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nugatory through the action of our county magistrates, who have taining scrolls of photographic paper. These cylinders refused to present the requisite petition to the Home Office. were made to revolve slowly by a very simple connection They must have been aware that their action doomed innumer- with a clock, so as to give the paper a progressive moveable young birds to death by starvation, since the cliff-climbers ment behind the index of the instrument, the place of collect the eggs until July (a perfectly legitimate industry, by

which was registered by the representation of its own the way, carried on by hard-working, men, and producing image. valuable food), and thus render it impossible for the majority of

In 1846, Mr. Charles Brooke and Sir Francis Ronalds the birds to get their young reared by the ist of August. And, in consequence, whenever during August I go on the

each brought forward a method for the registration of sbare under the great cliffs where the birds breed, my ears are

magnetic and meteorological instruments by means of filled with the melancholy "piping” of the starving helpless photography: The methods are those now in use, the young, dying slowly on the ledges, whose parents have been former at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and the shot-for sport, or threepence.

G. W. LAMPLUGH. latter at the Observatories of the Meteorological Office. Brillington Quay.

Although these instruments were not shown, they

were fully illustrated by photographs and drawings. A Locusts.

number of the barograms and thermograms were ex.

hibited by the Astronomer-Royal and the Meteorological With reference to the flight of locusts which passed over the Council, showing the passage of storm centres, and sudden steam-ships Golconda and Clyde in the Red Sea about November changes of temperature and humidity. A set of baro 35 last, it would be interesting to ascertain to what species grams from various parts of the world was exhibited by bey belong the past year, 1889-90, has been marked in the Meteorological Council, showing the barometric India by the invasion of locusts belonging to the species Acridium

oscillation due to the Krakatað eruption, August 1883. regrinum, which, starting, it is believed, about the end of the hot weather (May or June), from the sand-hills of Western

The thermogram at Kew on May 8, 1871, showed a fall hajputana, have, during the past six months, spread in vast

of about 20° of temperature during a thunderstorm numbers over the whole of Sind, Rajputana, the Punjab, North- at 4 p..m. West Provinces, and Oudh, besides penetrating sporadically into

Mr. Symons exhibited a photographic scale showing Guzerai, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Khandesh, and parts of Central the intensity of sunlight during the solar eclipse of July India, a stray flight even appearing in the Kistna district of the 18, 1860 ; and the Kew Committee showed the chemical Matras Presidency.

photometer devised by Sir H. Roscoe in 1863. Mr. This io sect, which is supposed to be the locust of the Bible, J. B. Jordan exhibited his experimental instrument for and which is undoubtedly the one that periodically invades Algeria from the Sahara, though it is altogether distinct from recording the intensity of daylight, and also the three the locust Stanronot115 maroccanus, of which so much has been

patterns of his sunshine recorder. Similar instruments heard in Algeria during the past two years, is likely to be the

designed by Dr. Maurer, of Zürich, and Prof. McLeod, species which was observed in the Red Sea To ascertain the

were also shown. Prof. Pickering sent a photograph of puni, however, with certainty, it is essential that specimens,

his Pole-star recorder, in use at the Harvard College aluch I am told fell upon the deck of the ship Clyde in con

Observatory, U.S.A., for registering the cloudiness during derable numbers, should be examined and determined entomo- the night. This instrument consists of a telescopic logically, and my object therefore in addressing you is to objective attached to a photographic camera and directed endeavour to obtain some of the specimens for comparison with to the Pole-star; the camera is provided with very those which have invaded India.

sensitive plates which are inserted in the evening, and a It is worthy of notice that in 1869 when Rajputana suffered shutter, worked by an alarm clock, is closed before dawn. cinsiderably from locusts, vast swarms were also observed by

If the sky be clear during the night, the plate, after słupa passing through the Red Sea, and it would therefore be development, shows a semicircle traced by the revolution interesting in learn to what extent 1869 and 1889 were years of locust invasion in the intervening countries of Arabia, Persia,

of the star around the North Pole, but if clouds have and Biluchistan. It is much to be regretted that in 1869 neither passed across the star, the trace is broken. ibe locasts found in Rajputana nor in ihe Red Sea appear to have

The photo-nephograph designed by Captain Abney heen preserved or determined, and their identity therefore cannot

for the registration of the velocity and direction of motion ie definitely established.

