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adjustment," nor any amount of change as to “shape," deserves The "Rollers” of Ascension and St. Helena. to be regarded as "any important result"? Must we not rather

You probably know that the United States Scientific Expediconclude that when he first wrote upon "the state of panmixia,"

tion under Prof. Todd has had occasion to stop here during the he had not sufficiently considered the subject; and, in now

past two weeks. I have resided during this time continuously endeavouring to trim, ends by contradicting himself?. The only issue being as to whether panmixia is itself a cause,

at the signal station on Cross Hill (altitude 870 feet), studying or merely the precedent condition to the occurrence of a totally an excellent opportunity to observe the "rollers” for which

the clouds and winds with many important results. I have had different cause, nothing more remains to be said. As a result Ascension and St. Helena are famous, and I have been able to of his further consideration, Prof. Lankester now admits "it is demonstrate convincingly to myself their nature and origin. I clear" that, " without economy of growth," papmixia is a cause should be obliged to anyone who will tell me whether my And, when he considers the matter

a little more, he will doubt: following views have perhaps been arrived at by previous

observers. less perceive the contradiction in saying that, where degeneration as to "size" is concerned, "it is absurd to attribute the result, different parts of the South Atlantic, and the regions of light

The south-east trade blows with very various intensities over or any proportion of it, to the panmixia or cessation of selection trade, no trade, fresh and strong trade, vary from day to day, as alone." Variations round an average mean occur in size" or shown by comparing the logs of vessels. A limited region of ** bulk," just as they do in "shape" and "structure”: therefore, if on this account panmixia is conceded to be a true cause strong south-east trade is a region whence spreads in all directions of degeneration as regards the latter, it must likewise be so as the corresponding strong south-east swell of the ocean surface regards the former

. The fact that in the former case as I very distant storm winds or very near regions of high south-east showed in 1874-it must always be more or less associated with these winds will determine whether any point shall be experienc

winds produce similar results on the ocean swell: the locality of the economy of growth, is no proof that it then loses its due ing a light or heavy swell. What causes the variations in the "* proportion" of causal agency; while, with the now single south-east trades, and in what direction the regions of strong exception of Prof. Lankester, everyone who has since written trade move, are questions for further study. My present data upon this "principle” takes the same view as I did-viz, that would show that these latter regions move against the trade the phenomena of " dwindling” in our own domesticated animals furnish as good evidence of the operation of panmixia

as winds, i, from Ascension

towards St. Helena, but there need is furnished by the other forms of degeneration to which he now be no uniformity in this respect. alludes. Therefore, if he really believes it is in this case "absurd

Now if a south-east swell surrounds such an island as Ascension to attribute the result, or any proportion

of it

, to the panmixia," he it is pot directly felt on the lee side, but the long rectilinear becomes opposed, not only to me, but to Galton, to Weismann, from my elevated station to assume the new curved shapes that

swells, that advance faster in deep than in shoal water, are seen to Poulton, and to everybody else who has ever considered the result from the retardations on the shoals. So that finally in subject. In short, it is now a matter of general recognition that what he calls my " unreal separation between cessation of typical cases we have off the lee of the island a series of crossselection' and 'reversal of selection,'”

is a separation so funda ing and interfering swells producing at one point a quiet spot, at mentally real, that it is the means—and the only means of the next a double

swell and great breakers. abolishing the evidence of Lamarckian factors where this once

The rollers are a magnificent example of deflection by shoals, appeared to be most conclusive ; seeing that " with highly-fed at St. Helena and Ascension is apparently due to the proportions

and of interference and of composition of waves. Their severity domesticated animals there seems to be no economy of growth, nor

of the dimensions of the swell to that of the islands, just as in any tendency to the elimination of superfluous details." 1 April 19.


the interference phenomena of sound and light everything depends on the size of obstacle and length of wave. I have a

number of measures that will, I hope, enable me in the future IN NATURE of April 3 (P. 511) Mr. Herbert Spencer suggests to give more accurate details, but for the present I can only an interesting subject for discussion on the effects of use and inquire as to the bibliography of the subject. The correct disuse of organs, asking for an explanation on the theory of explanation of the rollers, and of the swell on the West African panmixia of the well-known tendency of domesticated animals to coast, will undoubtedly lead us to further steps in marine droop the ears. Many of the ruminants in a wild state have their meteorology.

