Page images

form of the ring, which, in combination with a slight eccentricity, Aucluating in sign) as we press inwards, and the anticipation secured its stability. Maxwell found that the irregularities of a that their total energy would be small compared with that due nag possessing a permanent movement ought to be very sensible, to flexure is confirmed. In such a case, then, the approximate and that the appearance of the rings of Saturn was incompatible methods used by Lord Rayleigh, in which no account is taken with that required by his demonstration. He considered the of the conditions at a free edge, are fully justified. But if, case of a planet occupying the centre of the ring, whereas keeping the radius and the thickness constant, we diminish the Laplace's hypothesis required a slight eccentricity. This ques. breadth of the plate until it is comparable with the mean protion was noi, however, treated separately, and M. Callandreau portional aforesaid, we get a sort of transition case between a has subjected it to mathematical analysis. First, taking the case plate and a bar, which cannot be satisfactorily treated except on of a symmetrical ring when the centre of gravity will be on a the basis of the general equations. Finally, when the breadth yymmetrical axis, anul then the case required by Laplace, viz. that becomes small in comparison with the mean proportional, the the centre of gravity is not exactly coincident with the geometrical plate behaves like a curved bar, and an approximate treatment centre, the author shows that the conditions slated by Laplace is again applicable. are not sufficient to ensure stability,

In an appendix I have worked out, from the general equations BROOKS'S COMET (a 1890). This comet was observed at of elasticity, the uniform flexure of an infinitely long cylindrical l'aris on March 28 and 30. It was seen as a round nebulosity, plate ; this being, at present, the only case of flexure in which about 40" or 50" in diameter, with a very pronounced centrai it appears easy to carry out the solution (on these lines) to a full condensation, and was about the tenth magnitude.

interpretation Brigirt LISES IN STELLAR SPECTRA. -The Rev. J. E. Espin reports the discovery of bright lines in the spectrum of y, as well as in that of e, Orionis, and possibly in that of S


Timehri, being the Journal of the Royal Agricultural and

Commercial Society of British Guiana (printed at the Argosy ON THE DEFORMATION OF AN ELASTIC

Press, Demerara, vol. iii., part ii., new series).—This inSHELL

teresting brochure contains matter of general interest, as well as

information which might be expected in an agricultural aud This paper treats of the deformation of an elastic shell who e commercial journal

. Specialization cannot be pushed to its radii of curvature are everywhere great in comparison with extreme limits in a colony, and a Society of this nature naturally the thickness, which is supposed uniform. The subject has been admits matter into its Journal which are not strictly either dealt with in a very able manner by Mr. A. E. 11. Love in a agricultural or commercial. Thus the papers on primitive games recent paper (Phil

. Trans., 1885), but it seemed desirable, on and on the wild flowers of Georgetown must be regarded, various grounds, that it should be attacked from an independent respectively, as of ethnological and purely botanical interest, but, point of view. The method here followed is that explained in nevertheless, occupy a great part of the number, especially if we å former communication, “On the Flexure of an Elastic Plate" leave out of consideration the reports of meetings and other (December 1889). The results, as regards the general theory, official matter connected with the working of the Society. Fruitare closely analogous with those of Mr. Love, and a comparison growing in the Gulf States of America, Caracas as a place of of the two investigations gives a physical interpretation to the resort, and a short paper on some scale insects inimical to vegetavarious groups of terms which enter into his equations. There tion are the principal topics of a distinctly economic value. are some differences of detail, arising from a slight difference in The paper entitled the " Letters of Aristodemus and Sincerus" the quantities chosen to express the flexural strains, but they is a review of an old book published in 1785-88 in twelve volumes, are not practically important.

dealing with the colonies of Demerara and Essequibo, and are The great difficulty of the present subject, as contrasted with therefore of great interest to the present population. In 1785 the theory for a plane plate, is, that we cannot draw an absolute the colonies had just been given over by the French, who held line of demarcation between the deformations in which the them on behalf of the Dutch for about three years. No town cardinal feature is the extension of the middle surface, and those existed up to that date in Demerara, but during the French which involve flexure with little or no extension. This appears occupation a little village had grown up in the neighbourhood of !o arise mainly from the fact pointed out by Mr. Love, that it Brandwagt, which they called la nouvelle ville, or Longchamps. is in general impossible to satisfy the boundary conditions by a | The sort on the east bank of the Demerara River (now called deformation in which the middle surface is absolutely unextended. Fort William Frederick) was also built at the time, and named But, this being admitted, the question remains in any specific Le Dauphin, while another on the opposite side was called La problem, as to the amount and distribution of the extension, Raine. From such historical, social, scientific, and economic and, in particular, whether there are any modes of deformation materials a most intere-ting although somewhat diffusive number (or of free vibration) in which, after all, it plays only a sub- has been produced, showing evidence of mental activity and ordinate part. Mr. Love answers this question in the negative, high culture, pleasant to see far away from the main centres of in opposition to the views advocated by Lord Rayleigh in two civilization. The style of the writing, the printing, and the well-known papers. In the present communication Mr. Love's illustrations are all of a high class. How far the London argument is examined, and it is pointed out that cases may occur publisher, Mr. E. Stanford, of Cockspur Street, is responsible in which the extensions (though comparable with the flexural for the excellent "get up" of the volume we are unable to even strains) may be confined to so small a region of the shell (near conjecture ; but we trust we may be permitted to say, without the edges) that their contribution to the total energy of deforma- offence, that the number of Timehri before us is highly creditable tion is insignificant.