E. C. Cores. of clouds was exhibited by the Meteorological Council, as Indian Museum, Calcutta, February 28.

well as a model showing the manner in which the pair of photo-nephographs are mounted for use at the Kew

Observatory. One of the instruments is placed on the THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY'S roof of the Observatory, the other being at a distance of EXHIBITION.

800 yards; the observers at each end are in telephonic

communication. Both cameras being oriented with reserHE eleventh Annual Exhibition of the Royal ence to the same point of the horizon, the distant observer of Civil Engineers on March 18 and three following days. strument. The chief observer controls the exposure, both Each Annual Exhibition is devoted to some special branch cameras being exposed simultaneously; another pair of of meteorology, which is illustrated by specimens of all plates are exposed after an interval of one minute. A known instruments (or drawings and descriptions of the slide rule designed by General R. Strachey for obtaining same) that have been employed in its investigation. the height and distance of clouds from the pictures This year's Exhibition was illustrative of the application yielded by the cloud cameras was also exhibited, as well of photography to meteorology. Photographic meteoro- as photographs of an experimental apparatus designed logical instruments are not numerous, and those used for by Mr. G. M. Whipple for the same purpose. recording the indications of the barometer, thermometer, The Exhibition included a large and interesting coland electrometer are very costly and delicate, and are lection of photographs of clouds. Padre F. Denza sent only made to order. The number of instruments in the a set of 80 cloud photographs which had been taken Exhibition was consequently less than in previous years, during the past twelve months at the Specula Vaticana, but this deficiency was fully made up by the large and Rome. M. Paul Garnier exhibited a magnificent set highly interesting collection of photographs of meteoro- of 17 large photographs of clouds taken at hisoblogical phenomena.

servatory, Boulogne-sur-Seine, Paris. These are the The earliest application of photography for the con- best photographs of clouds that have been seen in this tinuous registration of the barometer, &c., was made by country, and they were consequently very much admired. Mr. I, IL Jordan, of Falmouth, in 1838. His plan was to M. Garnier has not yet explained the method he furnish each instrument with one or more cylinders con- adopts for obtaining such beautiful pictures. Dr. Riggenbach, of Basle, showed some photographs of cirrus clouds a commentative summary of a lecturel by Dr. H. B. taken by reflection from the surface of the Lake of Guppy, on the flora of the Keeling Islands. Sarnen. In this case the surface of the water acts like It is hardly necessary to mention that Darwin visitet a polarizing mirror, and extinguishes the sky light. Photo- these islands in 1836, except in connection with the fac graphs of clouds were also exhibited by Mr. Clayden, that Dr. Guppy's visit was in a measure an outcome of Dr. Drewitt, Dr. Green, Mr. Gwilliam, Mr. Harrison, that event. "In 1878, Mr. H. O. Forbes spent some turne Mr. McKean, Messrs. Norman May and Co., Mr. H. C. there, and extended our knowledge of the fiora. Primarils, Russell, and Mr. Symons. Mr. H. P. Curtis, of Boston, no doubt, the coral-reef question took Dr, Guppy to the U.S.A., sent a valuable and highly interesting collection scene of Darwin's early labours, though he was probably of photographs, showing the devastation caused by the not less interested in the flora, having been stimulated bi tornadoes at Rochester, Minnesota, on August 21, 1883, practical botanizing in the Solomon Islands a few year and at Grinnell, Iowa, on June 17, 1884. After seeing previously; and a stay of nearly ten weeks enabled him these photographs, some idea can be formed of the to elucidate many points that were either obscure or immense destruction wrought by these terrible scourges, conjectural. which so frequently visit various parts of the United Mr. John Murray, of the Challenger Expedition, found States. Mr. Curtis also exhibited three photographs of funds for Dr. Guppy's mission, and he presented to the the tornado cloud; two of these were taken at James Kew Herbarium the collections made of dried plants and town, Dakota, on June 6, 1887, when the cloud funnel drifted seeds and fruits; and there, such of them as were was 12 miles to the north; the third, which was taken not already familiar to Dr. Guppy, and of which the male in New Hampshire, during the storm on June 22, 1888, rial was sufficient, were named, and a set incorporated. shows the spiral-shaped funnel trailing at a considerable For the sake of brevity it will be better to describe altitude in the air.

