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classes should be carried on so that the Government viz. those occupied by that crystalline series which, grant be earned," is a non sequitur; at all events until the

whatever may be its age, in the Alps always underlies Science and Art Department award grants for distinctively any sedimentary rock to which a date can be assigned. technical subjects under the new Technical Instruction The principle of coloration agrees very nearly with that Act.

suggested by the International Geological Congress at We cannot help thinking that if due weight is allowed Bologna. Crimson denotes the deep-seated igneous rocks :o these considerations the estimate of 15s. a head will be of the more acid type, dull green the more basic ; argely raised (unless compensation be sought by cutting iwo slightly different shades of red represent respectively down some of the more expensive trade classes); and as the older (and in most cases more acid) volcanics and the we suppose the endowment cannot be much increased, newer volcanics. Four colours are employed to express she number of students to be provided for must be the “crystalline schist” series : one, for the Central gneiss necessarily diminished. In fact, the whole scale on and some of the oldest mica-schists ; another, for the less whuch Mr. Plumbe has calculated the requirements of coarsely crystalline (and probably newer) mica-schists, the Institute may have to be somewhat revised.

To

together with calc-schists, chlorite-schists, &c. ; a third, those who consider large numbers all-important, this may for certain crystalline schists, phyllites, and clay-slates seem deplorable, but we are convinced that the Com- of uncertain geological age ; and marbles are indicated mittee of the South London Polytechnic will prefer the by a deep blue. Palæozoic rocks (exclusive of Permian) interests of efficiency to those of temporary display. are coloured purple, the different series being distin

One other matter which we notice with some guished by symbols ; pale brown denotes Permian ; tints prise and regret is the apparent omission in the plans of blue represent the Triassic and Jurassic strata ; green to provide committee-rooms and other accommodation signifies Neocomian and Cretaceous; orange the older which can be utilized by local working men's organiza- Tertiary, Aysch having a separate tint ; one shade of nons. We referred in our former article to the importance yellow is used for Miocene and Pliocene ; another for of making the Institutes real working.class centres, and Diluvial and Alluvial deposits—the former a word of the reply of the Charity Commissioners to the deputation misleading origin, which ought to have long since disapfrom the London Trades Council on the subject was peared from geological nomenclature. supposed to be favourable to the provision in connection

Very wisely, Dr. Noë has included in his map some. with each Institute of rooms which could be utilized on

thing more than the Alps. Not only do we find the moderate payment by various working-class societies Jura, but also this region is extended far enough in the wluch now too often have to meet in public-houses. The direction of Dole to exhibit the remarkable exposure omission of any such provision in the plans for Battersea

of the old crystalline floor, north of that town. 15 a serious blemish on the scheme, which, however, can On the right bank of the Rhine, in the neighbourhood, easily be corrected, as soon as pointed out.

of Sackingen, a considerable strip of crystalline rock is The Committee will have a great opportunity, which it shown, the end of the great Schwarzwald massif; and is to be hoped they will use aright, of providing the in- north of the Eastern Alps we find the crystalline rocks habitants of South London with a technical and recreative indicated as they uprise from beneath the Miocene on the Institute, which in its close adaptation to local needs may left bank of the Danube, as, for example, near Linz, and serve as model for all such Institutes in the future.

again at Pressburg. The geological colours also are

carried down the east coast of the Adriatic as far as A GEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE ALPINE CHAIN.

Spalato, so that the connection of the Istrian and Dal

matian Alps with the main chain is made perfectly clear. Geologische Übersichtskarte der Alpen. Entworfen von

Unfortunately, however, Dr. Noë has not applied the same Dr. Franz Voë. Mit einem Begleitworte. (Wien : Ed.

treatment to the Apennines, though their connection with Hölzel, 1890.)

