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man," of the Niassers possesses a special talismanic sword had been destroyed during the incessant wars. Halamwith special idols and charms attached to the scabbard. báva, a strongly fortified village, was next visited ; here Quite a number of old Aint-lock muskets have found their he found a singular and grotesque idol, Adó Fangúra, way to Nias, but are fortunately often rendered useless carved in a cocoa-palm trunk on the occasion of an epifrom want of ammunition. The Niassers are able smiths, demic which had decimated the village. Crossing next but they receive the iron and brass they use from Chinese the nearly unknown district of Iraòno-Una, peopled by and Malay traders.
ferocious head-hunters, he continued on to Hili LowaOn his way back, at Bàwo Lowaláni, Modigliani was láni; here he came to the conclusion that Mount Matable to buy from Faòsi Aro eleven human skulls. He giúa had been purposely missed, or more probably was next sailed to Luàha Gúndre Bay, wishing to visit the sadly out of place even in the best maps of Nias, and important village of Hili Sendrecheási
, and possibly to decided to return to the north. Travelling on by Hill proceed thence inland. He was well received by the Hôro, he came again to Hili Simaetáno, where he was chief and notabilities, who, however, promised much and well received this time, and able to buy some skulls. At did little. Another new bird was obtained here--Terpsi. the Luaha Gúndre he was rejoined by his pencialang-nor phone insularis, Salvad. Meanwhile, the head-man of until after long waiting, anxious moments, and the risk another neighbouring village, Hili Simaetáno, sent mes- of starvation, having finished his provisions—and sailed sengers to invite him
to go there, promising that he might back to Gunong Sitoli. This voyage across the southstay and collect as much he liked. The death of a warrior west end of Nias was an adventurous one, but hardly at Sendrecheási gave Modigliani an opportunity of wit equal in results to the trouble it had cost. nessing the funereal ceremonies of the Niassers, on which After his return to Sitoli, Modigliani decided to spend subject he gives much important information. He was what time he had left to remain in Nias in some favournot able, however, to confirm Piepers's assertion (Bat. able locality in the north, where, amongst quieter people, Genoot.2. Kuns. en Wettensch., 1887) regarding the he might better complete his observations and collechorrid and singular custom of putting the body upright tions. He selected the village Ombaláta, or rather the in a hollow tree, tapping this below, inserting a bamboo neighbouring hill called Hili Zabòbo; here he passed tube, and forcing a slave to drink the putrid liquid which pleasant days and was able to do much. Amongst the flowed. The unfortunate man's head was afterwards cut interesting species collected I may mention : Pieropus off, and hung to the tree as an offering to him whose body nicobaricus, Chiropodomys gliroides, a rare and singular was inclosed therein. 'I may mention that a similar cus- rodent lately collected by Fea in Burma; Macropygia tom is attributed to certain Dayak tribes of Borneo by modiglianii, Salvad., and Carpophaga consobrina Salvad.. Perelaer, and that it recalls the ancient Javanese sétra. new pigeons; a rare and beautiful lizard, Gonyocephalus It appears, however, that human lives are still sacrificed grandis, and the hitherto unknown Aphaniotis acut:at the death of a chief. The author has also brought rostris, Modigl.; and several new species of Coleoptera together highly interesting information as to "animism," and ants. It is worth notice that in more than 4000 belief in a future state, and ancestor-worship amongst the specimens of Lepidoptera collected by Dr. Modigliani no Niassers.