CLEVELAND ABBE. ears set on horizontally with an inclination to droop; for U.S.S. Pensacola, Ascension, April 2. instance, the gnu, sable, antelope, zebu, gaur (Central India), Cape buffalo, &c. The American bison has completely drooping ears; there is also at the Natural History Museum, South

Self-Colonization of the Coco-nut Palm. Kensington, in Case 57, a specimen of a smooth-haired With reference to Mr. Hemsley's note on this subject to sheep from Turkey in Asia, Ovis aries, which has dependent NATURE (p. 537), I regret to have to inform him that the two cars. Pathologically, though as yet not physiologically proved, young palms found on Falcon Island were placed there by a the discussion of the transmission of acquired characters possesses Tongan chief of Namuka, who, in 1887, had the curiosity to a deep interest.

visit the newly-born island, and took some coco-nuts with him. Evolution seems impossible without variation, and until the This information I received from Commander Oldham, who had latter can be explained on other grounds than those of the in- been much interested at finding these sprouting nuts at some 12 heritance of accumulated minute changes in character acquired feet above sea-level and well in from the shore of the island, but through ages of slowly varying climate and conditions of life, who found out the unexpected facts in time to save me from preserved by natural selection, this transmission would seem a making a speculation somewhat similar to Mr. Hemsley's. reasonable conclusion so long as the characters acquired were

W. J. L. WHARTON. of service to the inheritor in the struggle for existence.

Though Weismann disbelieves most of the evidence Darwin collected on heredity, and doubts the possibility of the com

Nessler's Ammonia Test as a Micro-chemical munication of external influences by the somatic cells to the

Reagent for Tannin. germ cell, he suggests no other hypothesis to account for the In most cases the presence of tannin is immediately shown by phenomena of change, beyond the vague expression “predis- all the ordinary reagents used by the botanist for its discovery. position of the germ-plasm."

R. HAIG THOMAS. This does not happen sometimes, however ; as, for instance, in April 5.

the tannin-cells found in the epidermis on the dorsal side of the Darwin, ".Variation, &c.," ii. p. 289. Seeing the importance of the leaves of some plants. As a good typical example the common idea of fanmixia in this connection, I must still be permitted to regard it primrose may be cited. Of all the ordinary tests, including as "unfortunate" that it was not present to Mr. Darwin's inind before the iron salts, potassium bichromate, Moll's test (copper acetate and publication of his last edition of the Origin of Species." But this does iron acetate), ammonium molybdate, and osmic acid in 1 per not mean, as Prof. Lankester " affects to suppose, that I regard the unfortunate nature of such a circumstance as due to the fact that I happened

cent. solution, the latter alone acts immediately upon the to be the first who perceived it. One can only assign so petty a form of tannin in the primrose leaf's epidermis. It may hence be worth * badinage" to the same argumentative level as " pointing out the over while recording the discovery of a second reagent capable of sight" that in my first letter I * omitted to credit Mr. Darwin with the acting rapidly and effectively; and one which is easily made and aloit as grave an oversight in his own letter, by omitting to credit Mr. will keep for some time should be especially valuable Such a Darwin with the recognition of natural selection.

reagent is Nessler's test for ammonia.

Nessler's test is made, as all the world knows, by saturating a garding observations accumulated throughout the past, insisted solution of potassium iodide with mercuric iodide, and adding on watching the successive phases before he was convinced, an excess of caustic potash. Ammonia gives with this a reddish would be considered inductive in an irrational degree." We precipitate ; tannin a brown, and when in considerable quantity cannot, of course, presume to dictate to or for the moon "up a deep black one ; but if little tannin be present, the brown may to Lunnon,” but here in the country the new moon becomes full tend towards purple. It goes without saying that much experiment in half a month, and we have convinced ourselves by watching must be undertaken before one can be sure of the substance the successive phases that a new moon will in a month become giving the brown precipitate being really tannin. To be con- a new moon again. Nevertheless we willingly admit that life is clusive, such experiment should be carried out in four different far too short and too encumbered to allow of any man's repeatdirections :

ing more than a small fraction of the accumulated observations (1) The reaction ought to be given in all cases when the on which his scientific beliefs are founded. Yet, on the other ordinary reagents make their presence immediately felt.

hand, taking things for granted is probably the source of nine(2) Cells which will not immediately give the tannin reaction tenths of the errors that fill our minds, while the men of genius with ordinary tests, but which will do so with Nessler's test, seem to be just those who know best what and how to observe must also do so under the former conditions if time be allowed. for themselves, and how much to trust in the observations of (3) Tissues which will not yield the reaction with Nessler's others.