what Dr. Guppy has accomplished, rather than follox Many interesting photographs illustrating meteoro- him through his account of it. logical phenomena were exhibited. These included foods, Specimens were taken of all the different species of snow-drifts, hoar-frost, frozen waterfalls, &c. A large plants found in a wild state in the islands; notes made number of photographs of flashes of lightning taken of the conditions under wbich they occurred, of the during the last twelve months were also shown, as well relative frequency, of their chances of propagation, and as some photographs of electric sparks, taken by Mr. of their natural enemies, besides other particulars

... Clayden and Mr. Bidwell, which explain the formation addition to seeds, or fruits containing the seeds, of the of dark images of lightning-flashes.

plants actually established on the islands, many other Mr. Clayden exhibited a very interesting and instruc- were picked up on the beach, where they had been de tive working model, showing the connection between the posited by the waves. Whilst most of these were ID monsoons and the currents of the Arabian Sea and the various stages of decay, others were actually germina Bay of Bengal.

ing, and the question arose, Why had they not succeeded Mr. Dines showed a model of the whirling machine in obtaining a footing? As we shall presently learn, this used by him at Hersham for testing anemometers and question was easily answered. for experiments on wind-pressure ; he also exhibited a Another point on which we had little trustworthy to remarkable curve showing the normal component of the formation was the length of time various seeds of essen. wind-pressure upon a sloping surface 1 foot square, the tially littoral and insular plants would bear immersion, normal pressure being taken as 100, and the pressure at or, rather, flotation, in sea-water without losing their various angles of inclination being expressed proportion- vitality. With the exception of a few isolated instanta ately. Mr. Munro sent two instruments which he has of seeds having germinated after having been carried recently constructed in conjunction with Mr. Dines. across the Atlantic to the western coast of Europe, TETY The first is for showing the velocity of the wind. The little was known, because the majority of the seeis a shaft of an anemometer is connected with the shaft of the perimented with by botanists at home did not belong to instrument, and in turning works a small centrifugal this class of widely-spread plants. Dr. Guppy institiisi pump, thus raising the level of the mercury in the long experiments on the spot, and although his time was to cistern. The deflection of the pendulum from the vertical short to determine the extreme limits of endurance of position is proportional to the rate of turning, and thus the various seeds, he was able to prove that certain kinds gives a uniform scale. The second instrument is for germinated freely after being thirty, forty, or fifty days to showing the pressure of the wind from a velocity anemo- sea-water. Again, he observed that some seeds that do meter. The arrangement is the same as in the preceding not readily float, or only for quite short periods, are coninstrument, but the fall of the float in the small circular veyed hither and thither in a variety of ways-such as in cistern is proportional to the square of the velocity and the cavities of pumice-stone, and in the crevices of dnsttherefore to the wind-pressure, thus giving a scale of wood. pressure with the divisions at uniform distances.

From all available evidence, it is almost absolutely Mr. Hicks exhibited Draper's self-recording metallic certain that there were no permanent inhabitants of the thermometer ; a mercurial minimum thermometer with | Keeling Islands till about the end of the first quarter of lens front; and a radial scale thermometer. Mr. Long the present century; and from the most trustworthy 30 showed Trotter's compensating thermometer for taking counts the islands were covered with vegetation, the temperatures at any distance; and Mr. Denton exhibited

coco-nut largely preponderating in the arboreous ele his clinical thermometer case with new spring-catch. ment. Indeed, as the outer part was almost entirely

WILLIAM MARRIOTT. coco-nut, it seemed, as Darwin says, at first glance to

compose the whole wood. But there is evidence that there were large “forests" in the interior of the islands

, THE ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION OF THE

consisting mainly of the iron-wood, Cordia subconduz FLORA OF THE KEELING ISLANDS,

The largest island is said to be only about five miles lon:

and the group is between 600 and 700 miles from the AT T intervals I have contributed to NATURE the results nearest land, excluding the small Christmas Island.

of the more recent investigations of insular floras, Already at the time of Darwin's visit in 1836, tbt more especially in relation to the dispersal of plants by islands were in the possession of Captain Ross, the ocean currents, birds, and winds; and now, through the courtesy of the author and Captain Petrie, Honorary ! "The Dispersal of Plants, as illustrated by the Flora of the Kecilne e

A Paper read ar a meeting of the Victoria Institute Secretary of the Victoria Institute, I am able to furnish

Monday, February 3, 1893, by Dr. H. B. Guppy.