the Alpine chain cannot be of less geological importance, GOOD 00D, and in some cases even elaborate, geological for he brings the colours to an abrupt end a few miles

maps exist for parts of the Alps; but one to exhibit west of Savona. the chain as a whole, without being on a scale so large as In one or two respects the above system of coloration · to be unwieldy or so small as to be indistinct, has been seems open to criticism. The tint and the lines used to hitherto a desideratum. This has now been supplied by indicate mountain land are productive of some confusion, Dr. Nuë. The scale adopted is 1 in 1,000,000, or about and increase the difficulty of identifying the colours, with16 files to the irch, which very well satisfies both the out, as we think, producing a compensating advantage. above conditions. A glance at the list of authorities The use of three colours for the Trias-Rhætic seems a which have been consulted indicates that Dr. Noë has disproportionate subdivision when only one is allotted had no easy task ; for in Alpine geology there are indeed to Neocomian-Cretaceous. We are, however, disposed consellors enough, but their multitude is not strength, for to differ more seriously—though only occasionally-from they are so often at variance.

Dr. Noë as to his use of the colours for the divisions of the At the present stage of knowledge, the chartographer crystalline schists. One of these is made too inclusive, tiust be content, in dealing with the crystalline schists because it is applied to clay-slates and phyllites as well as using that term in a rather wide sense), to colour his map to rocks which must be admitted to be crystalline schists, petrographically—that is to say, he must, as far as possible, Granted that there is sometimes a difficulty in separating record facts and avoid theories. Dr. Noë has endea- these in the field, we fail to see the propriety of delivoured, though not with complete success, to render his berately effacing the distinction. Fortunately, however, maps petrographical in the parts where doubt might arise, this confusion, owing to the scale of the map, does not

" to arrange

seriously mislead the student, but we are more perplexed longevity and the means of attaining it," but only to to discover the reasons which have led in some cases to "show that the maxims and laws which common-sense the separation of the crystalline members of this group would dictate hold good, that the real elirir vita is to from certain of those in the other, and presumably older be found in the observance of them, and that, as a generz! group, which is defined as consisting of “mica-schists rule, those persons live the longest who might be expected calc-mica-schists, chlorite-schist, &c. To the latter are to do so." referred the schists--calcareous, micaceous, and chloritic The author also emphasizes the fact of the all-import-near Windisch-Matrei ; to the former the great belts ance of inherited predisposition among the factors that north and south of the Tauern range, which, for instance, tend towards producing longevity, and shows that nearly occur respectively near Mittersill and Lienz. We cannot all the subjects of the returns came of a long-lived stock understand on what grounds these are distinguished. In most of them, too, the body was well-proportioned Further, the great group of schists which sweeps along on and developed, brain development fair, and there way the eastern flank of the watershed of the Franco-Italian a remarkable absence of degenerative changes in the Alps, as, for example, near the Mont Genèvre, has the same arteries and cartilages. According to the author, their colour as those of Windisch-Matrei ; but petrographically essential characteristic is that all parts of the body are they appear to us inseparable from the other group. so well balanced, that the senile decay of function goes on By some geologists, as is well known, the “lustrous in them all simultaneously, and at an equal rate, so thal, schists” have even been mapped (erroneously no doubt) as e.g., the vascular system is not overloaded and overaltered Trias.

worked by a too vigorous digestive apparatus, nor the Still, though we venture to dissent occasionally from vessels worn out by an over-excitable nervous and Dr. Noë, and think that in all probability a wider cardiac mechanism, so that if we could induce all out personal knowledge of the Alps would have led him organs occasionally to modify a conclusion and to avoid

This not to be avoided change, some slight inconsistencies, we cannot conclude this

So as to change together," notice without expressing our sense of the very great value of his work. He has placed a really good general we should have gone far towards attaining the secret of map of the Alps within the reach of all students, for the long life. price at which it is sold is surprisingly low. The map is Most of the persons described were temperate, tako accompanied by a useful descriptive pamphlet, to which little alcohol and meat, and lived active open-air lives Prof. Suess has written a short preface.

There are one or two startling exceptions to the former T. G. BONNEY. rule, however ; such as the centenarian who "drank like

a fish all his life," and several others who had always indulged pretty freely in stimulants.