T. R. R. STEBBING. test, must not give it with any other reagent even after the lapse Tunbridge Wells. of some time. (4) Solutions of tannin must give a brown precipitate with

Foreign Substances attached to Crabs.
Nessler's test.
Under the first of these headings may be mentioned growing

There is, of course, no analogy between whiffing for shoots of the garden rose. On laying a radial longitudinal or å mackerel with red Aannel, and fishing for cod on the bottom tangential section of this in Nessler's fuid a copious black-brown with any kind of bait. precipitate is obtained, and the same thing occurs with the

If Actinians are offensive to fish, it is a singular fact that, beautiful tannin-sacs of Musa sapientum. In all other instances when a cod-line is baited with mussels, herring, sand-eels, and where tannin has betrayed its presence by the use of ordinary anemones (viz. T. crassicornis and A. mesembryanthemus), the reagents, the brown colour has been obtained upon treatment latter prove by far the most successful baits. with Nessler's test.

Impalement on a look by no means kills an anemone, whose The primrose leaf may be again cited as an example of the powers of offence are, perhaps, little lessened thereby; and time sometimes necessary to show up tannin with the usual under natural conditions the tentacles are not always expanded. reagents, of which it must here suffice to particularize ammonium Though the full-grown cod does not affect the tidal waters of molybdate. On laying in the molybdate a small piece of epidermis the coast, yet the "rock" cod, by no means the youngest of its torn off the lower side of the leaf, one first sees a cell here and species, ventures close inshore and the largest cod abound there coloured the characteristic and beautiful yellow given by amongst the tidal waters of the Bell Rock. this test : these coloured cells are usually situated among the

The cnidæ of an anemone seem very efficient weapons against elongated more or less rectangular cells overlying the vascular a soft-skinned Cephalopod, but they are not necessarily so bundles. Re-examination after half an hour or so shows against a tough-skinned fish, several more of the cells similarly coloured, but it is usually not records Tealia and Peachia from the stomach of the cod, and

Prof. McIntosh, in the work referred to in a previous letter, till after a couple of hours that one can safely declare all the tannin-containing cells to have been stained. With variations

Edwardsia (in swarms) from that of the flounder. He also inin respect of time, and with the sole exception of osmic acid, all

forms me that he has found Stomphia in the stomach of the cod. the other tests act in precisely the same way ; even Möll's, pre I may add that the practice of baiting here with anemones is ferred to all others by some of our Continental confrères, being

much more recent than the work referred to. as unsatisfactory as the rest. But sooner or later its charac

Of all British Coelenterates, Cyanæa is, perhaps, the most teristic colour is imparted to these cells by every reagent, thus deadly; yet many trustworthy observers have found young cod proving tannin to be present.

sheltering themselves beneath its umbrella-a fact which seems For the negative experiment-the absence of the brown colour

to indicate that they hold its stinging powers in some contempt; from tissues treated with Nessler's fluid, and its absence from the and Dr. Collingwood, in “A Naturalist's Rambles in the same tissues when acted upon by ordinary tannin reagents-re

China Seas” (p. 150), has recorded the discovery of an immense course was again had to epidermis. The experiment succeeded fish-sheltering anemone.

Ernest W. L. HOLT. in all cases : among these may be cited Fatsia japonica, wall.

St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. flower, box, Stellaria media, and Pelargonium zonale. In none of these did tannin show up, although twenty-four hours were The Relative Prevalence of North-east and South-west allowed to elapse before the preparations were destroyed.