to the literary talent and tastes of British Guiana. In order to bring the matter to an issue in a definite instance, I have chosen the case of a cylindrical plate (such as a boiler

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, February.—On the plate) bent by a proper application of force over its straight xxviii.). Gives an account of the anatomy of Duncania barbadensis,

anatomy of the Madreporia ; V., by Dr. G. Herbert Fowler (plate edges, so that the strained form remains a surface of revolution, the circular edges being free. The analytical work in this case

Galaxea esperi, Heteropsammia multilobata, and Bathyactis is very simple, and the physical meaning of the various terms

symmetrica, and gives a figure of the typical structure of the which occur is easily recognized. In the interpretation of the

genus Madrepora. -Contributions to the anatomy of earthworms, result it appears that a good deal turns upon the ratio which the

with descriptions of some new species, by Frank E. Beddard breadth of ibe plate in the direction of the generating lines)

(plates xxix. and xxx.). This paper gives an account of the bears to a mean proportional between the radius and the thick

structure of three new species of Acanthodrilus, with remarks ness. If this ratio is large, the bending forces may be prac

on other species of the genus. The new species are A. antarctically replaced by two equal and opposite couples uniformly

ticus, A. rosa, and A. dalei. Further remarks on the reproductive distributed over the straight edges, and having these edges as

organs of Eudrilus, with special reference to the continuity of axes. The strained form is almost accurately cylindrical ; near

ovary and oviduct.-On the certain points in the anatomy of the circular edges we have extensions of the same order as the

Perichæta, with description of Pericheta intermedia, n.sp. ---On flexural strains, but these rapidly die out (at the same time

the phagocytes of the alimentary canal, by Armand Ruffer

(plate xxxi.). Concludes that the wandering cells of the lymphoid Abstract of a Paper read by Prof. Horace Lamb, F.R.S., before the tissues of the alimentary canal have the power of proceeding to Mathematical Society on January 9.

the free surfaces of such tissues, and of taking into their interior

lower micro-organism; and foreign matter (charcoal, &c.): there 100-14°9, 15:0–1999, 200-2409, and the totals divided by 15. are both macro- and microphages; these are stages, the larger can The first two intervals taken together are equal to one of the swallow the smaller and digest them. - Notes on the hydroid others, but, as by far the greater number of the changes fell phase of Limnoco:dium sow:rbyi, by Dr. G. Herbert Fowler (plate below 50, it seemed well to see how many sell below 10. xxxii.), records observations made during May 1883; neither The range of changes is least at Falmouth and Valencia. medusoid or hydroid appeared in 1889; two hydroids and a In all cases the mean number of changes between roo and 49 budding medusoid are figurel. -Nute on certain terminal organs exceeds half the number of days in the month. Tesembling touch corpuscles or end bulbs in intramuscular The daily mean values have also all been examined, with the connective tissue of the skate, by Dr. G. C. Purvis (plate xxxiii.). view of discovering their distribution on the thermometer scale. --Note on the transformation of ciliated into stratified squamous Seven columns were taken, covering the space from toe to 80% epithelium as the result of the application of friction, by Drs. J. B. of 10' each, excepting that the space from 20° to 40° was not Haycroft and E. W. Carlier (plate xxxiii.). - On the development divided equally. of ihe ear and accessory organs in the common frog, by Francis In 1881, Stonyhurst had four days in January with a mean Villy (plates xxxiv. and xxxv.): -On Thelaceros rhizophore, below 20°, and nineteen days in which the mean tenperature in.g. et sp., an Actinian from Celebes, by P. C. Mitchell (plate was below 32. At Aberdeen and Glasgow the cold was not so "xxxvi.). "The Actinian here described was obtained by Dr. intense. Neither at Falmouth nor Valencia did the mean tem.

