Page images

grandfather of the present proprietor, and coco-nut Dr. Guppy's additions to the Keeling flora include the planting was progressing. Since then most of the avail. following plants, which he regards as having formed part able ground has been cleared of other vegetation and of the original vegetation, judging from the conditions planted with coco-nut trees, so that the wild vegetation under which he found them: Calophyllum Inophyllum, is nearly limited to an external fringe, and this often Thespesia populnea, Triumfetta subpalmata, Suriana broken.' In North Keeling, about fourteen miles distant maritima, Canavalia obtusifolia, Terminalia Catappa, Barfrom the main group, which was not visited either by ringtonia speciosa, Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Ipomæa Darwin or Forbes, there was still sufficient of the original grandiflora, 1. biloba (1. pes-capræ), Premna obtusifolia, vegetation left for Dr. Guppy to form an idea of what it and Hernandia peltata. Their general distribution fully was generally before it was cleared away for cultivation. justifies this deduction. Darwin's investigations had the effect of arousing the The experiments on the vitality of seeds after forty to interest of Captain Ross in the natural history of the fifty days in sea-water were necessarily of a limited group, and this interest has been inherited by his de- character, but they established the fact that the following scendants, who have greatly aided subsequent travellers germinated: Cordia subcordata, Hernandia peltata, Guetby their hospitality and by their knowledge of local tarda speciosa, Thespesia populnea, Scavola Kænigii, phenomena. Darwin collected or noted about a score of Morinda citrifolia, and Tournefortia argentea. Every different species of wild plants, and this number has now seed of the last named germinated after forty days', and been doubled by Forbes and Guppy.

half of the seeds of Morinda after fifty-three days immerThis brings us to the results of Guppy's own investiga- sion. Dr. Guppy calculates that a surface current of tions, the most interesting and important being those only one knot an hour would convey drift a distance of relating to the capabilities of certain plants, notably the 1000 to 1200 miles during these periods. From the fact Coco-nut, to establish themselves on coral islands, as that almost all the drift is thrown up on the eastern and some writers of repute have strongly contested the possi- southern coasts, it is assumed that the bulk of it comes bility of it, and there can be little doubt that the coco-nut from the Malay Archipelago, and perhaps some from the and other plants having large seeds obtain a footing only north-west coast of Australia. This is borne out by the under exceptional circumstances, such as being buried by general distribution of the established Keeling plants, as the sands washed over them in beavy gales.

well as by the other seeds and fruits that are stranded Foreign coco-nuts are frequently cast ashore on the there. Keeling Islands, where they sometimes germinate, but Among the latter may be mentioned Pangium edule, the crabs invariably destroy the sprouting nut. Suppose, Heritiera littoralis, Erythrina indica, Mucuna spp., however, a period when crabs were less numerous, and Dioclea reflexa, Cæsalpinia Bonducella, Cerbera Odollam, the chances are not so very remote of some of the Quercus spp., and Caryota. growing nuts escaping them. Again, Mr. Forbes cites Carpophagous pigeons have played no recognizable an instance in which the crabs may even facilitate the part in the flora of the Keeling Islands. establishment of the coco-nut, for he observed that the In his forthcoming book Dr. Guppy will doubtless give crabs sometimes burrow so near the surface that the nuts all the details of his observations in a more connected occasionally break through and find favourable condi and systematic form. tions for growth. Should they escape the crabs in their

W. BOTTING HEMSLEY. earliest infancy, they are safe. Many other plants are now prevented by the crabs from establishing themselves on the Keeling Islands. Dr. Guppy says:

NOTES. "I have been informed by the proprietor that sometimes when a large amount of vegetable drift has been TO-DAY the honorary freedom and livery of the Turners stranded on the beach, a line of sprouting plants may be company are to be conferred on Sir John Fowler, K.C.M.G., shortly observed just above the usual high-tide mark; and Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., "in recognition of their but the tender shoots are soon eaten by the crabs, and in distinction and eminence as engineers, earned by many great a little time every plant is gone. Many of the seeds that works at home and abroad, especially the design and construction germinate on the beach are beans, varying in size from of the Forth Bridge, one of the greatest triumphs of British ihose of Entada scandens downward. They form one- engineering in the Victorian age.” third of the vegetable drift."