Winds. Lastly, Nessler's fluid gives a rich brown precipitate with solutions of tannin. Moreover, with gallic acid a grey-green one is to the statement by Mr. Prince contained in his meteorological

In a note at p. 470 NATURE, March 20), attention is drawn thrown down, thus affording an easy means of distinguishing summary of observations taken at Crowborough, Sussex, in between these bodies. For these reasons, therefore, viz. the rapidity, certainty, and pared with south-west winds which he finds to exist in recent

1889, concerning the greater prevalence of north-east as comdistinctness of its action; the ease with which it can be made ; ! years. The writer of the note mentions that this is not borne haviour

towards tannin and towards gallic acid--for these reasons out by the Greenwich observations, but some definite statistics I am bold enough to anticipate the time when, to adapt a borough numbers, may perhaps not be unacceptable to your

as regards Greenwich, and distinct comparison with the Crowhackneyed expression, Nessler's Auid will be regarded as a reagent meteorological readers. which no botanical laboratory should be without.

Mr. Prince remarks that in previous years he finds only two SPENCER MOORE.

years in which north-east winds have been in excess of south

west. In the first, 1864, the days of north-east wind were 104, The Moon in London.

of south-west wind 89; in the second instance, 1870, the days

of north-east wind were 107, of south-west wind 88. The Some years ago a weekly paper represented a young rustic corresponding Greenwich numbers were, in 1864, 43 and 108; asking his mother, " Be that the same moon they have up to and in 1870, 65 and 96. Lunnon ?” to which question the mother evasively replied,

On the average of the years 1859 to 1883 Mr. Prince gives “You leave the moon alone and go to bed.” The boy was north-east wind on 63 days, south-west wind on 99 days The satisfied by retorting, "I baint a touching on it." But his corresponding Greenwich values are 43 and 1u respectively, question is this month brought once more to the front by the For the years 1885 to 1889 he gives the average frequency of following passage, which will be found in one of our most im- different winds as follows, to which I have added the values for portant monthly magazines. “But if,” says the writer, "there Greenwich. C. indicates Crowborough, and G. Greenwich. is an abuse of the deductive method of reasoning, there is also N. N.E. E. S.E.S. S.W. W. N.W. Calm, an abuse of the inductive method. One who refused to believe C.

41 102

38 72

17 - days. that a new moon would in a month becom, full, and, disre G.

37 100 40 1910 days.

52 35







He further gives the averages for 47 years, to which I have characteristics, whilst its human inhabitants show strange added those for Greenwich for 49 years.

affinities with people of other races and of distant lands. N. N.E. E. S.E. S. S.W. W. N.W. Calm.

I shall now endeavour to give a concise account of Dr. C. (47 y.) 33 63 29 27 28 9! 59 35

days. | Modigliani's exploration of Nias, and of the results he G. (49 y.) 40 45 27 22 35 106 46 22 days. obtained, as given in his book. Dr. Modigliani left Italy The Greenwich values are determined from numbers derived at the end of 1885; he paid

a rapid visit to India, crossing from the records of the self-registering Osler anemometer of the overland from Bombay to Calcutta, via Delhi and Agra, Royal Observatory as given in the annual Greenwich volumes. and visiting Darjiling; he touched at Rangoon, and after The preponderance of south-west wind over north-east seems to a short stay at Singapore and a lengthened one in Java, have been, throughout, less at Crowborough than at Greenwich. where at Batavia and Buitenzorg he prepared his local But it is only in recent years that the difference has become so equipment, and engaged Javanese hunters and collectors, pronounced, the Crow borough numbers for each year 1885 to he reached Siboga, Sumatra, early in spring, 1886. Thence 1889 being largely in excess for north-east wind, whilst the he started for Gunong Sitoli, the only civilized port of Greenwich numbers are greatly in excess for south-west, as in Nias, on one of the Dutch Government Kruis boats on former years. At Greenwich during the first 24 years of the April 14. Dr. Modigliani spent five months on the 49 years series, the average number of days of north-east wind island, which he left in the middle of September. On his was 46, of south-west wind 107: during the last 25 years, of way back to Italy he completed the tour of Sumatra, north-east wind 44, of south-west wind 106.

It would be very interesting if a similar comparison could be touching at Kota Rajah and Olelek (Acheen), visited made with some other station in the south of England.