Flickson in a mangrove swamp in Celebes, by the side of one of perature ever fall below 20". The hottest station is Kew. la the roots of a Rhizophora ; the tentacles have compound hollow the fifteen years it shows in all thirty-five days with a mean protuberances round the margins of the oral surface, with above 70°. numerous small simple or compound hollow protuberances The figures were then divided by 15, to obtain frequency, as (rudimentary accessory tentacles) in radial lines on the oral disk. before, and the results shown. They are also shown graphically -Notes on the genus Monstrilla, Dana, by Gilbert C. Bourne in a plate, but there all the curves do not appear.. Those for (plate xxxvii.). Gives details of all the known species of this Valencia and Falmouth agree almost exactly, except in July and aberrant genus of Copepods.-On the maturation of the ovum, August. Those for Armagh, Glasgow, and Stonyhurst are so and the early stages in the development of Allopora, by Dr. close to each other, that one curve is taken to represent all, Sydney J. Hickson (plate xxxviii.). Gives a general summary of events"; "the formation and fate of the trophodisc, the changes Pritchard, Vice-President, in the chair. -A letter from the

Royal Microscopical Society, March 19.-Prof. Urban of the germinal vesicle, the formation of the embryonic ectoderm

President, regretting his inability to attend in consequence of a the history of the yolk, and general considerations.

fall, was read. -Mr. J. Mayall, Jan., read a letter from Prof. E. Abbe, of Jena, announcing the donation of one of Zeiss's new

apochromatic objectives of 16 N.A. He also sent a SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES

condenser of 16 N. A., and a fint glass slide containing mixed

diatoms mounted by Dr. H. van Heurck, of Antwerp, together LONDON,

with a supply of fint glass slips and cover-glasses for use in Royal Society, March 27.-" The Variability of the Tem

mounting objects for examination with the new objective. It fperature of the British Isles, 1859-83 inclusive." 'B, Robert H.

was of course understood that in order to exhibit the full p wwer Scott, F.R.S.

of the increased aperture it was necessary to employ a condenser The material discussed has been the daily mean temperature

of corresponding aperture, and the objects to be viewed must be clerived from twenty-four hourly measurements of the thermo

mounted on slips with covers, and mounting and immersion srams at the seven British observatories during the period of Auids of correspondingly

high refractive power. In order

to Cheir continuance, 1869-83.

further test this lens, a committee has been appointed. Mr. The differences between the successive daily means have

Mayall called attention to and described two microscopes by been extracted, irrespective of sign, and these values averaged Crisp.--Mr. Rousselet exhibited a number of Rotifers to show

MM. Nachet and Pellin, of Paris, which were exhibited by Mr. monthly. To the figures for the 7 observatories certain values have been

their abundance at this season of the year.---A specimen sent by added from Dr. Hann's paper in the Sitzungsberichte of

Colonel O'Hara, supposed to be some kind of entozoon wbich he Vienna Academy for 1875 for Makerstoun and Oxford,

had been passed in urine, was exhibited.-Prof. Bell gave a the only British stations in Hann's list, and for Vienna, St.

résumé of Mr. A. D. Michael's paper on the variations of the Petersburg, and Barnaul, as instances of Continental climates,

female reproductive organs, especially the vestibule, in as well as for Georgetown, De.nerara, as an instance for a absent through illness. ---Mr. c. II. Wright exhibited and

different species of Urspoda, the author being unavoilably tropical station.

The figures for the 7 stations are much lower than those for described specimens of a new British Ilymenolichen, Cyconema Makerstoun and Oxford, probably owing to the fact that the interruptum.--Mr. E. M. Nelson real a short note on the means used in the two latter cases were not twenty-four hourly, images of external objects produced from the markings of nor for as many as fifteen years.

P. formosum.-A note was read from Dr. H. van Heurek The highest variability on the mean of the year is at Kew correcting an error in his recent communication to the Society *{2°7); Then follow Armagh, Glasgow, and Stonyhurst (

25), relating to the structure of diatoms. --Mr. Mayall read a Aberdeen (2°:4), and Falmouth and Valencia (1 9). "The translation of an article by Prof. E. Abbe on the use of greatest absolute monthly value is 5o4 for Glasgow, November fluorite for optical purposes, in which it appeared that the 1880 ; the least, 0o7, for Valencia, July 1879.

special qualities of the new apochromatic lenses were due The mean values for each month are given.

to the employment of this mineral in their construction.The question of whether great changes are more frequently diatoms so as to exhibit clearly the nature of the workings

Mr. C. H. Gill read a paper on some methods of preparing positive or negative has been investigated. Mr. Blanford states which was illustrated by numerous photomicrographs. --- Mr. P. "Climate of India") that in India (Calcutta and Lahore) Brabam exhibited and described a new form of oxyhydrogen

sudden falls of temperature are more frequent and greater than lamp adapted for microscopical purposes, the lamp being so sudden rises. investigate all changes, as the numbers showing + and – signs in the room. -Mr. Clarkson also exhibited one of the same