Indeed, the crabs are so numerous that Mr. Ross has Sir JOHN KIRK, F.R.S., AND Sir William TURNER, failed in many attempts to raise plants of some of these F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh, things in his garden. One flourishing Entada scandens have been elected members of the Athenæum Club, under the and a sickly Calophyllum Inophyllum were all the rule which provides for the annual election of a certain number reward of much trouble in this direction. The huge of persons of distinguished eminence in science, literature, or square fruits of Barringtonia speciosa are often thrown the arts, or for public services. up, and the seed germinates, but very few escape the crabs. This tree had not established itself in North MR. T. Kirke Rose, Associate of the Royal School of Keeling, though in August 1888, Dr. Guppy observed two Mines, has obtained the appointment of Assistant Assayer at seedlings about eighteen inches high, and they owed their the Royal Mint, by competition among selected candidates. It preservation, it was supposed, to the circumstance of the is a post of some importance, and the salary rises from £350 to fruits having been concealed when the seeds germinated £450, with an official residence in the Mint. After an unusually by the bed of fine drift pumice that had been deposited Grilliant career at the Royal School of Mines, Mr. Rose was on the shores of the lagoon after the Krakatað eruption.

Particulars are given of the incipient germination and engaged as metallurgist and assayer to the Colorado Gold and early destruction of Carapa, Nipa, Cycas, and other Silver Extraction Company in Denver

. It is to be hoped that seeds. Of course, the clearing of the original vegeta- he will afford valuable assistance to Prof. Roberts-Austen in tion and subsequent cultivation, and the incidental or preserving the standard fineness of our coinage with the remarkintentional introduction of various birds and animals, able degree of accuracy that generations of assay masters have and the migration of the myriads of sea-birds that attained. formerly inhabited the islands must all be taken into consideration. Yet no species of plant ever known to

Sir Henry Roscoe has introduced into the House of grow wild there has become quite extinct, an evidence of Commons a Technical Education Bill, which is intended to their tenacity of life under unfavourable conditions. clear up any doubt as to the legality of the provision of technical

# manual malaysia in publie elementary schools. The Mr. Trueman Wood spoke of the new application of electricity Willami tie the Minister of the measures (1) The managers to the photographic art in fixing for study natural phenomens.

pho slow many ashoul may provide technical or manual | The chairman, in giving the thanks of the meeting to Lom Hallo k bollt iho wholes in that school, either on the school Rayleigh, referred to some photographs taken in less than the 1461fara 14 any whose plave approved by the inspector, and 100,000th part of a second under the name of a "photographic Aintball my tho shulala wa the wheel at such instruction untruth." Captain Abney dealt with the untruth of form, what by down to the allomlane at the public elementary which photography gave when judged by light and shade, a

Hdd the widzi todete v hud whah Parliamentary grants shall subject which could only be explained by series of drawings on to whats ho v del af van wil ont manual sustataifa in un public ele' the black-board and shadows cast upon the sheet. Way to show that, and in the Minutes in the

The Royal Microscopical Society has received from Dr. E Hoe om te onte lote de Andrew" and And Departmen: Abe, of Jest one of the new spochromatic toth microscope Private "nalin

weares recently produced a Zeiss's optical works, Jena, A D'A***... Marie A e me

enier De Abe's spereseadace The aperture is the highes

and 3d bes 15 XA, whereas the highest point ! ******* !! Hoi An Anarhiiviit kun retraites was r4 S.A. so that the sea 2 xerraz be airzze 5s increase

3 che gerie: te stigs Borded is petosicroTOT 30 dhe buis De. Henr:

Hiru ar te rös Szia Astwerp cenas svu r *Eins meeting

2 3.12 NXe sicey 4 is seca t wa 2:2* = Fismaz seseted a ja

:me 11 2:Versace

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

first paper.