Singapore again, touched at Colombo, and crossed India Greenwich, April 16.


a second time from Madras to Calicut, visiting the Todas and some of the hill tribes of Southern India,

which had a special interest for him in his researches on Science at Eton,

the origin and affinities of the people of Nias. Dr. IN the Illustrated London News for March 29 I find an Modigliani brought back with him from Nias extensive account (with illustration) of an astronomical lecture at Eton. and important collections-echnological, zoological, and It appears that the scholars were allowed” to listen the other botanical-and whilst these were being studied by day, in the new lecture-room, to a lecture by Major-General A. specialists, he actively set to work arranging and W. Drayson, R.A., on the second rotation of the earth and its sorting his notes and the material for his book. Undereffects.

taking to deal with all the ethnologica part himself, he General Drayson has written some books on this subject which visited the more important ethnographical museums possibly no one has answered, for the simple reason that they of Europe, and even the minor ones where he knew that answer themselves; but it seems now, that he is permitted, specimens from Nias were to be seen. To complete his under the auspices of their teachers, to urge his paradoxes on historical and geographical researches regarding Nias, the students of our largest public school.

Is Eton without any science teacher? or is the so-called Dr. Modigliani paid a lengthy visit to Holland, working teacher incapable of preventing absurdities being put forward in the Libraries and Government Archives at the Hague with authority? Are the lecture-rooms of Eton College open to and Leyden. I, who have had many opportunities of "Parallax " and the circle-squarers ? J. F. TENNANT. observing and admiring his untiring energy and activity,

could hardly feel surprised, on reading his book, to find

it so full of information and so excellently well done. MODIGLIANI'S EXPLORATION OF NIAS

Dr. Modigliani has divided his work on Nias into two ISLAND.

parts. The first contains three chapters, and is entirely

introductory and historical ; the second, in twenty-three ABOUT two years ago, on his return to Florence, I chapters, with appendices and bibliography, contains the

gave a brief account of Dr. Elio Modigliani's narrative of his sojourn in Nias, and his own personal very successful and interesting exploration of Pulo Nias observations and studies on men and things in that island. (NATURE, vol. xxxv. P. 342). We have now before us the I have little to say on the first part of Ďr. Modigliani's general results of that exploration, embodied in a portly book except that it embodies the results of much erudition volume most elegantly got up, rich in maps and illustra- and careful and patient collation. From the earliest semitions, and, what is better, full of interesting facts, care- fabulous notices of Al-Neyan, El-binan, Neya, Niha, fully collated notices, and well pondered and carefully Nia, in ancient Arabic and Persian manuscripts, we are drawn deductions ; in short, one of the best books of its brought to European intercourse with Tano Niha, as the kind.

natives call their island, and thence on through the Judging from what he has done, Dr. Modigliani is modern vicissitudes of Dutch domination, which to this evidently made of the stuff which produces the best ex- day is little more than nominal, except at Gunong Sitoli plorers. Resolute and persevering, moved by what we in and in the northern portion of the island, where, however, Italy call il fuoco sacro, ever ready to put up with priva- German missionaries appear to have done more to spread tions of all kinds, although accustomed to a very different the influence of civilization than the colonial authorities. sort of life, a quick and keen observer, he has indeed Part II. occupies by far the greater portion of done wonders; and considering that he has not had the Modigliani's bulky volume. After telling us how he advantage of any special training in natural science, he travelled to Nias from Siboga-an adventurous crossing has shown himself to be a good geographer and ethno- with a Malayan crew, a bad boat, and dirty weather logist, and a clever naturalist.

Dr. Modigliani devotes a chapter to the geography, Dr. Modigliani's choice of the island of Nias as the meteorology, and geology of Nias. The island is hilly, field of his explorations was a singularly happy one, in but can hardly be called mountainous. A notable feature which he was guided by no less a man than Odoardo is the frequency of earthquakes, easily explained by the Beccari. Few indeed of the hundreds of islands of that proximity of the volcanic chain of Sumatra. Rivers and wonderland, the Malayan Archipelago, present such an watercourses are numerous, but few are of notable size. accumulation of interesting problems as Nias. Lying off Geologically, Nias is evidently of recent formation ; a the ocean seaboard of Sumatra, and partaking naturally collection of rock samples brought together by Dr. of the characteristic seatures of its big neighbour, it has Modigliani might have shed much light on this interesting a flora and fauna with a remarkable number of special subject, but it was unfortunately lost. Madreporic limeElio Modigliani, " Un Viaggio a Nias." Illustrato da 195 incisioni, true lignite has, however, been found in various parts. The

stone and clams (Tridacna) were noted on the hill-tops; Platne tirate a parte e 4 carte geografiche. Pp. xv.-726. (Milano : Dutch colonial authorities deserve much praise for their Fratelli Treves, 1890.