A preliminary inquiry showed that it was not interesting to mounted as to be used in any position above or below the respectively were nearly equal. The changes above 50 in the twenty-four hours were all The next conversazione was announced to take place on

lamps separate from the photomicrographic arrangementexamined, and the result showed that in these islands sudden rises of large amount are more frequent an 1 more extensive in

April 30. amount than sudden falls--the reverse to what obtains in India. Zoological Society, March 18.-Prof. W. H. Flower,

One instance of a rise of 23o8 at Aberdeen, December 16, F.R.S., President, in the chair. - The Secretary exhibited (on 1882, was the greatest recorded, and this disturbance was con behalf of the Rev. G. H. R. Fisk) a specimen of a White Bat, fined to the east of Scotland.

obtained at Somerset West, near Cape Town, believed to be an The figures were then examined for frequency, The albino variety of Vesperus capensis. -Captain Percy Arpitage values were arranged, irrespective of sign, according to their exhibited and made remarks on two heads of the Panolia Deer magnitude, in six subdivisions :--0-0°9, 10-499, 5'0-9° 9, (Cerrus eld'i), obtained on the Sittang River, Burmah. One of

there was of an abnormal form.--Mr. Sclater exhibited (on behalf seems to put the ma'ler beyond doubt.-M. P. Schutzenberger, of Mr. Robert B. White) examples of four species of Mammals, in reply to criticisms of M. Berthelot, adduces experiments obtained in the Upper Magelalena Valley, in the department of pointing to the conclusion that the condensation of carbonic Tolima, U.S. of Columbia.-Dr. Mivart, F.R.S., read a paper on oxide by the silent discharge cannot be effected without the the South American Canidze. The author called attention to the presence of water. --Some further remarks on the preceding dithculties in the way of the correct discrimination of these communication, and on the desiccation of gases, by M. Bertheanimals, and to what appeared to him to be the unsatisfactory lot. The author still holds the opinion that the water shown loy character of some of Burmeister's determinations and de- M. Schutzenberger to be present in his condensed carbonic oxide scriptions Forms to which the names fulvipes, griseus, may have passed through the glass tube under the action of the petagmiras, materianus, gricilis, vetulus, and fulvicaudus had electric discharge. --A new method for the microscopical study leen assigned were deciared to be quite insufficiently discrimin. of warm blooded animals at their physiological temperatures has ated from Canis asaru. On the other hand, two very marked been devised by M. L. Ranvier, and consists of placing the varieties, or possibly species, were noted and distinguished microscope and the preparation under examination in a bath of under the appellations Canis far ridens and Canis urostictus, the warm water (36° C. to 39° C.).-Deformities of the feet type of each of which was in the British Museum, both the 'and toes following phlebitis of inserior members ; phlebitic skin and the shall extracted from it in each case. - Mr. R. 1. club-feet, by M. Verneuil.-Observations of Brooks's new Pocock read a revision of the genera of Scorpions of the family comet (a 1890), made at the Paris Observatory, hy M. G. Puthide, and gare descriptions of some new South African Bigourdan.-Observations of the same comet, made with the species of this family.-- Mr. F. E. Beddard read a paper on great equatorial of Bordeaux, by MM. Kayet and L. Picart -some points in the 'anatomy of the Condor (Sarcorhamphus Observations and elements of the new minor planet (289) dis

Typhus). - A communication was read from Prof. R. Collett, covered at the Nice Observatory on March 10, by M. Charlois. containing the description of a new Monkey from North East -On the position of the sun-epot of March 4, by M. Spærer

. Sumatra, proposed to be called Semnopiheus thomasi.

