« PreviousContinue »
number of logs received from ships was 189; of these 80 per platinum and gold. The hydrochloride is best obtained by cent, were classed as "excellent," being a greater percentage of passing hydrochloric acid gas through a solution of taxine in excellence than has been reported for some years. The dis- anhydrous ether, when the salt is at once deposited in good cussion of the meteorology of the Red Sea is still in progress, crystals. Analysis indicates the formula C3, H.,0; N.HCI. The and the work is well advanced. Charts of barometrical pressure sulphate possesses the composition (Cs;H3,02N),H.SO. the for four representative months for the various oceans have been platinochloride (C37H520,0N.HCI), PICI,, and the aurochloride issued, together with charts showing the mean barometrical (C37H5,0,.N.HCl)AuCls. A compound of taxine with etby! pressure for the year, and the extent of range of irregular iodide, of the composition C37H,,O.N.C.Hşl, was also Auctuations, and considerable progress has been made in the obtained by heating equal molecules of the alkaloid and ethyl construction of the current charts for the various oceans. As iodide to 100° C. under pressure. This compound is also a these works are cleared off, it is intended to undertake a dis- crystalline solid soluble in water. As regards the constitution of cussion of the meteorology of the region from the Cape of the alkaloid, which from its high molecular weight must of Good Hope to New Zealand. (2) Weather Telegraphy. The necessity be extremely complex, it has only yet been ascertained work of this branch continues to increase, and the Daily and that it belongs to the class of nitrile bases. The leaves of the Weekly Weather Reports, in particular, have been extended yew tree were found to contain the largest quantity of taxine, the and improved. Forecasts continue to be prepared three times seeds containing a smaller but still by no means inconsiderable daily, and special forecasts were issued during the hay-making quantity of the alkaloid. season ; the highest percentage of success of the latter was in the southern part of England, and the lowest in the north-east
The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the district. Storm warnings are issued to those places on the coast
past week include a Rhesus Monkey (Macacus rhesus ®) from that desire to receive them. (3) Land Meteorology of the India, presented by Mr. McDowall Currie ; a Ring-necked British Isles. The records from the Observatories and Stations
Parrakeet (Palæornis torqualus 6) from India, presented by of the Second Order are discussed and published. The Council pullaria o p ) from West Africa
, presented by Mrs. Cyril
Miss Thornton Smith; two West African Love Birds (Agapornu have continued the annual grant of £100 towards the expenses Tatham ; a Black-necked Stork (Xenorhynchus australis) from of the Ben Nevis Observatory, and have received copies of the Malacca, two Peacock Pheasants (Polyplectron chinquis ó 8 ) observations made there. They have also agreed to allow £250 from Burmah, purchased. a year to the proposed Observatory at Fort William, for five years, and to supply an outfit of an Observatory of the First Order, to be equipped with self-recording instruments. The
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. Report also contains interesting notes on some results of an examination of the Atlantic charts published by the Office, and
OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE. on the measurement of squalls shown on the traces of Robinson's
Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m. on March 27 = anemometers.
Ioh. 21m. 75. A NEW alkaloid, to which the name taxine is applied, has been
RA. 1890. Decl. 1890. extracted and isolated by Drs. Hilger and Brande, of Erlangen, from the leaves, seeds, and young shoots of the yew tree (Taxus baccata). Lucas some time ago pointed out the existence of a (1) G.C. 2102
18 narcotic partaking of the nature of an alkaloid in the yew tree,
(2) 37 Leonis
Yellowish-red. (3) y Leonis...
Yellowish white, and Marmé has since described a mode of extracting it. Drs.
(4) a Leonis... Hilger and Brande have lately prepared large quantities of this (5) 136 Schj.
Very red. (6) X Boöris...