Society of Australia have forwarded to the Baron a draft for £100 instruments of slow period, quick oscillations when using towards the expenses of obtaining some information regarding instruments of quick period. The author suggests that these the fauna and flora of Kina Balu and its neighbourhood. Baron fascicular movements probably account for the production of the de Lissa has placed himself in communication with the Governor muscle sound, which Helmholtz long ago pointed out was chiefly on the subject, and is endeavouring to secure the services of an ear-resonance sound. This, of course, could readily be a well-known geologist and naturalist who is residing at evoked by any slow aperiodic movement, and the fascicular Sandakan

movements within the muscle must at any rate assist in pro

ducing it. These fascicular movements may, perhaps, account The following science lectures will be delivered at the Royal for the results obtained by Lovén, with the capillary electroVictoria Hall :- April 1, an hour with the telescope, by J. D. meter, for it is more probable that he was registering the McClure ; April 15, the colours of a soap bubble, by John Cox. period of his own instrument than that the muscles were twitchIt is pleasant to turn over the pages of the handsome new

ing at the slow rate of 8 times per second. If these conclusions edition of Darwin's famous "Voyage of a Naturalist" (Murray).

are correct, there remains little to be said in support of the The text is well printed, and no one can fail to enjoy the admir- theory generally accepted that the nervous system normally able illustrations contributed by Mr. R. T. Pritchett. In a discharges nerve impulses into the muscles like shots quickly fired prefatory note Mr. Murray explains that most of the views given

from a revolver. It may be that this is the case, but the subin the work are from sketches made on the spot by Mr. Pritchett, ject requires more extended investigation before any definite with Mr. Darwin's book by his hand.

conclusions can be arrived at. In a few days the first part of a new work on the theory of

The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences has issued the determinants, by Dr. Muir, of Glasgow, will be published by Report for 1889, which was read at the annual meeting on Messrs. Macmillan and Co. It presents the subject in the his- January 12. The Report contains a valuable analysis of the torical order of its development, beginning with the brilliant scientific work done by the members during the year. In but unfruitful conceptions of Leibnitz in 1693, and carrying the mathematics, Prof. Tchebysheff's applications of simple fractions record forward to 1841, the year of the appearance of Cayley's to the investigation of the approximate value of the square root,

and M. Ishmenetsky's work on the integration of symmetrical

differential equations, are especially worthy of note. In astroMR. H. A. MIERS, of the Natural History Museum, is nomy, we notice 0. A. Backlund's researches on the influence of engaged upon a text-book of mineralogy, which will be temperature upon refraction. In physics, M. Khwolson made published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co.

an attempt at a mathematical investigation of the extremely

complicated laws of dispersion of light in milk-coloured glasses, LAST week (p. 478) we noted that at the meeting of the Royal

The exploration of earth magnetism has made marked progress, Society of Edinburgh, on February 28, Dr. John Berry Haycraft both as regards the theory of diurnal variations and the measurehad communicated the results of some recent investigations on

ment of magnetical elements in Caucasia and Siberia. Besides volantary muscular contraction. Dr. Haycraft's observations

theoretical work in meteorology, the Central Physical Observaare interesting both to physiologists and to physicists. Where tory has extended its system of weather forecasts. Much interesta muscle is stimulated by an electrical shock, all the fibres of ing work has been accomplished in geology, Baron Toll having the nerve receive the same stimulus, and all the fibres of the

brought out the first volume of the geological part of the work of muscle to which the nerve passes contract together, and in the the expedition to the New Siberia Islands. In the botanical same way. This is not the case when a muscle contracts on department the chief event was the publication of two parts of receiving a natural nerve stimulation, starting either as a result Prof. Maximowicz's description of the plants brought from of volition or of reflex action. The central nervous system Central Asia by Przewalsky, as well as the flora of Western seems unable to affect all the fibres of a muscle, through the China, as represented in the valuable collections brought by numerous nerve fibres passing to it, in such a manner that they M. Potanin. Highly interesting work was done in zoology by all shall contract exactly in the same way. The reason for Prof. Famintzyn. supposing this to be the case is the fact, observed by the author, that fascicular movements are always present within a muscle