On the graphic statics of elastic arcs, by M. Bertrand de Font vioGeological Society, March 26.-J. W. Ilulke, F.R.S., lant.-Theoretical and experimental researches on Ruhmkorft's Vice-President, in the chair.- The following communications coil, by M. R. Colley. The author has investigated the current were read :-On a new species of Cyphaspis from the Car- wbich results from the superposition of two currents--one nonboniferous rocks of Yorkshire, by Miss Coignou, Cambridge. I periodic, diminishing according to the law of an exponential Communicated by Prof. T. McK. Hughes, F.R.S. -On com- i curve ; ihe other periodic, ard with progressively decreasing posite spherulites in obsidian from hot springs, near Little Lake, amplitude.--On the conductivities of the phenols and of oxy. California, by Frank Rutley, Lecturer on Mineralogy in the benzoic acids, by M. Daniel Berthelot. In this important paper Royal School of Mines. The spherulites which form the subject the author gives the results of an examination of the three oxyof the present communication have been previously noticed, benzoic acids by means of their electrical conductivities, and a and it was then suggested that a smaller spherulitic structure was research into the way they behave in the presence of one, two, set up in the large spherules after their formation. In the present or three molecules of soda. These acids having both phenol and paper evidence was adduced in favour of a different mode of acid functions, the conductivities of alkaline phenates were first origin. It was argued that the small spherulitic bodies (primitive deler mined. - Ihe laws of annealing, and iheir consequer ces spherulites) were developed in the obsidian before it assumed a from the point of view of the mechanical properties of metals, by condition of rigidity, and that they floated towards certain M. André Le Chatelier. These laws have been studied by heatpoints in the still viscid lava, and segregated in more or lessing metallic wires, hardened by a series of passages through a spherical groups, though there is no evidence to show what draw plate, to different temperatures and during different periods determined their movements ; furthermore, that from a point or of time. - On the indices of refraction of salt-solutions, by M. B. points situated at or near the centre of each group, crystallization Walter. -Action of hyposulphite of soda on silver salts, by M. J. was set up, giving rise to a radiating fibrous structure, which Fogh. The amount of heat disengaged during the action of gradually developed zone after zone of divergent fibres until | hyposulphite of silver upon various silver salts has been investithe entire mass of primitive spherulites was permeated by this gated. -- V. V. Marcano, from his anthropological researches at secondary structure-a structure engendering a molecular re Venezuela, gives evidence of the existence of metallurgy in South arrangement of the mass, such as would obliterate any trace of America previous to Columbus.- Influence of the chemical con structure which the primitive spherulites might have originally stitution of compounds of carbon upon the sense and variation grossessed. In a supplementary note the views of Mr. J. P. of their rotary power, by M. Philippe A. Guye.-On the Iddings with reference to the spherulites in question were given. preparation and some of the properties of fluoroform, by M. Mr. Iddings considers that the structures here described as Meslans. The density of the gas obtained is 2'44, and it is found primary are of secondary origin. The author stated in detail to liquely at 20° under a pressure of 40 atmospheres.- On some his reasons for adhering to the conclusions given in this paper. thiophenols derived from ordinary camphor, by M. P. Caze. The Chairman said that the sequence of the different portions neuve.--On the stranding of a whale on the island of Rhé. brought forward with so much care by the author is one which by MM. Georges Pouchet and Beauregard.-On the blood ani aimits of much discussion. Rev. E. Hill said that the exp'ana- the lymphatic gland of the Aphysia (sea-hare), by M. L. Cuénot. tion of the divergence of these crystallizations was extremely -On the method of union of sexual cells in the act of fecunda. interesting As to which structure came first, it is difficult to tion, by M. Léon Guignard. --On a new and dangerous parasite determine. In the section exhibited under the microscope he of the vine, by M. G. de Lagerheim... The description of the agreed with Mr. Rutley as to the sequence. The question of parasite is here given :-"Uredo Viale : Soris hypophylli-, molecular motion after consolidation in igneous rocks is a subject solitariis majoribus vel dense gregariis minimis, solitariis in of great importance. -A monograph of the Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of pagina superiore foliorum maculas parvas formantibus ; uredo. the Hunstanton Red Chalk, by George Robert Vine. Com sporis pyriformibus vel ovoideis 201-27m longis, 154-18u latis, municated by Prof. P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S.-Evidence membrana hyalina tenui aculeata et contentu aureo præditis, furnished by the Quaternary glacial-epoch morainic deposits of paraphysibus cylindricis curvatis incoloribus circumdatis. Hab Pennsylvania, U.S.A., for a similar mode of formation of the in foliis vivis Vitis sp. parasitica in insula Jamaica, inter Kingston Permian breccias of Leicestershire and South Derbyshire, by et Rockfort, Octob. 1889."-On the series of e uptions of William S. Gresley.

Mézenc and Meygal (Velay); also a note on the existence of PARIS.

ægyrine in the phonolites of Velay, by M. P. Termier. - ComAcademy of Sciences, March 31.-M. Hermite in the Boursault.-General results of a study of the carboniserous earths

position of some rocks from the north of France, by M. Henn chair. — M. de Jonqutères, having presented a memoir containing of the central plateau of France, by M. A. Julien. the complete text and review of a posthumous work of Des. curtes, *De Solidorum Elementis," with a translation and commentary of the work, addressed a note giving some brief