novelties were found, but he secured some fine specimens Although lamed, and suffering from a bad foot, he of the rare and peculiar Hebomoia vossi, Maitl. Dr. left Luàha Gúndre for Hili Simaetáno on June 1. Modigliani purposes publishing complete lists of the His reception there was, however, the reverse of what animals of Nias; meanwhile he has given in an appendix he expected: the people were not only diffident, but lists of the species he collected, having determined some himevidently hostile, notwithstanding the invitation sent by self, whilst others have been studied by several specialists. their chief. Amongst the interesting things seen were He obtained 15 species of mammals, 62 of birds, 39 of two elaborately carved stone thrones of honour, used reptiles, 8 of batrachians, 71 of fishes, and lists of over by the chief on solemn occasions ; opposite one, on a 400 species of insects have already been published. The pole, was a human skull. These two differed widely, the bulk of these zoological collections are in the Civic smaller one in the centre of the village being a sort of Museum of Genoa. Modigliani was not able to do as arm-chair, the back of which represented the bust of a much in botany as he wished, but he was able to gratify warrior with a crocodile climbing up behind him. These Beccari with some choice specimens of his favourite singular stone seats of honour recall those found in far-off Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum, those strange epiphytal Ecuador. After a couple of days stay, the hostility of ant-harbouring plants first noticed by Jack at Nias. the villagers was so evident that Modigliani decided to The last chapters of Dr. Modigliani's book are entirely leave; and if he was not actually attacked, he owed it not devoted to the ethnology of Nias, and great and important only to his firmness and forbearance, but probably to the is the amount of information which he has gathered fear caused by his repeating-rifle, and to the villagers on this interesting subject. I will merely mention one being short of ammunition. Anyway, he was able to get or two of the principal items. Discussing the origin safely back to his pencialàng. Wishing, however, to and affinities of the Niassers, he finds them not only penetrate into the interior of the island, he sailed to the different from the ordinary Malay, but partaking of the Nácco Islands off the opposite coast of Nias, where he characters of the Mongoloids (in a restricted sense) and hoped to get guides and information. Mára Ali, chief of even of the Arianoid races; and at the same time he notes Nácco, received him well, and after much palavering physical differences between the natives of Northern and and a liberal distribution of presents, he was able to Southern Nias. I confess that I cannot quite follow our obtain a guide in the person of Sanabahíli, brother of the author in this : the Niassers most evidently belong to the local erè, and bearers. His intention was to land on the great Malayan family, and perhaps resemble some of the opposite coast of Nias, and penetrate inland to one of Dayak tribes more than any others. The ancient and con. the higher mountains, known as Matgiúa, where he hoped stant contact with Chinese may have slightly mongolisai to make interesting collections. Having landed, after a them, always in the more restricted sense of that term narrow escape from shipwreck, at Cape Serombú, he (some of Modigliani's photographs recalled to my mind proceeded boldly inland. There were no roads, and portraits of Kwei-yings of North Formosa shown to me his progress was not easy or pleasant ; moreover, his years ago by my lamented friend Robert Swinhoe). But guide was hardly up to the office he had undertaken, 1 fail to see traces of Arianoid features in any of and conducted him by mistake to the village of Idáno the Niassers photographed by Dr. Modigliani. At the Dôwu. Thence he marched to Mount Buruássi, before same time, I can quite understand how he found points reaching which most of his bearers had deserted; small of resemblance between them and natives of Southern villages were passed, and the sites of bigger ones which India, who evidently have Malayan blood in their veins.
Modigliani mentions seeing in South-West Nias natives ones are classified in two grades as Bèchu and Bèla, with Arianoid Semitic features and curly or wavy hair, but these being, however, generic terms. The adú or idols, he himself suspects in such cases the influence of Arabo- whose Nias name, by the way, is singularly like the Malay immigrants from Acheen.
equivalent Polynesian term atua, are very numerous ; Amongst the many peculiarities of the inhabitants of those which represent dead relations or immediate anNias, is the custom of the women going about with a cestors are called generically Adú zatúa. They appear to long slender stick called sio; it is of Nibong palm woud, have great affinities with similar carved wooden anthrohas a heavy leaden knob, and is more or less ornamented | pomorphic figures common throughout Papuasia and with rings of lead and brass; it is found only in the pos- Melanesia, and known as karwars in Western New session of women. Great is the variety of ornaments worn Guinea. by the Niassers, male and female. They often denote distinctions of rank and sex. Ear-rings and bracelets are especially varied ; singularly beautiful are the bracelets (Fig. 5) carved and polished by a long and tedious process out of a solid block taken from the stony shell of the giant clam Tridacna), more elegant in shape than the equally notable armlets of the same material made by the in
FIG. 3.—Bracelets cut in Tridacna shell. habitants of the Solomon Islands. The Niassers also carve big solid ear-drops out of the Tridacna shell
Fig. 7.- Images of ancestors. principal articles of dress are still made with the beaten and manipulated inner bark of a Ficus or Arctocarpus, a gives an account of the spoken language of the Niassers,
In one of the last chapters of his book, Modigliani kind of tappa or masi, called by them sambò salówo. Dr. Modigliani did not find or hear of stone or shell arranged collection of words with their Italian equivalents.