Another point that Prof. Humphry lays stress on is the OLD AGE.

fact that most of these people were early risers, and Old Age. By George Murray Humphry, M.D., F.R.S, processes are more complete and regular when they are

could do with little sleep. It seems that the anabolic (Cambridge: Macmillan and Bowes, 1889.)

accomplished quickly. A propos of this, he quotes with IN N spite of pessimistic philosophies, man still regards approval the dictum of the Duke of Wellington : "When

life as worth living, and trusts to attain to a good old one turns in bed, it is time to turn out." age, however miserable his life may seem to impartial In discussing the general aspects of his subject, be critics. This desire, of course, is a necessary condition shows that old age may be said to be a product a of human existence, and the destruction of it would entail civilization, the law of the “weakest to the wall" bein the extinction of the human race-a contingency, however, altered by the growth of sympathy, and of love for others which is never likely to arise. Hence, we have no doubt But the continued existence of old people among comthat this volume will be eagerly scanned by innocent munities may (partly, at all events) be accounted for at persons who are still in hopes of finding some panacea | more utilitarian principles. Weismann remarks:which will enable them to attain the desired length of

“ It [old age] is obviously of use to man, for it enables days.

the old to care for their children, and is also advantageous But, alas, the number of their somatic cell generations in enabling the older individuals to participate in human is already fore-ordained in the germ from which they affairs, and to exercise an influence upon the advancemem were developed ; and no rule of life can increase this. of intellectual powers, and thus to influence indirectly the No man by taking much thought can add a cubit to his maintenance of the race.” stature, nor a decade to the predestined span of his exist- Thus we see the production of old age could be se

Yet the facts gathered together in this book may counted for simply on the laws of natural selection afford some hints as to the best way of attaining just among nations. this limit.

The fertility of these long-lived individuals is also On p. 135, et seq., Prof. Humphry reviews the chief above the normal (the average of children born to each, characteristics in the mode of life of the favoured subjects whether man or woman, being six), and many of thein of the work. He begins by saying that the results of the seem to have borne or begotten children to an advanced collective investigation respecting old age, “have not age. This, again, is in accordance with the view advobeen such as to evolve anything very novel or startling, cated by the biologist just quoted-viz. that a lengthening or to give rise to any fresh theories with regard to of life is connected with the increase in the duration of

ence.

reproduction. The effects of this fertility of long-lived than in the parts dealing with well-established facts and people must give their stock an advantage in the race principles. There are few general text-books which treat for existence, so that one would expect their number, in this important branch of astronomy in a satisfactory proportion to the rest of the population, gradually to manner, and it is perhaps not to be wondered at, as the increase.

constantly increasing number of new observations necesThe last chapter gives a short account of the maladies sitate considerable changes in our ideas. As far as a of old people, and is chiefly of medical interest.

consideration of the facts is concerned, however, Prof. Besides the general account of the subject, Prof. | Young has done his work admirably, but this cannot be Humphry gives all the analyses of the British Medical said of his treatment of the various conclusions which Association returns, which furnish the material for the have been drawn from them. In his introduction, Prof. book. There are several good photographic illustrations: Young tells us that he has tried to treat every subject in the frontispiece, portraits of a man and his wife (both such a way as “to discourage narrow and one-sided ways over for years), and others, representing sections through of looking at things, and to awaken a desire for further the neck of the thigh-bone, and the jaw of old people. acquisition.” However he may succeed with his readers, With regard to the femur, Prof. Humphry points out it does not seem that he has altogether taken this lesson that there is no foundation for the generally accepted to heart himself, for we find him dismissing suggestions idea that the head in old people sinks to or below the level without a complete hearing. For instance, in connection of the great trochanter, and the illustration certainly bears with the theory that sun-spots are formed by the downout his criticism.

rush of cool materials into the photosphere (p. 130), he Perhaps the happiest feature of the book is its states that it is not easy to reconcile this view with the optimism. “ It is satisfactory to note how many of the distribution of the spots over the sun's surface. Further very aged are in good possession of their mental faculties enquiry on his part, however, would have shown him -taking a keen interest in passing events, forming a that the theory in its extended form suggests that the clear judgment upon passing events, and full of thoughts spot-forming material is mainly formed of vapours which for the present and future welfare of others.”

have condensed in the cool outer layers of the sun's An old age like this is worth striving to attain, although atmosphere (in the same way as water-vapour condenses one may never be free from the dread of dying “from in our own), and also gives an explanation of the way in the head downwards,” and so lingering on in

which the material may be localized over the spot-zones. ** Second childishness and mere oblivion,