14 18 59 alkaloid, and have at length satisfactorily determined its com. position and its more important chemical properties. The leaves
Remarks. and seeds were first repeatedly treated with ether in order to extract as much of the alkaloid as possible. The extract was
(1) This is a very bright planetary nebula in the constellation then subjected to distillation to remove the ether, and the residue Hydra. From its size and equable light, Smyth compared it
to Jupiter. It is about 32" in diameter, and its spectrum coaagitated with water acidified by a little sulphuric acid. The acid sists of bright lines. In 1868, Dr. Huggins recorded the pre washings were noticed to be strongly coloured, and this was sence of the three characteristic nebula lines, but Lieste found to be due to the high tinctorial power of a compound of Herschel only saw two of them. The spectra of planetary taxine with sulphuric acid. The acid solution was then rendered
nebulæ are by no means difficult to observe, notwithstanding
their generally small diameters. If no cylindrical lens be est alkaline by ammonia, and the precipitated alkaloid dried over sulphuric acid. After dissolving in ether, re-washing with acid ployed, the lines in some cases are considerably bngai, ani
iheir shortness is no great drawback. Now that we know that and precipitating with ammonia several times, the alkaloid was there are a good number of lines in the nebula of Orion, it obtained as a perfectly white powder of extremely bitter taste, seems reasonable to expect that a careful search will reveal a and melting at 82° C. On heating in a glass tube the melted greater number in other nebulæ. D, and a line about A 447
are the next in order of brightness to the three chief lines kod taxine partly sublimes as a white cloud which condenses in the
G in the visible part of the spectrum of the nebula in Orion, colder part of the tube in the form of drops of oil which solidify and these should therefore be first looked for. It should also on cooling. At the same time it evolves a most characteristic be particularly noted whether the brightest line is perfectly odour. It is very difficultly soluble in water, chloroform, or sharp on both edges, or otherwise. benzene, but readily in alcohol and ether. Concentrated sulphuric
(2) This star has a spectrum of the Group II. type. Duno acid produces an intense purple coloration. Dilute acid solutions
states that the spectrum is rather feebly developed, all the hands
being narrow. The bands 2 and 3 in the red are the strongest, give precipitates with gold chloride, platinum chloride, and picric | The character of the spectrum indicates that the temperature of acid, and also even in very dilute solutions yield precipitates on the star is probably higher than that of most of the members of the addition of caustic alkalies or ammonia insoluble in excess. the group, the spectrum approaching that of Aldebaran. In Analyses show that the formula of taxine is most probably that case, a considerable number of lines may be expected. It
will be remembered that in Aldebaran there is mainly a line C37H3201,N. It forms with acids salts readily soluble in water.
spectrum, together with the remnants of the bands in the red. The hydrochloride, sulphate, acetate, oxalate, and tartrate, have
(3) A star of the solar type (Gothard). The usual observabeen prepared, likewise the double salts with the chlorides of tions are required.
în, m. S.
(4) This is a star of Group IV., showing several fine metallic The United States Fish Commission is managed by a lines in addition to those of hydrogen. The usual observations Director, who is more or less autocratic and irresponsible ; are required.
though in the case of the late Prof. Baird the Americans were (5) The spectrum of this star is a fine one of Group VI. The extremely fortunate in having a Director possessed of great usual carbon bands are wide and dark, and the subsidiary bands administrative power and tact, and who never utilized the re4 and 5 are perfectly well seen (Dunér). It seems probable sources at his disposal for personal display or advancement. that favourable conditions of observation, which, unfortunately,
However able this Director may be, the system has its disare not common for low stars in our latitude, may reveal other advantages, and is less suitable than a mixed Commission of men secondary bands.
of position, who would have an opportunity of expressing their (6) This is another variable star of which the spectrum has views as to the work to be carried out. Moreover, the American apparently not been recorded. The period as determined by plan is less safe than a responsible head—that is, a chief under Baxendell is 1214 days, and the magnitudes at maximum and the control of a Board or Commission of those who are not minimum are 9'2 and 10-2 respectively. The maximum will be necessarily specially skilled. It is possible, indeed, that, as the reached about April 5. (This is Baxendell's V Boötis.)
fisheries are at present administered in the United States, a con
A, FOWLER. siderable expenditure of money and of time annually takes place, CLARLES MARIE VALENTIN MONTIGNY.-It is with regret advances made by the Americans have in the main been confined
which under other methods might be curtailed. The practical that we have to announce the death of Prof. Montigny, at baerbeek, on the 16th inst. Prof. Montigny was born on
to the fresh-water fisheries-that is, the propagation of the anuary 8, 1819, and was a member of the Royal Academy of salmon-tribe, carp, and other fluviatile and lacustrine forms.