When the sun sets in the sea, a curious appearance, as of a during a voluntary or a reflex contraction, so that tracings taken

bluish-green flame, is sometimes observed. This has been from different parts of the same muscle invariably differ from

thought to be due to the light passing through the crests of each other. The experiments were conducted both upon the

But Prof. Sohncke (Met. Zeits.) considers this view kuman masseter and the gastrocnemius muscle of the frog. These disproved by such an observation as that recently made by Prof. fascicular movements occurring within it will prevent any muscle Lange at a watering-place on the Baltic. Shortly before sunset, from pulling with perfect steadiness on any lever or other the disk was divided in two by a thin strip of cloud ; and just as registering apparatus, and the tracings taken by means of such the upper part disappeared under the cloud, the blue flame was apparatus will show oscillatory waves, often very rhythmical in observed. Thus the cause appears to be in the air, not in the their appearance. Many observers have concluded from an sea. It is a case of atmospheric refraction. And as a planet, examination of these tracings that they indicate that the central seen near the horizon with a good telescope, appears drawn out nervous system discharges impulses into the muscle at a rate

into a spectrum, with the more refracted blue-violet end higher corresponding with that of the oscillations observed. Thus some than the red, so the last visible part of the sun furnishes the observers find 20, others 10 oscillations per second in the muscle

blue-violet end of a spectrum. But it would be interesting, curve, and they consider that the nervous system discharges into Herr Sohncke remarks, to determine more precisely the condithe muscle at these rates. The author finds that the fascicular tions of this not very frequent phenomenon. Perhaps it requires movements just described as occurring within the muscle itself merely great transparency of air, as only in this case would the account fully for the oscillations seen, the irregular aperiodic last ray be able to give a spectrum sufficiently intense in its blue movements of the muscle compounding themselves with the region. period of oscillation proper to the registering apparatus itself, The Report of the Meteorological Council for the year ending for by varying the instruments used, the resultant curves March 31, 1889, has been published, and describes the work of may be varied at will, slow oscillations appearing when using the Office under three heads. (1) Ocean Meteorology. The


number of logs received from ships was 189; of these 80 per platinum and gold. The hydrochloride is best obtained by cent, were classed as "excellent," being a greater percentage of passing hydrochloric acid gas through a solution of taxine in excellence than has been reported for some years. The dis- anhydrous ether, when the salt is at once deposited in good cussion of the meteorology of the Red Sea is still in progress, crystals

. Analysis indicates the formula C ,H.O.N.HCI. The and the work is well advanced. Charts of barometrical pressure sulphate possesses the composition (Cg7H2010N),H,80. the for four representative months for the various oceans have been platinochloride (C3yH5,01N.HCI),Picle, and the aurochloride issued, together with charts showing the mean barometrical (C34H5.02.N.HCI)AuCls. A compound of taxine with ethy! pressure for the year, and the extent of range of irregular iodide, of the composition C3H15.01.N.C.H31, was also Auctuations, and considerable progress has been made in the obtained by heating equal molecules of the alkaloid and ethyl construction of the current charts for the various oceans. As iodide to 100° C. under pressure. This compound is also a these works are cleared off, it is intended to undertake a dis- crystalline solid soluble in water. As regards the constitution of cussion of the meteorology of the region from the Cape of the alkaloid, which from its high molecular weight must of Good Hope to New Zealand. (2) Weather Telegraphy. The necessity be extremely complex, it has only yet been ascertained work of this branch continues to increase, and the Daily and that it belongs to the class of nitrile bases. The leaves of the Weekly Weather Reports, in particular, have been extended yew tree were found to contain the largest quantity of taxine, the and improved. Forecasts continue to be prepared three times seeds containing a smaller but still by no means inconsiderable daily, and special forecasts were issued during the hay-making quantity of the alkaloid. season ; the highest percentage of success of the latter was in the southern part of England, and the lowest in the north-east past week include a Rhesus Monkey (Macacus rhesus ) from

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the district. Storm warnings are issued to those places on the coast India, presented by Mr. McDowall Currie ; a Ring-necked that desire to receive them. (3) Land Meteorology of the Parrakeet (Palæornis torquatus s) from India