Cocos Islands,

grandfather of the present proprietor, and coco-nut Dr. Guppy's additions to the Keeling flora include the planting was progressing. Since then most of the avail- following plants, which he regards as having formed part able ground has been cleared of other vegetation and of the original vegetation, judging from the conditions planted with coconut trees, so that the wild vegetation under which he found them : Calophyllum Inophyllum, is nearly limited to an external fringe, and this often Thespesia populnea, Triumfetta subpalmata, Suriana broken.' in North Keeling, about fourteen miles distant maritima, Canavalia obtusifolia, Terminalia Catappa, Barfrom the main group, which was not visited either by ringtonia speciosa, Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Ipomæa Darwin or Forbes, there was still sufficient of the original grandiflora, 1. biloba (1. pes-capra), Premna obtusifolia, vegetation left for Dr. Guppy to form an idea of what it and Hernandia peltata. Their general distribution fully was generally before it was cleared away for cultivation. justifies this deduction. Darwin's investigations had the effect of arousing the The experiments on the vitality of seeds after forty to interest of Captain Ross in the natural history of the fifty days in sea-water were necessarily of a limited group, and this interest has been inherited by his de- character, but they established the fact that the following scendants, who have greatly aided subsequent travellers germinated : Cordia subcordata, Hernandia peltata, Guetby their hospitality and by their knowledge of local tarda speciosa, Thespesia populnea, Scavola Kænigii, phenomena. "Darwin collected or noted about a score of Morinda citrifolia, and Tournefortia argentea. Every different species of wild plants, and this number has now seed of the last named germinated after forty days', and been doubled by Forbes and Guppy.

half of the seeds of Morinda after fifty-three days' immerThis brings us to the results of Guppy's own investiga- sion. Dr. Guppy calculates that a surface current of tions, the most interesting and important being those only one knot an hour would convey drift a distance of relatiog to the capabilities of certain plants, notably the 1000 to 1200 miles during these periods. From the fact COCO-nut, to establish themselves on coral islands, as that almost all the drift is thrown up on the eastern and some writers of repute have strongly contested the possi- southern coasts, it is assumed that the bulk of it comes bility of it, and there can be little doubt that the coco-nut from the Malay Archipelago, and perhaps some from the and other plants having large seeds obtain a footing only north-west coast of Australia. This is borne out by the under exceptional circumstances, such as being buried by general distribution of the established Keeling plants, as the sands washed over them in beavy gales.

well as by the other seeds and fruits that are stranded Foreign coco-nuts are frequently cast ashore on the there. Keeling Islands, where they sometimes germinate, but Among the latter may be mentioned Pangium edule, the crabs invariably destroy the sprouting nut. Suppose, Heritiera littoralis, Erythrina indica, Mucuna spp., however, a period when crabs were less numerous, and Dioclea reflexa, Cæsalpinia Bonducella, Cerbera Odollam, the chances are not so very remote of some of the Quercus spp., and Caryota. growing nuts escaping them. Again, Mr. Forbes cites Carpophagous pigeons have played no recognizable an instance in which the crabs may even facilitate the part in the flora of the Keeling Islands. establishment of the coco-nut, for he observed that the In his forthcoming book Dr. Guppy will doubtless give crabs sometimes burrow so near the surface that the nuts all the details of his observations in a more connected occasionally break through and find favourable condi- | and systematic form. tions for growth. Should they escape the crabs in their

W. BOTTING HEMSLEY. earliest infancy, they are safe. Many other plants are Dow prevented by the crabs from establishing themselves on the Keeling Islands. Dr. Guppy says :

NOTES. "I have been informed by the proprietor that sometimes when a large amount of vegetable drift has been TO-DAY the honorary freedom and livery of the Turners stranded on the beach, a line of sprouting plants may be company are to be conferred on Sir John Fowler, K.C.M.G., shortly observed just above the usual high-tide mark; and Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., "in recognition of their but the tender shoots are soon eaten by the crabs, and in distinction and eminence as engineers, earned by many great a little time every plant is gone. Many of the seeds that works at home and abroad, especially the design and construction germinate on the beach are beans, varying in size from

of the Forth Bridge, one of the greatest triumphs of British those of Entada scandens downward. They form onethird of the vegetable drift."