The Marine Department has not yet succeeded in making any llelgium, Astronomical Correspondent of Brussels Observatory, an officer of the Order of Leopold, and decorated with the noteworthy improvement in sea-fisheries, though much money civil cross of the first class. He is best known for his intere ting This Report contains not only the work accomplished by the staff
has been spent, and a large Annual Report is regularly issued. Iesarches on the scintillation of stars, which form the subject
of the Department, but reprints and translations of papers relating matter of a series of papers communicated to the Brussels
to the fisheries of other countries. There is, therefore, a wide Academy. In the January number of Himmel und Erde
difference between the condition in this country (where the a long description is given of the results of Montigny's ob. servations, and the instrument he devised and used for the lished by Societies or independent journals) and the lavish
observations connected with the fisheries have often to be pub. determination of the amount of scintillation on different nights, and for the same stars at different altitudes. It is expenditure on the other side of the Atlantic.
In France, again, the management of the fisheries is excluwell kaows that if a scintillating star is observed by means
sively vested in the Minister of Marine at the Bureau des si an opera-glass or small telescope, and the instrument rapped, the star appears to move and not the instrument ; if the the inspection of the fisheries. For the scientific study of the
Pêches. At the head is a Director charged by the State with insirumeni is kept vibratiog, the star will appear to move in a cieved curve, along which different colours repeat themselves. questions pertaining to the marine fisheries the chief station is
at Boulogne-though the Minister of Agriculture, under whom the The scintillometer devised by the late Prof. Montigny for investigating these appearances consisted of a small disk which Zoological Laboratory at Villefranche (Alpes Maritimes) for the
station was constructed, also gave a small subsidy to the 4'peared to describe a circle in the field of the telescope. The study of diverse questions concerning fishes and oysters and this circumference of this circle was made up of a regular sequence of Commerce. The advances made by M. Coste and others in the
was founded by a subsidy from the town and the Chamber of vulours, of which blue, yellow, and red were predominant. If fresh-water fisheries of France are too well known to need further the rate of motion of the disk be known, then by counting the attention. France is fortunate in having a series of excellent number of times the colours were repeated the number of changes marine laboratories, at which considerable advances have of colour a second may be found. All the causes affecting the already been made in regard to the food-fishes, and in scintillation of stars were investigated, and the relation of the
collateral scientific subjects. The names of MM. Lacaze amoun: to the character of the spectrum, the state of the atmosphere, and the colour of the star, made the subject of inquiry. are sufficient guarantees that the work of the fisheries and
Duthiers, Giard, Marion, Barrois, Pouchet, Sauvage, and others, l'he results obtained by means of this ingenious instrument are oprirtant, and the whole work on scintillation done by the
coznate subjects will be worthily carried out. deceased astronomer stands as a fitting monument to his memory.
In Norway there is no special Fishery Board, but the
Governmental Department of the Interior manages both the AX OBSERVATORY AT MADAGASCAR.-A new Observatory marine and fresh-water fisheries. As yet only a general inspector has been established at Tananarivo under the direction of the for the latter has been appointed at a fixed salary. For each of Jesuit lathers, and with the concurrence of the French Govern- the more important marine fisheries, however, a so-called ment. The site chosen is a hill a short distance to the east of opsynschef is engaged by the Government, to see to the adminis. the town, and about 4400 feet above sea-level, making the iration of justice during the time the fishery is going on. More Olservatory one of the highest in the world. It already pos- over, an annual grant of 16,000 kr. is granted to the Society for soves an equatorial, a meridian instrument, and all necessary the Advancement of Norwegian Fisheries in Bergen. The aims apparatus for meteorological observations; and a photographic of this Society, which has various branches in towns along the telescope will shortly be provided for solar observations. coast, are chiefly practical, such as the improvement of fishing
implements, the most suitable and successful preparation of the
fishery products, and other features. It also has a special THE ADMINISTRATION OF FOREIGN department for the artificial hatching of the food-fishes, in conFISHERIES.
nection with the laboratory at Arendal, on the southern coast.
The expenses of this establishment are partly borne by the T'E following notes? were drawn up at the request of the Society just mentioned, and partly by private subscription. It is
late Lord Dalhousie just before he became seriously ill. The at this laboratory that M. Dannevig has done so much good failure of his health and his absence from home-before the sad work in the artificial rearing of cod, oysters, and lobsters, in the bereavement and shock which terminated in his death-prevented former case having succeeded in keeping the fishes till the end him perusing them, though the substance of much that appears of the second year, and when of considerable size (14-16 inches). in the subsequent pages formed the theme of several conversa
For strictly scientific investigations in connection with the tions with him. His familiarity with the sea, his wide know- marine fisheries the Storthing grants an annual sum of 4800 ledge of the fisheries, his upright and generous bearing, and his kr. These investigations have for many years been chiefly found judgment, would undoubtedly, if he had been spared, have carried out by Prof. G. O. Sars, whose observations on the been of mhinite service to the Department (which, probably, Lofoten cod-fisheries, and the development of the cod, are well sovner or later, he would have reorganized very thoroughly). No known and justly esteemed, while, as a worthy son of a disgreater loss, indeed, has happened to the fisheries in recent tinguished father, he has in other departments of zoology
contributed largely to our knowledge. Other naturalists have "** information on various points relating to the subject, I have to thank also been engaged in the work, chiefly in regard to the herringProfa. Alea Agassiz, Hubrecht, Mobius, Lovén, and G. 0. Sars, Herr von bekas, Dra. Anion Dotirn, Lindeman, Nansen, and Sauvage; while Mr. Hoyle
fisheries. Prof. Sars, moreover, with a view of protecting the kindly aided me with th: N-rwegian statistics.