The author is notably cautious with regard to new things, Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."

but we are surprised to find that he continues to adopt

Secchi's classification of star spectra (p. 317), seeing that E. H. S.

it does not satisfactorily treat bright-line stars like y Cassiopeiæ, and those of Orion which give almost con

tinuous spectra. The classifications suggested by Vogel THE ELEMENTS OF ASTRONOMY.

and Lockyer both have the advantage of detail, and the The Elements of Astronomy. By Prof. C. A. Young, latter is certainly the most philosophical. On p. 318 it is

Ph.D., LL.D. (Boston and London : Ginn and Co. stated that stars of Secchi's fourth type usually “show a 1890.)

few bright lines,” in addition to the carbon absorption THE "HIS is a valuable addition to the existing text-books bands, an idea of Secchi's which was shown to be

of astronomy for the use of those who intend to erroneous several years ago. study the subject seriously. It has much in common The book is abundantly illustrated, and most of the with the same author's larger work on “ General diagrams are excellent. Fig. 119, however, gives a very Astronomy” (see NATURE, vol. xxxix. p. 386), but we are bad impression of the spectrum of a nebula, the three assured that it is not merely an abridgment, but has bright green lines being represented as almost equidistant, been worked over with special reference to a high-school whereas they practically form a triplet. A useful course. It is assumed that the students have mastered | “ Uranography” is given at the end. This embraces the the ordinary elementary subjects, and are acquainted with more important celestial objects in the northern hemielementary algebra and geometry.

sphere and some degrees south, and is accompanied by a The book covers quite as much ground as can be series of star maps. In the maps a convenient system of expected for an elementary course, although many of the indicating magnitudes is adopted, but it has the dissubjects are merely glanced at. Practically everything, advantage of destroying the appearances of the constellawith the exception of the more difficult problems of tions for rapid identification.

A. F. mathematical astronomy, is considered more or less. The opening chapters deal with definitions, the geometry

OUR BOOK SHELF. of the sphere, and the determination of latitude and longitude. Chapters on the earth's dimensions and motions, Physiology of Bodily Exercise. By Fernand Lagrange, the moon, sun, planets, comets, stars, and nebulæ, then M.D. (London : Kegan Paul, Trench, and Co., 1889.) follow. An appendix includes topics which might be This book at first sight reminds one of the saying that a considered beyond an elementary book, but are still of

German takes a year to make a research, and a week to sufficient importance to form part of a high-school

write an account of it, while a Frenchman takes a year

to write a book on one week's work. The only original course.

part consists of a few experiments on the influence of Astronomical physics receives a fair share of attention, fatigue in producing increased excretion of urates in the but bere the book is necessarily more open to criticism urine. The author ascribes most of the ill effects of seriously mislead the student, but we are more perplexed longevity and the means of attaining it," but only to to discover the reasons which have led in some cases to show that the maxims and laws which common-sense the separation of the crystalline members of this group would dictate hold good, that the real elixir vita is to from certain of those in the other, and presumably older be found in the observance of them, and that, as a general group, which is defined as consisting of “mica-schists rule, those persons live the longest who might be expected calc-mica-schists, chlorite-schist, &c. To the latter are to do so." referred the schists-calcareous, micaceous, and chloritic The author also emphasizes the fact of the all-import-near Windisch-Matrei ; to the former the great belts ance of inherited predisposition among the factors tha: north and south of the Tauern range, which, for instance, tend towards producing longevity, and shows that nearis occur respectively near Mittersill and Lienz. We cannot all the subjects of the returns came of a long-lived stock. understand on what grounds these are distinguished. In most of them, too, the body was well-proportioned Further, the great group of schists which sweeps along on and developed, brain development fair, and there was the eastern Aank of the watershed of the Franco-Italian a remarkable absence of degenerative changes in the Alps, as, for example, near the Mont Genèvre, has the same arteries and cartilages. According to the author, their colour as those of Windisch-Matrei ; but petrographically essential characteristic is that all parts of the body are they appear to us inseparable from the other group. so well balanced, that the senile decay of function goes on By some geologists, as is well known, the “lustrous in them all simultaneously, and at an equal rate, so that, schists " have even been mapped (erroneously no doubt) as e.g., the vascular system is not overloaded and overaltered Trias.