BERLIN. explanations of the matter contained in it. In communications Physical Society, March 21.-Prof. du Rois Reymond, made on February 10 and 17, the author endeavoured to show President, in the chair. - Dr. Brodhun described a rew contrastthat Descartes knew and applied the relation between the faces, photometer, based on the principle of one he and Dr. Lummer apices, and edges of a polyhedron, known as Euler's formula, had previously constructed (see NATURE, vol. xxxix. p. 336), and expressed as F + S'= A + 2.' The present communica:ion and intended to compare by contrast the intensity of any

illumination with that of the standard light. Experiment had proves that in this instance no glucose whatever is formed, as shown that the sensitiveness of the instrument is greatest when was lately believed to be the case. The development of the difference of the contrasted illuminations is 3 per cent., and luminosity is constantly accompanied by the transition of pepamounts then to 4 per cent. He further gave an account of tones into organized, living matter, under the influence of free experiments which he and Dr. Lummer had made on the oxygen, with or without the concurrence of another carbonic utilization of glow-lamps as standards of comparison. When fed combination. by accumulators these lamps yield a light which only varies by 1 per cent. during a period of 200 hours provided the E.M.F. of the accumulators is kept constant. The authors are now busy with BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. the endeavour to construct a standard glow-lamp for comparison Among the Selkirk Glaciers: W. S. Green (Macmillan).-Flora Tangutina, with unknown sources of light. Dr. Lummer demonstrated fasc. i.: C. J. Maximowicz (Petropoli). ---Enumeratio Plantarum Huery Abbé's apparatus for testing transparent films with plane- | Canto i. : J. F. Rowbotham (K. Paul). ---Agende de Chimiste, Salet, Girard parallel surfaces. Aster briefly describing the interference and Pabst (Hachette). -I he Theory of Determipants in the Historical Order phenomena produced by thick plane-parallel glass plates, he of its Development; Part i., Determinants in General : T. Muir (Macmillas explained how Tizeau's bands and Newton's rings are employed

-The Microtomist's Vade-Mecum, 2nd Edition : A. B. Lee (Churchill) for testing the plates, using monochromatic sodium-light. The

Guide Pratique de L'Amateur Électricien: E. Keignart (Paris, Micheler)

Musiconomia • Leggi Fondamentali della Scienza Musicale: P. Crotti light passes through a reflecting prism and through a lens, and

(Parma, Battei).-L'Éclairage Électrique Actuel, 2nd Edition : J. Couture then falls on the plate, from which it is reflected and passes back Paris, Michelet). -- Das Reizleitende Gewebesystem der Sionpflanze : Dr.G by the same path to the eye, being now passed through a second Haberlandt (Leipzig. Engelmann).-Traité Ency. de Photographie, 15 Mars lens by means of which the bands or rings may be seen. The

C. Fabre (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).- Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society,

vol i. No. 3, Part 1 (Williams and Norgate).- Mind, April (Williams am occurrence of interference-bands is entirely dependent upon the Norgate). Geological Magazine, April (K. Paul). -Quarterly Journal of thickness of the plate: if this is absolutely uniformly thick Microscopical Science, April (Churchill). - Journal of the Royal Agricultural throughout, the interserence phenomena show no change if the Society of England, 3rd Series, Part 1 (Murray). – Journal of the Royal plate is moved from side to side in its own plane, and by so

Horticultural Society, vol. xii. Part 1 (London). doing the parallelism of its sides may be rapidly tested.



New Light from Solar Eclipses. By William E. Royal Academy of Sciences, February 22.-Prof. van de Plummer . ...

529 Sande Bakhuysen, in the chair.-Prof. Behrens added a number The Evolution of Sex. By P. C. M. of reagents for microscopical analysis to those already known The Quicksilver Deposits of the Pacific Slope. By

531 from former publications by himself and MM. Streng and Haushofer :

H. B....

532 For K and Na : sulphate of bismuth.

Our Book Shelf: Ba, Sr, Ca: chloride of tin and oxalic acid.

Coldstream : " Illustrations of some of the Grasses of Ba, Sr : bichromate of ammonium.

the Southern Punjab."-J. G. B...

533 Sr, Ca, Mg: tartrate of sodium and potassium.

Hicks: "Elementary Dynamics of Particles and Al: fluoride of ammonium and sulphate of thallium.

Solids."-G. A. B.... Be : chloride of mercury and oxalic acid.

534 Ce, La, Di: oxalic acid, ferrocyamide of potassium.

Lydekker : "Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Zn, Ca: acetate of aluminium and oxalic acid,

Amphibia in the British Museum "

• 534 Zn, Cn, Co: sulphocyanide of mercury and ammonium. Letters to the Editor :Co, Ni: nitrite of potassium and acetate of lead.

Systems of " Russian Transliteration."-Charles E. , Pb, Bi, Fe: bichromate of potassium and potash. Bi, Sb, Sn: oxalic acid, chloride of rubidium.

Groves, F.R.S.; W. F. Kirby; H. A. M. and ,,Sb, Sn, Ti: chloride of barium and oxalic acid.