marine fisheries, has to report on every contrivance proposed,
Kropas and in regard to restriction in the use of certain fishing implements, besides giving his advice concerning the regulation of
(6) For experimental marking of
(7) For encouragement of artificial
spawning are brought in for the Storthing. In 1886 much discussion took
(8) Contribution :place in the latter assembly concerning a more central manage
a. For erection of salmon ment of the Fishery Department, and the establishment of a
ladders at water. fails special office for a chief director for all the fisheries, together
in accordance with with a staff of subordinate inspectors. This arrangement is considered in Norway to be of considerable importance, but
plans given by the unfortunately no individual is known who unites in himself all
inspector in 1884 1,667
b. For erection of a the many qualifications for this important office. The following
salmon ladder are the grants sanctioned for the financial year from July 1, 1886,
Haaelven in accordto June 30, 1887, for the Fishery Institutions :
300 (1) For practical scientific investigation regarding the sea
1,967 fisheries, the last Parliament voted 4800 kr.
23,297 It is proposed to increase this by 2400 kr., to be given to Hr. Lumholtz.
102,357 (2) As a contribution to the Society for the Encouragement of the Norwegian Fisheries, the last Parliament voted 16,000 kr.,
It is desired to increase this sum to 32,000 kr. for the coming In Sweden there is, strictly speaking, no Central Governmen: year; the work of the Society depends upon this grant, because Office for the fisheries. The fishery laws, and other special the fishermen cannot be expected to contribute much, and the measures relating to the fisheries, are decreed by the Governon needs of the Society are always increasing. The expenses for of the provinces or by the Department of the Interior. Pr the coming year are estimated at 34,910 kr., of which i2,000 kr. viously, however, to the promulgation of any new law, 'the will be needed for the regular expenses of the Society. It is Governor must, pursuant to the Royal Ordinance of November proposed that the fisheries should be under a central direction 7, 1867, consult the Intendant of the Fisheries, who, conjoinly with subordinate officials, and thus the Society would be relieved with two assistants and one Instructor in Fish breeding, are tot of a large part of its expenses.
public functionaries in connection with the fisheries in the The Department decided, however, that the grant should be country. Before the appointment of these officials, in 184, retained at its original amount, 16,000 kr.
there was (from the year 1855) a special Fishery Orersse (3) For inspection and administration of the law at Lofoten (Fiskeritillsyningsman), or Inspector of the Sea fisheries, 2 cod-fishery, 31,950 kr. were voled.
the province of Gothenburg and Bohus. He receivo a sala; (4) For increased police inspection of the mackerel-fishery at from the Agricultural Society of that province, with salivenir a Uleholmene 200 kr, were voted.
from the Crown, and is subordinate to the Goresor of the (5) For increased police inspection of the spring cod fishery in province. The Intendant of the Fisheries and his assistants Namdal 1000 kr. were voted.
are under the control of the Royal Academy of Agriculture in (6) For increased police inspection of the spring cod-fishery in Stockholm. Finmark 7200 kr. were voted.
The duties of the Intendant of the Fisheries are :(7) For increased police inspection of the spring cod-fishery in (1) To investigate, with the aid of his assistants, the fisheries Söndmöre 3600 kr. were voted.
of the country. (8) For inspection and administration of the law at the herring- (2) To propose or examine drafts of fishery laws or other fishery 12,000 kr, were voted.
measures for the improvement of the fisheries. (9) For the encouragement of fresh-water fisheries 24,040 kr. (3) To assist proprietors of fisheries with advice for hatching were voted.
fishes, or with other measures for a rational management of the This sum it is desired to increase to 31,000 kr.
fisheries. A. Expenditure.