engineering in the Victorian age.” Indeed, the crabs are so numerous that Mr. Ross has SIR JOHN KIRK, F.R.S., AND SIR WILLIAM TURNER, failed in many attempts to raise plants of some of these F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh, things in his garden. One flourishing Entada scandens have been elected members of the Athenæum Club, under the and a sickly Calophyllum Inophyllum were all the rule which provides for the annual election of a certain number reward of much trouble in this direction. The huge of persons of distinguished eminence in science, literature, or square fruits of Barringtonia speciosa are often thrown the arts, or for public services. up, and the seed germinates, but very few escape the crabs. This tree had not established itself in North MR. T. KIRKE Rose, Associate of the Royal School of Keeling, though in August 1888, Dr. Guppy observed two Mines, has obtained the appointment of Assistant Assayer at seedlings about eighteen inches high, and they owed their the Royal Mint, by competition among selected candidates. It preservation, it was supposed, to the circumstance of the is a post of some importance, and the salary rises from £350 to fruits having been concealed when the seeds germinated by the bed of fine drift pumice that had been deposited £450, with an official residence in the Mint. After an unusually on the shores of the lagoon after the Krakatað eruption.

brilliant career at the Royal School of Mines, Mr. Rose was Particulars are given of the incipient germination and engaged as metallurgist and assayer to the Colorado Gold and early destruction of Carapa, Nipa, Cycas, and other

Silver Extraction Company in Denver. It is to be hoped that seeds. Of course, the clearing of the original vegeta- he will afford valuable assistance to Prof. Roberts-Austen in tion and subsequent cultivation, and the incidental or preserving the standard fineness of our coinage with the remarkintentional introduction of various birds and animals, able degree of accuracy that generations of assay masters have and the migration of the myriads of sea-birds that attained. formerly inhabited the islands must all be taken into consideration. Yet no species of plant ever known to

SIR HENRY Roscoe has introduced into the House of grow wild there has become quite extinct, an evidence of Commons a Technical Education Bill, which is intended to their tenacity of life under unfavourable conditions. clear up any doubt as to the legality of the provision of technical

mal nama dan in public elementary schools, 'The Mr. Trueman Wood spoke of the new application of electricity human thinks of the measure - (1) The managers to the photographic art in fixing for study natural phenomena. Hub los ma sholmas provide technical or manual The chairman, in giving the thanks of the meeting to Lom 1110*** Rw the share in that shoul, either on the school Rayleigh, referred to some photographs taken in less than the 1*** ****** 4 in any who place Append by the inspector, and 100,000th part of a second under the name of a “photographic

oluit hy the bride of the hal at such instruction antruth.” Captain Abney dealt with the untruth of form, and fly to the fun Alluminio At the public elementary which phxography gave when judged by light and shade, a

had to withdratiska *** which landamentary grants shall i subiect which could only be explained by series of drawings on the which is and where in manual wavininin in puble ele. the black-buurd and shadows cast upon the sheet. W ten temat, 4xl m th: Vinuia the

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Society of Australia have forwarded to the Baron a draft for £100 | instruments of slow period, quick oscillations when using towards the expenses of obtaining some information regarding instruments of quick period. The author suggests that these ihe fauna and flora of Kina Balu and its neighbourhood. Baron fascicular movements probably account for the production of the de Lissa has placed himself in communication with the Governor muscle sound, which Helmholtz long ago pointed out was chiefly on the subject, and is endeavouring to secure the services of ear-resonance sound. This, of course, could readily be a well-known geologist and naturalist who is residing at evoked by any slow aperiodic movement, and the fascicular Sandakan.

movements within the muscle must at any rate assist in pro

ducing it. These fascicular movements may, perhaps, account The following science lectures will be delivered at the Royal

for the results obtained by Lovén, with the capillary electroVictoria Hall :-April 1, an hour with the telescope, by J. D.

meter, for it is more probable that he was registering the McClure ; April 15, the colours of a soap bubble, by John Cox.

period of his own instrument than that the muscles were twitchIt is pleasant to turn over the pages of the handsome new ing at the slow rate of 8 times per second. If these conclusions edition of Darwin's famous “Voyage of a Naturalist" (Murray).

are correct, there remains little to be said in support of the The text is well printed, and no one can fail to enjoy the admir- theory generally accepted that the nervous system normally able illustrations contributed by Mr. R. T. Pritchett. In a discharges nerve impulses into the muscles like shots quickly fired

from a revolver. prefatory pote Mr. Murray explains that most of the views given

It may be that this is the case, but the subin the work are from sketches made on the spot by Mr. Pritchett, ject requires more extended investigation before any definite with Mr. Darwin's book by his hand.

conclusions can be arrived at. In a few days the first part of a new work on the theory of

The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences has issued the determinants, by Dr. Muir, of Glasgow, will be published by Report for 1889, which was read at the annual meeting on Messrs. Macmillan and Co.