J. W. G.

334 Details will soon be published, when the necessary finish has

* Like to Like”-a Fundamental Principle in Biobeen given to the methods for separation, hitherto somewhat i

nomics.-Prof. George J. Romanes, F.R.S. ; neglected.-M. Martin read a paper on the geology of the Kei John T. Gulick,

535 Islands, and, in connection therewith, on the Australian-Asiatic Self-Colonization of the Coco-nut Palm.-W. boundary line. In accordance with the fact that in Great Kei

Botting Hemsley, F.R.S. ...,

537 we meet with nothing but a Tertiary formation, and that the nature of the rocks of Great Kei agrees with that of the coast of

On Certain Devonian Plants from Scotland.—Sir ). New Guinea, M. Martin inferred that this boundary line must

Wm. Dawson, F.R.S.

537 be drawn geognostically, to the west of Great Kei and to the Exact Thermometry.—Dr. Edmund J. Mills, north-west of Timor. ---Dr. Beyerinck treated of the luminous F.R.S. ...

537 food and the plastic food of phosphorescent Bacteria. Of the six species of phosphorescent Bacteria hitherto known, four--viz.

The Shuck burgh Scale and Kater Pendulum.-0. H. the alimental gelatine non-melting Bacterium phosphorescens and

Tittmann, B. Pflügeri of luminous fish, and the Baltic phosphorescent The Green Flash at Sunset.-C. Michie Smith , . 538 Bacteria, B. Fischeri and B. balticum, require, besides peptone, a second carbonic combination, as glycerine, glucose, or aspa

Foreign Substances attached to Crabs.-Walter ragine, for their complete nourishment, i.e. to phosphoresce


538 and grow. They may be called peptone-carbon-bacteria. The The Thames Estuary. (With Maps.) By Captain gelatine quick-melting phosphorescent bacteria from the West T. H. Tizard, R.N.

539 Indian Sea and the North Sea, B. indicum and B. luminosum, Notes

544 can phosphoresce and grow on peptone alone. They are, therefore, peptone-bacteria. Again, other bacteria can derive their

Our Astronomical Column:nitrogen either from amids, the amid-bacteria, or from ammoniac,

Objects for the Spectroscope.-A. Fowler. the ammoniac-bacteria. Also moulds, yeasts, and some The Apex of the Sun's Way Protozoa may be classed in this system. The Bacterium Pflügeri does emit light with peptone and glucose, but not with peptone

Stability of the Rings of Saturn . and maltose, while the Bacterium phosphorescens emits light

Brooks's Comet (a 1890). .

549 both with glucose and maltose. Now if we mix some starch in Bright Lines in Stellar Spectra

549 a phosphorescens-peptone-gelatine, obtained by mixing this On the Deformation of an Elastic Shell. By Prof, gelatine with a very great number of B. phosphorescens, and Horace Lamb, F.R.S. ..

549 place upon this some ptyaline, pancreas-diastase, or urindiastase (nefrozymase), fields of light make their appearance ; if, however,

Scientific Serials ...

549 we placed these same sorts of diastase on a PAügeri-peptone

Societies and Academies starch-gelatine, then no fields of light would appear, which Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received





348 548




Rivers in India : W. T. Melhuish. -- The Diathermancy of Air in Relation Assures £1000 at Death and Full Benefits at £4 per Annum.
to the Efficiency of Incandescent Lamps: Frederick Higgins.


Annual Income £250,000.
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7,30.-Description of the Roof over
the Carlisle Markets: F. P. Reynolds

80,000 ANNUAL POLICYHOLDERS. AMATEUR SCIENTIFIC Society, at 8.-Some Optical Properties of Gems and other Minerals : W. J. Lewis Abbott.

Invested Capital and Reserve Fund £285,000.


ROVAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-Journey to the Summit of
Kilimanjaro : Dr. Hans Meyer.

West End Office :-8 GRAND HOTEL BUILDINGS, W.c ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.--Beauty: Rev. P. N. Waggett.

Head Office :-64 CORNHILL, LONDON, E.C. TUESDA), APRIL 15, ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-On some New Fishes from the English

WILLIAM J. VIAN, Secretary. Wealden and Purbeck Beds, referable to the Genera Oligopleurus, Strobilodus, and Mesodon : A. Smith-Woodward. ---Second Report on the Additions to the Datrachian Collection in the Natural History Museum : G.

EYESIGHT AND SPECTACLES. A. Boulenger -On the Structure of Psophia, and on its Relations to other Birds : Frank E. Beddard.-On a Remarkable Antler from Asia Minor :

Homoeopathic Review, October 1, 1889:-"Parents and those that R. Lydekker.

shrink from using spectacles should read an original book, 'IS BAD SIGHT SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.


The School Board Chronicle, August 31, 1889:—"Valuable tricity to Welding, Stamping, and other Cognate Purposes : Sir Frederick

information can be gleaned from its pages. Bramwell, Bart., F.R.S.