(4) To prepare and elaborate the fishery statistics. Kronas.
(5) To control and direct the labours of the assistants and the 1. For practical scientific investigations into the
fishery overseers. sea fisheries, of which 2400 kr. form an
Persons desiring the assistance of the fishery officials have to honorarium for Hr. Lumholtz
lodge intimation with the Royal Academy of Agriculture, adi II. Contribution to the Society for the Encourage
then the Intendant submits to the Academy a plan for the ment of Norwegian Fisheries
16,000 labours and the journeys of the fishery officials for the ensuing III. For inspection, &c., of cod-fisheries at Lofoten
year. A fixed sum of 3500 kr. (about £198, or 283 for the (1200 kr. only in the event of there being a
Intendant and 655 for each assistant) is assigned for the congregation of fishermen at Rastsund) 31,950 travelling expenses of the fishery officials. Those requesting IV. For increased police inspection at :
assistance have to pay 6s. per day. (1) Mackerel-fishery at Uleholmene
The Intendant has to present annually a brief report on the (2) Spring cod-fishery at Namdal 1,000
labours of the fishery offcials, and from time to time mun (3)
detailed notices of the fisheries of the country. The Inspector
of the Sea Fisheries of Gothenburg and Bohus submits an annual
12,000 report on those fisheries to the Agricultural Society of be V. For inspection, &c., at the herring.fishery in
12,000 The legal proceedings relating to the fisheries are briefly as VI. For the encouragement of fresh-water fisheries :
follow :- If one or more proprietors of fisheries desire new of (1) To salary and office help for the
modified laws for the fisheries in their waters, or the Intendant inspector (400 kr. for personal
of the Fisheries proposes such, the matter is submitted to the expenses of present inspector).. 3,640
Governor of the province. The Governor then convokes all (2) To two permanent assistants
persons interested to meet and discuss the question. If the (3) To travelling expenses of the
Governor, after having consulted the Intendant of the Fischeris, above officials in the fishing
judges the proposals of the majority of the fishery proprieturt dis:ricts, and for travelling ex
suitable for the improvement of the fishery, those proposals are penses of temporary assistants. 5,000
sanctioned, either as they stand, or with the necessary modific (4) Inspection of salmon-fishery
tions. Anyone who dissents from the judgment may appeal to (5) For experimental transport of
the Department of the Interior. Wener salmon
"The allowances of these officials from the Treasury are as followAbout 18 kronas = £1 sterling.
Intendant, 6250 ; two assistants, respectively. 4111 and 28 3.
Germany, likewise, has no special central or chief authority years) of about £250 for experiments on the fishing indusfar the management of the fisheries. The Empire has no right tries, fish.culture, &c. Another £ 1000 are yearly devoted to of control or even of cognizance of the fisheries. The State, salmon-culture, this sum being disbursed to the most successful however, gives annually a small sum to the German Fisheries fish-culturists at the rate of 5d. for a salmon a year and a half Union (Fresh-water Fisheries). The control and management of old (smolt), and two-fifths of a penny for one a few months the fisheries is therelore a matter for the different States which old (parr). If the number of parr offered exceeds the sum form the Empire. All these (Prussia included) have Inspectors which is available after the full value has been paid for the of Fisheries (Oberfischmaster) and master-fishers (Fischmeister), smolts, the culturists must either acquiesce in a reduction of but their duty only relates to the fiscal interests of the States price or keep their fishes. One or more members of the Board and the rigorous observance of the fishery laws. They also give are always present when the fishes are set free into the rivers. directions to the fishermen concerning the use of new and Since 1881 certain legal restrictions have been made with regard suitable tishing apparatus.
to the fisheries of the Zuyder Zee, and a staff of police organized The control of the fresh-water fisheries of Prussia is vested in on the inland sea, the chief officer being directly under the the Minister for Agriculture, Woods, and Forests, but there is orders of the President of the Board. The same is the case no special Board for Fisheries. The various questions are with the police on part of the oyster territories. Those in Zea. worked up by clerks as they arise, as also is the preparation of land have been, since the fresh start in 1870, under a special Bills for the Prussian Chambers. In like manner the provincial local Board. cootrol, the district (Regierung) control, and the Kreiss or In Italy the affairs relating to the fisheries are managed by county control, are carried out respectively by the Oberpräsi: the Minister of Agriculture, &c. The Minister nominates a dent, the Regierungs Prasident, and the Landrath.