widely-spread and efficiently organized service of meteoro- a bad lot; but our traveller decided to keep his promise, logical observations ; even in the less important stations and the evening of the next day saw him at Hili Dgiono, these are regularly recorded, and this has been the case where he met with a most cordial reception, especially for a long series of years at Gunong Sitoli. This is at from the old chief, Sidúho Ghèo. At this place Modiglipresent the residence of the Dutch civil and military ani passed pleasant days, was able to take a fine series of authorities in Nias; the principal magistrate is a Con- photographs, and saw more of the natives and learnt troleur, who, with the officer in command of the native more of their customs than anywhere else. The women garrison, the medical officer, and the missionaries and alone, as in most parts of Nias, kept aloof, and would not their wives, form the sum-total of the European residents be photographed." Here Modigliani saw palpable proofs at Nias. "Gunong Sitoli is mostly peopled with Malays, of the well-known head-hunting propensities of the Klings, and Chinamen, the trade of the island being Niassers. The big council house, or osald, was adorned chiefly in the hands of the latter. Here, overcoming not a few serious difficulties, Modigliani made his preparations for visiting the southern parts of Nias, freer from external contact, and therefore more interesting; and for this purpose, a Malay boat-pencialàng-was chartered. Whilst these preparations were being completed, Dr. Modigliani visited a large cave near Hili Sabegno, and, besides other interesting animals, collected specimens of a bat (Emballonura semicaudata) previously known only from Polynesia. Meanwhile, his hunters were not inactive, and, amongst other interesting specimens, four new species of birds, a singular new earthworm, and several new insects were collected in the neighbourhood of Sitoli; the birds have been recently described by Salvadori as Gracula robusta, Calornis altirostris, Miglyptes infuscatus, and Syrnium niasense.

Tobacco is the principal article for barter with the wilder inhabitants of Nias, therefore Modigliani provided himself with a large stock, mostly Sumatra grown, and called mussi ; Javanese tobacco, called ginu, has a greater value. He provided himself, besides, with cotton cloth of different colours, and brass wire, also much sought by the Nias people.

At last the pencialang was ready, and Modigliani sailed in her to the south end of the island, and anchored in the Luaha Vára Bay. His first sight of the Nias Southerners

F1G, 1.--How a los I travels. was rather forbidding, and seemed to confirm de- with numerous skull trophies, hanging under the low roof. cidedly the many stories he had heard of their in- Heads are taken not only in war, but on many other domitable hostility and ferocity. A large number of occasions, for reasons amply given in Modigliani's book, warriors, armed with lances and rattling their big shields most of which are similar to those which send the Dayaks with a peculiar movement of the hand on the forearm, of Borneo on their head-hunting expeditions ; neither age crowded on the beach at his landing, to the no small alarm nor sex are spared. No youngster in Nias is proclaimed a of his followers. With much pluck and presence of man and a warrior until he has cut off a head; he then mind, Modigliani overcame the momentary anxious assumes the prized calabúbo (Fig. 2), a beautiful collar made suspense, and in a few minutes he was on his way to the ot thin circular sections cut out of the double nut of the village of Bàwo Lowaláni, surrounded and followed by Lodoicea seychellarum (which is often cast by the sea on the excited warriors. Here he soon made friends with the island), neatly strung on a brass wire with a circular Faòsi Aro, the chief, the tallest and most crafty of Southern Niassers, who appeared with two immense earrings resting on his right shoulder. A liberal distribution of tobacco soon made Modigliani popular all round. Bàwo Lowaláni is a good type of a South Nias village, placed on a height and defended by a stout stockade ; the incessant wars between village and village render such precautions necessary. Our traveller passed several days here, having taken up his quarters in the house of Faòsi Aro, built as usual on stout piles ; he was thus able to gather much information on the ways and manners of the Niassers. His Javanese collectors, although much afraid of the natives, who were constantly armed and on the alert, being then at war with two neighbouring villages,