worked by a too vigorous digestive apparatus, nor the Still, though we venture to dissent occasionally from vessels worn out by an over-excitable nervous and Dr. Noë, and think that in all probability a wider cardiac mechanism, so that if we could induce all our personal knowledge of the Alps would have led him organs occasionally to modify a conclusion and to avoid

to arrange

This not to be avoided change, some slight inconsistencies, we cannot conclude this

So as to change together," notice without expressing our sense of the very great value of his work. He has placed a really good general we should have gone far towards attaining the secret o map of the Alps within the reach of all students, for the long life. price at which it is sold is surprisingly low. The map is Most of the persons described were temperate, taking accompanied by a useful descriptive pamphlet, to which little alcohol and meat, and lived active open-air lives. Prof. Suess has written a short preface.

There are one or two startling exceptions to the former T. G. BONNEY. rule, however ; such as the centenarian who “drank like

a fish all his life," and several others who had always indulged pretty freely in stimulants.

Another point that Prof. Humphry lays stress on is the OLD AGE.

fact that most of these people were early risers, and Old Age. By George Murray Humphry, M.D., F.R.S, processes are more complete and regular when they are

could do with little sleep. It seems that the anabolic (Cambridge: Macmillan and Bowes, 1889.)

accomplished quickly. Apropos of this, be quotes with N spite of pessimistic philosophies, man still regards approval the dictum of the Duke of Wellington: “When life as to a

is age, however miserable his life may seem to impartial In discussing the general aspects of his subject, he critics. This desire, of course, is a necessary condition shows that old age may be said to be a product of of human existence, and the destruction of it would entail civilization, the law of the “weakest to the wall" being the extinction of the human race-a contingency, however, altered by the growth of sympathy, and of love for others which is never likely to arise. Hence, we have no doubt But the continued existence of old people among com that this volume will be eagerly scanned by innocent munities may (partly, at all events) be accounted for un persons who are still in hopes of finding some panacea more utilitarian principles. Weismann remarks :which will enable them to attain the desired length of

“ It (old age) is obviously of use to man, for it enable: days.

the old to care for their children, and is also advantageous But, alas, the number of their somatic cell generations in enabling the older individuals to participate in humus is already fore-ordained in the germ from which they affairs, and to exercise an influence upon the advancement were developed ; and no rule of life can increase this. of intellectual powers, and thus to influence indirectly the No man by taking much thought can add a cubit to his

maintenance of the race." stature, nor a decade to the predestined span of his exist- Thus we see the production of old age could be at ence. Yet the facts gathered together in this book may counted for simply on the laws of natural selection afford some hints as to the best way of attaining just among nations. this limit.

The fertility of these long.lived individuals is also On p. 135, et seq., Prof. Humphry reviews the chief above the normal (the average of children born to card, characteristics in the mode of life of the favoured subjects whether man or woman, being six), and many of the of the work. He begins by saying that the results of the seem to have borne or begotten children to an advanced collective investigation respecting old age, “have not age. This, again, is in accordance with the view adrır been such as to evolve anything very novel or startling, cated by the biologist just quoted—viz. that a lengthening or to give rise to any fresh theories with regard to of life is connected with the increase in the duration « reproduction. The effects of this fertility of long-lived than in the parts dealing with well-established facts and people must give their stock an advantage in the race principles. There are few general text-books which treat for existence, so that one would expect their number, in this important branch of astronomy in a satisfactory proportion to the rest of the population, gradually to manner, and it is perhaps not to be wondered at, as the increase.

constantly increasing number of new observations necesThe last chapter gives a short account of the maladies sitate considerable changes in our ideas. As far as a of old people, and is chiefly of medical interest.