Central Committee of twenty-four members. These consist of The Deutsche Fisherei Verein, of which Herr von Behr is scientific men, magistrates, persons industrially interested in the chairman, is an independent association. It receives occa- fisheries, and some members of the Legislature (M.P.'s). Twelve sionally money grants from the Prussian Minister from a fund members are elected or reappointed every year. The meetings voted by the Prussian Chambers, and a regular grant, of this Committee do not take place at certain fixed periods, but amounting at present to £1500 a year, from the German Parlia: only by invitation of the Minister, who submits to the Committee ment, towards the encouragement of fish-breeding throughout the material to be discussed. Germany.
Besides the Central Committee there are a series of local ComPrussia for a series of years has had at Kiel a Commission for mittees throughout the kingdom. These consist of the Captain scientiñc researches in the German seas. It consists of four of the Port, a zoologist, and technically experienced men. Their members, viz. a zoologist, a botanist, a physiologist, and a term of office lasts for three years from the date of appointment. physicist. The present members are Professors in the University The Regulation is published in the Annali dell' Industria, of kiel, and Prof. Möbius (zoologist) is chairinan. This Com. 1882, by the Minis of Agriculture, Direzione dell' Industria mission is placed under the control of the Ministry of Agricul- e Commercio. zure, and from that body it receives annually a sum of 9600 The duties of these local Committees are as follow :marks 1.480) for general and personal expenses. The Commis- (1) To study and to propose all new regulations rendered son publishes meteorological observations, statistics of the necessary by experience. asheries on the Baltic Stations, and reports on scientific (2) To collect the material for annual statistics. researches.
(3) To give, on the demand of the Government, the Provinces, Much valuable work has been accomplished by this Commis- and the Communes, their opinion on matters directly or insion in regard to the life-histories and development of fishes directly connected with the fisheries. and the pelagic animals of the Baltic. Amongst other recent (4) To further the diffusion of the best methods of fishing and suggestions is one regulating the saleable size of certain fishes in the advancement of the industries connected with them. special localities, e.g. the salmon and salmon-trout being fixed (5) To " render popular" the knowledge regarding the pro34 195 and 11 inches respectively, the founder at 6 inches, and duction, food, and diffusion of fishes and other usesul marine the plaice at 7.
animals. The Fishery Board of the Netherlands (Collegie voor de From a consideration of the foregoing remarks on the ComZeevisscherijen) is composed of 6fteen members, one of whom is missions, Boards, or Departments of foreign countries, it would president, and a secretary, who is not actually a member. All appear that a central authority composed of a single individual, are nominated by the Crown, and the president out of a leet of as in America, has certain disadvantages which can only be to drawn up by the Board itsell. The president and secretary overcome by a rare combination of scientific eminence, adminisfarm a kind of standing Committee by whom the every day
trative skill, and unbiassed judgment. It has, moreover, been busidess is managed. All important affairs, however, have to a costly experiment; and it cannot be said that the Americanscme before the ineetings of the Board, of which there are at even in the case of the cod -have succeeded so well as Dannevig least two yearly, viz. one in summer and one in winter. Very at Arendal, in Norway, with the moderate resources at his dis often the meetings are more numerous.
posal. It cannot be questioned, however, that the liberality of Toe majunty of the members must be free from any direct ihe Government of the United States has greatly aided scientific interest in the fishing trade or the fisheries industries. The inquiry into marine lise in general. Moreover, their efforts to minunty may,
on the contrary, represent such interests. increase the fresh-water fishes are most praiseworthy, and indeed Actually the minority is composed (1) of a specialist for the in this they give us a good example, for there are still many berring-fishery-a great shareholder and head of a large fishing fresh-water streams and lochs that would be of great value to the bim: 121 a member for the line-fishing ; (3) one for the oyster country is scientific fish culture were put on a proper footing. tulusines; (4) one for the salmon and fresh-water fisheries; The instance of the Outer Hebrides, e.g. North Uist, is sufficient 3) one for the herring and cod fisheries; and (6) one for the in our own country. From the top of the Lee Hills the eye rests fisheries of the Zuyder Zee.
on a multitude of lochs-fresh-water and salt--which seem to be Further, there are on the Board one shipowner and ship- almost as extensive in superficial area as the shreds of land tu:lder; one naval officer ; several lawyers, several local between them. In many of these, trout, salmon-trout, and salmon authonties ; and two zoologists.