Fig. 2.-A calabúðo. did some good work, and some new and rare insects and a new species of bird (Cittocincla melanura, Salvad.) were brass disk at the junction. The sections of the nut added to the collections.

diminish gradually from about an inch in diameter to less At Bàwo Lowaláni, Dr. Modigliani received a special than half at both ends, where the circular collar is closed invitation to visit Hili Dgiòno, a village further inland to with the disk; they are polished so as to present a unithe west. A deputation awaited him outside Bàwo form surface. None of the trophy skulls seen by Dr. Lowaláni, not trusting themselves inside ; a live fowl Modigliani were in any way ornamented, but in his book packed in a singularly neat manner (see Fig. 1) was he gives the drawing of a very singular one with artificial presented to him, and the knife of the chief of Hili hair, beard, and ears, communicated by the late Baron Dgiòno--the latter to be returned. Faòsi Aro did all in von Rosenberg, who saw it in a house in Nias ; I should his power to dissuade Modigliani from going, telling him fancy that it represents a European (Dutchman), for the he would certainly be killed, as the Hili Dgiònans were beard hardly grows on a Niasser's chin in such luxuriance

(Fig. 3). When old Sidúho Ghèo heard that Modigliani defensive armour of the Niassers is peculiar. Formerly desired skulls (for his anthropological collection), he of they made singular helmets of rotang and arenga-fibre, course concluded that he wanted to get fresh ones as with beard and mustachios ; now the chiefs are provided trophies, and at once offered to organize an expedition with curious iron helmets, pot-shaped, ornamented with a

large plume or palm-leaf cut in a thin iron lamina, usually gilt; they wear, with this, curious iron spur-like mustachios passing under the nose and secured to the ear. The head-dress of the warrior of "old Japan” was a very similar contrivance ; to complete the parallel I will add that the ceremonial war-jacket, often a regular cuirass in buffalo-leather, pangolin-skin, and scales or twisted rope tissue of tough Gnetum fibres, usually projects widely over each shoulder. It is thus with the war-jacket of some of the Dayak tribes, and was thus with the ceremonial kamiscimo of the Nippon samurai. The Nias shield, balúse, is peculiar, and made in a single board of tough light wood; in the northern parts of the island a heavier one, called dagne, more akin to Bornean and Celeban shields, is used. The characteristic weapons of the Niassers are the spear (tdho) and sword (ballatu), the latter not unlike the Dayak parang. The iron spearheads are generally small and narrow, simple, or more or less provided with barbs; the wood is from the Nibóng palm, and usually ornamented with rings of rotang, brass, or wire, and often with iufts of hair from an enemy's head. The sword is still more characteristic. Its sheath is made with two halves neatly fitted and bound together with plaited rotang ; the big sword (ballátu sebía, "number one") is, especially in the south of Nias, the favourite weapon ; much trouble is taken in ornamenting it, and the

carved handle is often a remarkable specimen of woodFig. 3.-Ornamented trophy skull.

carving. Modigliani was fortunate enough to secure

a series of these swords with carved handles, giving a with chosen warriors'; he would not give away any of most interesting instance of modification of a figure, in those hung under the osale.

this case a boar's head, in the opposite directions of a At Hili Dgiòno, Modigliani was able to add largely to simplified and a complicated conventionalism (Fig. 4). his ethnological collections, especially weapons. The Moreover, the ballátu sebía of the Southern Niassers is

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always provided with a singular appendage, with which idols roughly carved and anthropomorphous. All these the owner never parts willingly: it is an amulet and idol- are tied together and more or less wrapped up in a bit of bearer in the shape of a spherical basket of twisted cotton-cloth ; their spherical hoeldr is securely fastened rotang, with various and heterogeneous contents, such as to the scabbard. Dr. Modigliani has given some highly teeth, pieces of stone and bone, &c., always several small | interesting details on this subject; the erè, or “medicine

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