreme error noted being only
about the one-hundredth of an inch. During my stay
at the Observatory the Aneroid was frequently tested
by taking it down a couple of thousand feet and then
comparing it with the standard on my return. The
results obtained speak volumes for the high-class work.
manship and great accuracy you have attained in the

Observer, Scott. Met. Soc.

manufacture of this instrument.


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