are found, so that one familiar with the agricultural poverty of The members receive no salary-only their travelling ex- these regions would not hesitate to place the culture of the perkzea. Whenever a question is laid before the Board either water far before that of the land in regard to remuneration. A by Government or at its own invitation, the President selects a well-organized system of pisciculture in connection with these special committee of three or five members to study, discuss it, lochs would effect a revolution in the financial affairs of the and to draw up a report, which is then circulates, and after- people, and greatly supplement the food-supply for the comwands, if necessary, discussed and voted about. All questions munity. concerning fishery legislation are thus brought before the Board, The French system does not seem to offer any suggestion of and generally setiled according to its advice.
note in regard to the administration of the marine fisheries. There is a yearly grant (dating back, however, only a few The early labours of M. Coste and others in the culture of trout
and salmon have, however, been of great service both to the This account does not quite correspond with the view published by adjoining Continental States, to us, and to America. It must not te luhery Luard in their Sixth Annual Report, Part III. P. 305, for it ti there stated that in Holland "There is a Siale Commission for Sea
be forgotten also that M. Coste was one of those who took much Feheries chiefly composed of naturalists and scientific men.'
interest in the Stormontfield experimental station on the Tay,
Foreign Substances attached to Crabs.
group to which he gives the very convenient name "all SINCE Hyas is one of the most abundant Crustaceans found
cryptic.” Animals which trust rather to the offensive than 1 off the east coast of Scotland, Mr. Holt must adduce consider- the inconspicuous character of the foreign bodies with which ably more than two instances before it can be admitted that the
they associate themselves he terms "allosematic" forma, attachment of Simple Ascidians to this crab is at all a usual sign). occurrence. If it is, I should still be anxious to inquire whether
It is obvious that the allosematic method of protection is the crab does not-in spite of the apparent difficulty of the
but perfect, since it is largely free from the loss due to expert operation-place the Ascidians upon its back with its own nip
mental tasting attendant upon the method of a purely warten, pers. I may cite Gosse's well-known experiment with Pagurus appearance (“autosematic").
WALTER GARSI AST. prideauxii and Adamsia palliata, described in his “Year at Plymouth, March 21. the Shore,” for the purpose of analogy. But Mr. Holt will find a case, probably quite similar to that which he mentions, in
Sea-bird Shooting. Bell's “ Stalk-eyed Crustacea.” Two specimens of Hyas araneus were found with oysters attached to their backs, that on the Is it not time that something more was done to stop the larger crab being three inches in length, and five or six years wholesale slaughter of our sea.birds ? During the pas vizold, probably a much more 'serious incubus" than Mr. Holt's the havoc has been terrible, and unless some restraint is ipps! Tunicates, The crab's carapace was but two and a quarter we may expect before long to find our shores denuded the inches in length. Hence, despite the “ world of weight upon white wings. When the birds had no value, there was a ile its shoulders, Mr. Thompson concluded that “the presence of though a wide one, to their destruction, because of tbe 'ous, ri this oyster affords interesting evidence that the Hyas lived killing them; but recently a large demand has sprung up by several years after attaining its full growth.” Probably the their skins, and an organized traffic is now carried on in the larvæ of the oysters, and of the Ascidians also, happened to alight upon the crabs at the end of their free.swimming The shooter gets from threepence to sixpence per bird from the existence, although six or seven years seems to me to be a amateur dealer, and for the sake of this paltry sum surely the remarkably long age for a Hyas.
birds are worth more to us alive than this !) there is not a Barnacles upon the backs of Maia, Carcinus, &c., are also sporting lounger on the coast who can possess himself of a gun due to the same, as it were, accidental cause,
who does not kill every bird which can be reached either from But, whatever the explanation, these exceptional cases do not the shore or from a boat. The gulls are pursued, I am told, alter the fact that the foreign bodies found upon Hyas are usually even as far as the Dogger Bank. fixed there by the crab itself. The specimens I have seen have The beautiful kittiwake is the greatest sufferer. One of the been covered with fragments-not living colonies—of Algæ, dealers boasted to me the other day that he had passed "neste Hydroids and Polyzoa, which are fastened by the hairs of the ten than nine thousand dead birds through his hands the crab's carapace and legs exactly as in Stenorhynchus, and in season, chiefly kittiwakes." He added that he had got : this crab the process of attachment has been frequently observed carcases in one batch from one sportsman. here and accurately recorded.