, presented by British Isles. The records from the Observatories and Stations Miss Thornton Smith ; two West African Love Birds (Agapornis of the Second Order are discussed and published. The Council pullaria o P) from West Africa, presented by Mrs. Cyril have continued the annual grant of £100 towards the expenses Tatham ; a Black-necked Stork (Xenorhynchus sustralis) from of the Ben Nevis Observatory, and have received copies of the observations made there. They have also agreed to allow £250 Malacca, two Peacock Pheasants (Polyplectron chinguis ll )

from Burmah, purchased. a year to the proposed Observatory at Fort William, for five years, and to supply an outfit of an Observatory of the First Order, to be equipped with self-recording instruments. The

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. Report also contains interesting notes on some results of an examination of the Atlantic charts published by the Office, and

OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. on the measurement of squalls shown on the traces of Robinson's

Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m. on March 27 = anemometers.

roh. 21 m. 75. A NEW alkaloid, to which the name taxine is applied, has been

Name. Mag. Colour. RA. 1890. Dec. 1890 extracted and isolated by Drs. Hilger and Brande, of Erlangen, from the leaves, seeds, and young shoots of the yew tree (Taxus baccata). Lucas some time ago pointed out the existence of a (1) G.C. 2102 narcotic partaking of the nature of an alkaloid in the yew tree,

(2) 37 Leonis

(3) y Leonis... and Marmé has since described a mode of extracting it. Drs.

(4) a Leonis... Hilger and Brande have lately prepared large quantities of this (5) 136 Schj.



h, m. s. 10 19 29 10 TO 47 IO 13 54 10


[ocr errors]

I 6

Very red. IO 46 17 (6) X Bootis...

Var, Dull orange. 14 18 59 alkaloid, and have at length satisfactorily determined its com. position and its more important chemical properties. The leaves and seeds were first repeatedly treated with ether in order to

Remarks. extract as much of the alkaloid as possible. The extract was Hydra. From its size and equable light, Smyth compared it

(1) This is a very bright planetary nebula in the constellation then subjected to distillation to remove the ether, and the residue to Jupiter. It is about 32" in diameter, and its spectrum con agitated with water acidified by a little sulphuric acid. The acid sists of bright lines. In 1868, Dr. Huggins recorded the prewashings were noticed to be strongly coloured, and this was sence of the three characteristic nebula lines, but Licatessa found to be due to the high tinctorial power of a compound of Herschel only saw two of them. The spectra of planetary taxine with sulphuric acid. The acid solution was then rendered nebulæ are by no means difficult to observe, notwithstanding alkaline by ammonia, and the precipitated alkaloid dried over ployed, the lines in some cases are considerably brigăt, and

their generally small diameters. If no cylindrical lens be em sulphuric acid. After dissolving in ether, re-washing with acid their shortness is no great drawback. Now that we know that and precipitating with ammonia several times, the alkaloid was there are a good number of lines in the nebula of Orion, it obtained as a perfectly white powder of extremely bitter taste, seems reasonable to expect that a careful search will reveal a and melting at 82° C. On heating in a glass tube the melted greater number in other nebulæ. D, and a line about A 447 taxine partly sublimes as a white cloud which condenses in the G in the visible part of the spectrum of the nebula in Orioa, colder part of the tube in the form of drops of oil which solidify and these should therefore be first looked for. It should also on cooling. At the same time it evolves a most characteristic be particularly noted whether the brightest line is perfectly odour. It is very difficultly soluble in water, chloroform, or sharp on both edges, or otherwise. benzene, but readily in alcohol and ether. Concentrated sulphuric states that the spectrum is rather feebly developed, all the hands

(2) This star has a spectrum of the Group II. type. Dung acid produces an intense purple coloration. Dilute acid solutions being narrow. The bands 2 and 3 in the red are the strongest, give precipitates with gold chloride, platinum chloride, and picric The character of the spectrum indicates that the temperature of acid, and also even in very dilute solutions yield precipitates on the star is probably higher than that of most of the members of the addition of caustic alkalies or ammonia insoluble in excess. the group, the spectrum approaching that of Aldebaran. In Analyses show that the formula of taxine is most probably that case, a considerable number of lines may be expected. I C37H5201,N. It forms with acids salts readily soluble in water. will be remembered that in Aldebaran there is mainly a line The hydrochloride, sulphate, acetate, oxalate, and tartrate, have spectrum, together with the remnants of the bands in the red.