The Report contains a valuable analysis of the It presents the subject in the his. January 12. torical order of its development, beginning with the brilliant

scientific work done by the members during the year. In but unfruitful conceptions of Leibnitz in 1693, and carrying the mathematics, Prof. Tchebysheff's applications of simple fractions record forward 10 1841, the year of the appearance of Cayley's and M. Ishmenetsky's work on the integration of symmetrical

to the investigation of the approximate value of the square root, first paper.

differential equations, are especially worthy of note. In astroMR. H. A. MIERS, of the Natural History Museum, is nomy, we notice O. A. Backlund's researches on the influence of engaged upon a text-book of mineralogy, which will be temperature upon refraction. In physics, M. Khwolson made published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co.

an attempt at a mathematical investigation of the extremely

complicated laws of dispersion of light in milk-coloured glasses, Last week (p. 478) we noted that at the meeting of the Royal | The exploration of earth magnetism has made marked progress, Society of Edinburgh, on February 28, Dr. John Berry Haycraft both as regards the theory of diurnal variations and the measurebad communicated the results of some recent investigations on

ment of magnetical elements in Caucasia and Siberia. Besides volantary muscular contraction. Dr. Haycraft's observations

theoretical work in meteorology, the Central Physical Observaare interesting both to physiologists and to physicists. Where

tory has extended its system of weather forecasts. Much interest. a muscle is stimulated by an electrical shock, all the fibres of ing work has been accomplished in geology, Baron Toll having the nerve receive the same stimulus, and all the

res of the brought out the first volume of the geological part of the work of muscle to which the nerve passes contract together, and in the

the expedition to the New Siberia Islands. In the botanical same way. This is not the case when a muscle contracts on

department the chief event was the publication of two parts of receiving a natural nerve stimulation, starting either as a result

Prof. Maximowicz's description of the plants brought from of volition or of reflex action. The central nervous system

Central Asia by Przewalsky, as well as the flora of Western seems unable to affect all the fibres of a muscle, through the China, as represented in the valuable collections brought by aumerous nerve fibres passing to it, in such a manner that they M. Potanin. Highly interesting work was done in zoology by all shall contract exactly in the same way. The reason for Prof. Famintzyn. supposing this to be the case is the fact, observed by the author, that fascicular movements are always present within a muscle

When the sun sets in the sea, a curious appearance, as of a during a voluntary or a reflex contraction, so that tracings taken

bluish-green fame, is sometimes observed. This has been from different parts of the same muscle invariably differ from thought to be due to the light passing through the crests of each other. The experiments were conducted both upon the

But Prof. Sohncke (Met. Zeits.) considers this view tauman masseter and the gastrocnemius muscle of the frog. These disproved by such an observation as that recently made by Prof. fascicular movements occurring within it will prevent any muscle

Lange at a watering place on the Baltic. Shortly before sunset, from pulling with perfect steadiness on any lever or other

the disk was divided in two by a thin strip of cloud; and just as registering apparatus, and the tracings taken by means of such the upper part disappeared under the cloud, the blue flame was apparatus will show oscillatory waves, often very rhythmical in

observed. Thus the cause appears to be in the air, not in the their appearance. Many observers have concluded from an

It is a case of atmospheric refraction. And as a planet, examination of these tracings that they indicate that the central

seen near the horizon with a good telescope, appears drawn out nervous system discharges impulses into the muscle at a rate

into a spectrum, with the more refracted blue-violet end higher corresponding with that of the oscillations observed. Thus some

than the red, so the last visible part of the sun furnishes the observers find 20, others 10 oscillations per second in the muscle

blue-violet end of a spectrum. But it would be interesting, curve, and they consider that the nervous system discharges into

Herr Sohncke remarks, to determine more precisely the condithe muscle at these rates. The author finds that the fascicular

tions of this not very frequent phenomenon. Perhaps it requires movements just described as occurring within the muscle itself merely great transparency of air, as only in this case would the account fully for the oscillations seen, the irregular aperiodic

last ray be able to give a spectrum sufficiently intense in its blue movements of the muscle compounding themselves with the

region. period of oscillation proper to the registering apparatus itself, The Report of the Meteorological Council for the year ending for by varying the instruments used, the resultant curves March 31, 1889, has been published, and describes the work of may be varied at will, slow oscillations appearing when using the Office under three heads. (1) Ocean Meteorology. The

waves.

sea.

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