From inquiries, I judge that this person's trade represen: 3 At the same time I by no means hold that the two groups about one-third of the dead birds which have been sent away from which were defined in my previous letter are absolutely marked our little town this season. I know the traffic is carriei un ** off from one another. The hermit crabs make use of both other points, and no doubt this is but an example of what a methods of protection. Bits of Sponges may frequently be seen going on all round our coast. When we consider that the s upon the carapace of Maia, Stenorhynchus, and Inachus, and I cases which can be secured represent only a fraction of the tends have occasionally found colonies of Leptoclinum and Didemnum killed or injured, we gain some idea of the extent of the r. upon both Maia and Inachus. In these cases the inconspicuous chief. Indeed, during the past month it has been posible to appearance is not lost, but the attachment of small Sponges and take a long walk along our shore without seeing a single so Didemnids is probably an additional protection against the gull. Who wishes to see a blank seascape ? numerous night-feeding fishes, which hunt their prey by the Now, surely, we all have equal rights in these graceful bris, senses of smell and touch.
and the numerous class who love to see them alive descrie As to the inedibility of Tunicata, I did not-as Mr. Holt as much consideration as the mischievous minority whose plex states—"assume” it. I have experimentally found it to be a sure it is to destroy them! It is not as though these 121107 fact (as I stated in my letter) that the odour and taste of “ Tuni. were worthy persons, compelled to a cruel employment un cata, and especially Compound Tunicata,” are almost invariably their daily bread: they are, on the contrary, nearly all of : sufficient to prevent fishes from eating them. Exceptions do class who deserve no sympathy-of a comfortable class who 1 not disprove the rule, and it is quite possible that Pelonaia is verily believe, would shoot their next-door neighbours if they not distastelul. But this is not established by a few specimens could do so with impunity, and could dispose of the arcus! having been taken on one or two occasions from the stomachs of Just imagine the new variety of “sport " which one of the Cod, Haddock, and Dab; and although Mr. Holt quotes Prof. described to me not long ago! He said you could auch it McIntosh as speaking of the “ abundant occurrence of Molgula gulls at sea by baiting a floating fishing-line with liver, and o arenosa in the stomachs of Cod and Haddock, he will find upon this way, though you did not get quite so many as with a gun. reading Prof. McIntosh's words again, that they are open to a you had far better fun, especially from the killiwakes, as they different interpretation.
are wonderfully " game," and, when they feel the hori In my previous letter I omitted to mention that a species of “ flacker about and scream like a child"! hermit crab also, Eupagurus lucasii, takes advantage (regu- Is it too much to ask that our Legislature, which has spent $ larly?) of the distastefulness of Compound Ascidians. Mr. much time in the past on laws in the interests of the so-called Harmer has, with much kindness, examined for me a specimen “preservers" of game, will do something, and that spectily, in the in the Cambridge Museum. The crab inhabits a univalve which interests of those who would sain be truly preservers of the s is covered with Distaplia magnilaria.
birds? At least they should extend the protection afionin Mr. Holt's statenent that “ Actinin mesembryanthemum is “ game” to these noble birds, and order that those who zboxca certainly a favourite food of the Cod” is so astonishing that I them shall pay a heavy license for their despicable sport, a hope he will adduce the evidence for his assertion. Mr. Brook those who deal in the dead carcases a still heavier. had not found this to be so when he reported upon the food of And nothing in this matter must be left to local authorina this fish for the Scottish Fishery Board, and indeed only the In seaside places self-interest vitiates the sentiment on this que youngest Cod ever frequent the iidal waters to which A. mesema tion. The fisherman finds it easier to earn money by leltinga. bryantherum is confined. Further, although Pagurus bern- boat to the "sportsman” than by his legitimate productive hardus, when not associated with an Anemone, is very frequently dustry; the tradesman fears to lose these nen's cusiom; and the found in the stomachs of Cod and Haddock, I do not know a gentry, mostly supporters of “sport," are perhaps not yo single instance of its having been found in the stomachs of the have such an excellent safety valve for guns which might nines same fish when associated with one.
wise poach on their preserves; and besides, there is in Yorkshire I am informed by Mr. Poulton that, in a work which is shortly a semi-political aspect to the matter. Thus it has happenoi tha: to appear, he has included such animals as Stenorhynchus and of late years the clause in the (so far as it goes) excellent fra Caddis worms, which disguise their appearance with foreign birds Preservation Act " of 1869, which permits a lengibeni bodies simply in order to escape identification by enemies, in a of the close time under cerlain conditions, has been rendentes