(3) A star of the solar type (Gothard). The usual observabeen prepared, likewise the double salts with the chlorides of tions are required.

+ 16 19

(4) This is a star of Group IV., showing several fine metallic The United States Fish Commission is managed by a lines in addition to those of hydrogen. The usual observations Director, who is more or less autocratic and irresponsible ; are required.

though in the case of the late Prof. Baird the Americans were (5) The spectrum of this star is a fine one of Group VI. The extremely fortunate in having a Director possessed of great usual carbon bands are wide and dark, and the subsidiary bands administrative power and tact, and who never utilized the re4 and 5 are perfectly well seen (Dunér). It seems probable sources at his disposal for personal display or advancement. that favourable conditions of observation, which, unfortunately, However able this Director may be, the system has its disare not common for low stars in our latitude, may reveal other advantages, and is less suitable than a mixed Commission of men secondary bands.

of position, who would have an opportunity of expressing their (6) This is another variable star of which the spectrum has views as to the work to be carried out. Moreover, the American apparently not been recorded. The period as determined by plan is less safe than a responsible head—that is, a chief under Baxendell is 121'4 days, and the magnitudes at maximum and the control of a Board or Commission of those who are not minimum are 9-2 and 10-2 respectively. The maximum will be necessarily specially skilled. It is possible, indeed, that, as the reached about April 5. (This is Baxendell's V Boötis.) fisheries are at present administered in the United States, a con

A. FOWLER. siderable expenditure of money and of time annually takes place, CHARLES MARIE VALENTIN MONTIGNY: --It is with regret advances made by the Americans have in the main been confined

which under other methods might be curtailed. The practical that we have to announce the death of Prof. Montigny, at Schaerbeek, on the 16th inst. Prof. Montigny was born on

to the fresh-water fisheries—that is, the propagation of the January 8, 1819, and was a member of the Royal Academy of The Marine Department has not yet succeeded in making any

salmon-tribe, carp, and other fluviatile and lacustrine forms. Helgium, Astronomical Correspondent of Brussels Observatory, an officer of the Order of Leopold, and decorated with the has been spent, and a large Annual Report is regularly issued.

noteworthy improvement in sea-fisheries, though much money cinal cross of the first class. He is best known for his interesting This Report contains not only the work accomplished by the staff matter of a series of papers communicated to the Brussels of the Department, but reprints and translations of papers relating Academy. In the January number of Himmel und Erde difference between the condition in this country (where the

to the fisheries of other countries. There is, therefore, a wide 1 long description is given of the results of Montigny's ob.

observations connected with the fisheries have often to be pubservations, and the instrument he devised and used for the determination of the amount of scintillation on different

lished by Societies or independent journals) and the lavish nights, and for the same stars at different altitudes. It is expenditure on the other side of the Atlantic. well known that if a scintillating star is observed by means sively vested in the Minister of Marine at the Bureau des

In France, again, the management of the fisheries is excluof an opera-glass or small telescope, and the instrument

Pêches. At the head is a Director charged by the State with tapped, the star appears to move and not the instrument ; if the

the inspection of the fisheries. For the scientific study of the instrument is kept vibrating, the star will appear to move in a closed curve, along which different colours repeat themselves.