consideration of the facts is concerned, however, Prof. Besides the general account of the subject, Prof. Young has done his work admirably, but this cannot be Humphry gives all the analyses of the British Medical said of his treatment of the various conclusions which Association returns, which furnish the material for the have been drawn from them. In his introduction, Prof. book. There are several good photographic illustrations: Young tells us that he has tried to treat every subject in the frontispiece, portraits of a man and his wife (both such a way as “to discourage narrow and one-sided ways over for years), and others, representing sections through of looking at things, and to awaken a desire for further the neck of the thigh-bone, and the jaw of old people. acquisition.” However he may succeed with his readers, With regard to the femur, Prof. Humphry points out it does not seem that he has altogether taken this lesson that there is no foundation for the generally accepted to heart himself, for we find him dismissing suggestions idea that the head in old people sinks to or below the level without a complete hearing. For instance, in connection of the great trochanter, and the illustration certainly bears with the theory that sun-spots are formed by the downout his criticism.

rush of cool materials into the photosphere (p. 130), he Perbaps the happiest feature of the book is its states that it is not easy to reconcile this view with the optimism. “ It is satisfactory to note how many of the distribution of the spots over the sun's surface. Further very aged are in good possession of their mental faculties enquiry on his part, however, would have shown him --taking a keen interest in passing events, forming a that the theory in its extended form suggests that the clear judgment upon passing events, and full of thoughts spot-forming material is mainly formed of vapours which for the present and future welfare of others."

have condensed in the cool outer layers of the sun's An old age like this is worth striving to attain, although atmosphere (in the same way as water-vapour condenses one may never be free from the dread of dying "from in our own), and also gives an explanation of the way in the head downwards,” and so lingering on in

which the material may be localized over the spot-zones. ** Second childishness and mere oblivion,

The author is notably cautious with regard to new things, Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."

but we are surprised to find that he continues to adopt

Secchi's classification of star spectra (p. 317), seeing that E. H. S.

it does not satisfactorily treat bright-line stars like y Cassiopeiæ, and those of Orion which give almost con

tinuous spectra. The classifications suggested by Vogel THE ELEMENTS OF ASTRONOMY.

and Lockyer both have the advantage of detail, and the The Elements of Astronomy. By Prof. C. A. Young, latter is certainly the most philosophical. On p. 318 it is Ph.D., LL.D. (Boston and London: Ginn and Co. stated that stars of Secchi's fourth type usually “show a 1890.)

few bright lines,” in addition to the carbon absorption THI THIS is a valuable addition to the existing text-books bands, an idea of Secchi's which was shown to be

of astronomy for the use of those who intend to erroneous several years ago. study the subject seriously. It has much in common The book is abundantly illustrated, and most of the with the same author's larger work on “ General diagrams are excellent. Fig. 119, however, gives a very Astronomy” (see NATURE, vol. xxxix. p. 386), but we are bad impression of the spectrum of a nebula, the three assured that it is not merely an abridgment, but has bright green lines being represented as almost equidistant, been worked over with special reference to a high-school whereas they practically form a triplet. A useful course. It is assumed that the students have mastered “Uranography” is given at the end. This embraces the the ordinary elementary subjects, and are acquainted with more important celestial objects in the northern hemielementary algebra and geometry.

sphere and some degrees south, and is accompanied by a The book covers quite as much ground as can be series of star maps. In the maps a convenient system of expected for an elementary course, although many of the indicating magnitudes is adopted, but it has the dissubjects are merely glanced at. Practically everything, advantage of destroying the appearances of the constellawith the exception of the more difficult problems of tions for rapid identification.

A. F. mathematical astronomy, is considered more or less. The opening chapters deal with definitions, the geometry of the sphere, and the determination of latitude and longi

OUR BOOK SHELF. tude. Chapters on the earth's dimensions and motions, Physiology of Bodily Exercise. By Fernand Lagrange, the moon, sun, planets, comets, stars, and nebulæ, then M.D. (London : Kegan Paul, Trench, and Co., 1889.) follow. An appendix includes topics which might be This book at first sight reminds one of the saying that a considered beyond an elementary book, but are still of

German takes a year to make a research, and a week to sufficient importance to form part of a high-school

write an account of it, while a Frenchman takes a year

to write a book on one week's work. The only original course.

part consists of a few experiments on the influence of Astronomical physics receives a fair share of attention, fatigue in producing increased excretion of urates in the but here the book is necessarily more open to criticism urine. The author ascribes most of the ill effects of

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