The Morning Post, July 23. 1889 :-"A considerable amount of PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN, at 8.

common sense in Mr. Fournet's arguments. KovAL INSTITUTION, at 3 -The Place of Oxford University in English Printed by EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, 196 PP., 15 Stamps, post free History: Hon. George C. Brodrick.

AddressWEDNESDAY, APRIL 16. GEOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Notes on some of the Palæozoic Rocks of 18 BENTINCK ST., MANCHESTER SQUARE, LONDON, W. North-Western Germany : Prof. A. von Könen. Communicated by Sir Warington W. Smyth, F.R.S.-On the Origin of the Basins of the Great PROPER GLASSES PRESCRIBED, 5s. American Lakes: Dr. J. W. Spencer.-On Remains from the Oxford Clay of Northampton : R. Lydekker.-On Certain Physical

By Author of the Above. Hours, 10 till 7. Phenomena exhibited by the so-called "Raised Beaches" of Hope's Nose Spectacles and Eye-glasses at Civil Service Store and the Thatcher Rock, Devon : D. Pidgeon.-Notes on a "Wash-out found in the Pleaslay and Teversall Collieries, Derbyshire and Notting

Prices. hamshire: J. C. B. Hendy. Communicated by Dr. W. T. Blanford,

ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL Society, at 7-The Cold Period at the Be.
ginning of March 1890 : Charles Harding.--Note on the Whirlwind
which occurred at Fulfird, near York, March 3, 1890: J. E. Clark.-On
the Possibility of Forecasting the Weather by means of Monthly
Averages: Albert E. Watson.-Rainfall of the Globe : W. B. Tripp. PULVERMACHER'S WORLD-FAMED
ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Fresh-water Algæ of North Wales :
W. West - The State in which Water exists in Live Prstoplasm : M. M.


for the Cure of NerVOUS COMPLAINTS have received Testimonials from three ROVAL SOCIETY, at 4:30.-The following papers will probably be read

Physicians to Her Majesty the Queen, and over Fifty Members of the Royal Preliminary Note on Supplementary Magnetic Surveys of Special Dis

College of Physicians of London. tricts in the British Isles: Profs, Rücker and Thorpe, F.R.S.-Notes on

The distressing symptoms of NERVOUS EXHAUSTION, loss of some Peculiar Relations which appear in the Great Pyramid from the Precise Measures of Mr. Flinders Petrie : Captain Downing, R.A.-The EPILEPSY, &c., are speedily removed by means of

MUSCULAR POWER, RHEUMATISM, SCIATICA, PARALYSIS, W.F. R. Weldon Observations on the Anatomy and Development of PULVERMACHER'S World-famed Galvanic Belts, CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Phosphorous Oxide : Prof. T. E. Thorpe, which convey the electric current direct to the affected parts, gradually

F.R.S, and T. E. Tutton. LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.

stimulating and strengthening all the nerves and muscles, and speedily ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 4.

arresting all symptoms of premature waste and decay. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. -The Heat of the Moon and Stars (the Tyndall

Dr. Vines, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, writes, September Lectures): Prof. C. v. Boys, F.R.S.

19, 1885 Having used Mr. PULVERMACHER'S' BELTS for many FRIDAY, APRIL 18.

years, in the course of medical practice, I am in a position to speak of their SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 5.

great value as a curative agent in cases of nervous disease or functional ROTAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Welding by Electricity: Sir Frederick Bram malady where Electricity is likely to be serviceable. I am entirely convinced well, Bart., F.R.S.

of their efficacy." SATURDAY, APRIL 19 ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Colour and its Chemical Action : Captain W. Dr. C. Handfield Jones, F.R.C.P., F.R.S., Physician to St. Mary's de W. Abbey, R E., C.B., F.R.S.

Hospital, says :-"I am satisfied that Mr. PULVERMACHER is an honest and earnest labourer in the field of science, and I think he deserves to meet with every encouragement from the profession and scientific men."

Sir Charles LOCOCK, Bart., M.D., says :-"PULVERMACHER'S

BELTS are very effective in neuralgia and rheumatic affections, and I have TELESCOPES OR LABORATORY USE,


SPECTROSCOPES & SPECTROMETERS with every encouragement from the profession and Scientific them. **


prescribed them largely in my practice for other similar maladies, paralysis,

&c." With " Rowlands's" Metal Gratings, or with Prisms of every Description

For full Price List and Particulars see new Pamphlet,

" GALVANISM : Nature's Chief Restorer of Impaired For Photographing the Stars on Secchi's Plan.

Vital Energy." Post free from
Astronomical and Optical Instrument Maker,


194 REGENT STREET, LONDON, W. GOLD MEDAL, Highest Award, Inventions Exhibition, 1885.



« PreviousContinue »