questions pertaining to the marine fisheries the chief station is The scintillometer devised by the late Prof. Montigny for in: at Boulogne--though the Minister of Agriculture, under whom the

station was constructed, also gave a small subsidy to the vestigating these appearances consisted of a small disk which could be whirled round in front of the eye-piece so that the star Zoological Laboratory at Villefranche (Alpes Maritimes) for the qppeared to describe a circle in the field of the telescope. The study of diverse questions concerning fishes and oysters and this circumference of this circle was made up of a regular sequence of Commerce. The advances made by M. Coste and others in the

was founded by a subsidy from the town and the Chamber of colours, of which blue, yellow, and red were predominant. If fresh-water fisheries of France are too well known to need further the rate of motion of the disk be known, then by counting the attention. France is fortunate in having a series of excellent number of times the colours were repeated the number of changes

marine laboratories, at which considerable advances have of colour a second may be found. All the causes affecting the already been made in regard to the food-fishes, and in scintillation of stars were investigated, and the relation of the

collateral scientific subjects. The names of MM. Lacaze amount to the character of the spectrum, the state of the atmosphere, and the colour of the star, made the subject of inquiry. are sufficient guarantees that the work of the fisheries and

Duthiers, Giard, Marion, Barrois, Pouchet, Sauvage, and others, The results obtained by means of this ingenious instrument are coznate subjects will be worthily carried out. apartant, and the whole work on scintillation done by the

In Norway there is no special Fishery Board, but the deceased astronomer stands as a fitting monument to his memory.

Governmental Department of the Interior manages both the AX OBSERVATORY AT MADAGASCAR.--A new Observatory marine and fresh-water fisheries. As yet only a general inspector has been established at Tananarivo under the direction of the for the latter has been appointed at a fixed salary. For each of Jesuir fathers, and with the concurrence of the French Govern the more important marine fisheries, however, a so-called ment. The site chosen is a hill a short distance to the east of opsynschef is engaged by the Government, to see to the administhe town, and about 4400 feet above sex-level, making the tration of justice during the time the fishery is going on. MoreObservatory one of the highest in the world. It already pos over, an annual grant of 16,000 kr. is granted to the Society for sesses an equatorial, a meridian instrument, and all necessary the Advancement of Norwegian Fisheries in Bergen. The aims apparatus for meteorological observations; and a photographic of this Society, which has various branches in towns along the telescope will shortly be provided for solar observations. coast, are chiefly practical, such as the improvement of fishing

implements, the most suitable and successful preparation of the

fishery products, and other features. It also has a special THE ADMINISTRATION OF FOREIGN department for the artificial hatching of the food-fishes, in conFISHERIES.

nection with the laboratory at Arendal, on the southern coast.

The expenses of this establishment are partly borne by the The following notes were drawn up at the request of the Society just mentioned, and partly by private subscription. It is

late Lord Dalhousie just before he became seriously ill. The at this laboratory that M. Dannevig has done so much good failure of his health and his absence from home-before the sad bereavement and shock which terminated in his death-prevented former case having succeeded in keeping the fishes till the end

work in the artificial rearing of cod, oysters, and lobsters, in the him perusing them, though the substance of much that appears of the second year, and when of considerable size (14-16 inches). in the subsequent pages formed the theme of several conversa For strictly scientific investigations in connection with the tions with him. His familiarity with the sea, his wide know marine fisheries the Storthing grants an annual sum of 4800 ledge of the fisheries, his upright and generous bearing, and his kr. These investigations have for many years been chiefly sound judgment, would undoubtedly, if he had been spared, have carried out by Prof. G. O. Sars, whose observations on the been of infinite service to the Department (which, probably, Lofoten cod-fisheries, and the development of the cod, are well sooner or later, he would have reorganized very thoroughly). No known and justly esteemed, while, as a worthy son of a disgreater loss, indeed, has happened to the fisheries in recent tinguished father, he has in other departments of zoology

contributed largely to our knowledge. Other naturalists have Per information on various points relating to the subject, I have to thank also been engaged in the work, chiexy in regard to the herringProfa. Alex Agassis, Habrecht, Möbius, Lovén, and G. O. Sars, Herr von labor, Drs. Anton Dobirn, Lindeman, Nansen, and Sauvage ; while Mr. Hoyle marine fisheries, has to report on every contrivance proposed,

fisheries. Prof. Sars, moreover, with a view of protecting the kially aided me with th: Norwegian statistics.


« PreviousContinue »