which has many peculiarities ; adding an alphabetically implements in Nias ; possibly the first men who peopled that island were already provided with iron tools. Yet idea of the work done by Dr. Modigliani, must now come
But my task, which has been to endeavour to give an one of the commonest amongst these, the axe, fáto, has a to an end. His book, containing a very complete monosingularly archaic form : the iron blade, very similar to graphic study of one of the most interesting islands of the the earlier forms of copper and bronze implements of the Indian Archipelago and its inhabitants, is, and will long handle (Fig. 6)
. A yet more singular fact is that the fáto remain, one of the standard works on that beautiful of the Niassers is a typical axe, and quite distinct from
HENRY H. GIGLIOLI. the adze used right across Malesia from the Nicobar Islands to New Guinea, being, instead, remarkably like the iron axe of some of the wilder tribes of Central Africa.
minster. The chair will be taken at half-past seven on each /
evening by the President, Mr. Joseph Tomlinson. On Thursday evening the President will deliver his inaugural address, after which the following paper will be read and discussed, and the
discussion will be continued on Friday evening :-Research FIG. 6.- Iron axe of Nias.
Committee on Marine Engine Trials : Report upon Trials of I may mention here that the rich and important anthro- Alexander B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S., Chairman. The anni
three Steamers, Fusi Yama, Colchester, Tartar, by Prof. pological and ethnological collections made at Nias by Dr Modigliani have mostly been presented by him to versary dinner will take place on Wednesday evening, April 30. the National Anthropological and Ethnological Museum The first annual meeting of the Museums' Association will be in Florence.
held in Liverpool on June 17, 18, and 19. The business of the Dr. Modigliani has collected quite a host of interesting meeting will consist of (1) the reading of papers on the managefacts relating to the myths and superstitions of the ment, arrangement, and working of Maseums ; (2) the discusnatives of Nias, which all appear to centre in a well-sion of the objects set forth by the meeting of June 20, 1889, developed form of "ancestor worship.” The ancestors with special reference to the following points: the means of more or less remote are spirits good and evil, and as interchange of duplicates and surplus specimens ; schemes for a adi, or idols (Fig. 7). Amongst the numerous spirits general supply of labels
, illustrations, &c. ; the indexing of the garðfa, the sea-god, and Modigliani
justly calls attention Government publications, and also specimens on loan or otherto the strange similarity in name and attributes to wise; and the issue of a journal devoted to the discussion of Tangaroa, the sea-god of the Maories and other Poly- practical topics
. At this meeting the scheme for the constitution nesians. The principal good spirit is Lowaláni; the bad ! of the Association will be submitted. All engaged or interested
in Museum work are cordially invited to join the Association. the limits of the class of men of medium height must be reThe conditions of membership are as follows:-Each Museum stricted more than those of the other two classes. Each of contributing not less than one guinea a year becomes a member these primary divisions should again be divided on the same of the Association, and can send three representatives to the principle, without taking any further notice of the height, into meetings. Individuals interested in scientific work are admitted three classes, according to the length of the head of each inas Associates on payment of 10s. 6d. annually. The following dividual. The three classes of short, medium, and long are the officers of the Association :-President: Rev. H. H. heads would each again be subdivided into three, accordHiggins ; General Secretaries: H. M. Platnauer, Museum, ing to the width of the heads, and would contain narrow, York, T. J. Moore, Museum, Liverpool ; Local Secretaries : medium, and wide heads. Experience had proved that with R. Paden, Museum, Liverpool, H. A. Tobias, Museum, most people the breadth of the head varied independently of Liverpool.
the length--that was, given that an individual had a certain The next conversazione of the Royal Microscopical Society head could be determined a priori. The length of the middle
length of head, it by no means followed that the breadth of his will be held on Wednesday, the 30th inst., at eight o'clock.
finger gave a fourth and still more precise in dication by which Herr O. Jesse sends us from Steglitz, near Berlin, some very to divide again each one of the packets of photographs; and beautiful photographs of luminous night clouds. The photographs these might be divided again according to the length of the of each pair were taken simultaneously at Nanen and Steglitz. foot, the length of the arms outstretched at right angles to the Steglitz lies 8 kilometres south-west, Nanen 38 kilometres west- body, and also according to the colour of the eyes. Thus by north-west, of the Berlin Observatory. Herr Jesse would add these anthropometrical coefficients they would be able to divide greatly to the value of his work if, the next time he has an their collection of 90,000 photographs into very small groups opportunity of undertaking it, he would photograph the of about 15 each, which they could easily and rapidly examine. spectrum.
M. Bertillon then proceeded to give a practical demonstration La Nature (April 12, p. 303) notes the following curious and
of the way in which the measurements were taken. He laid interesting phenomena :-Two railways, one the Sceaux line and stress ou the importance of the hand and the ear as marks of the other the Ceinture, pass within a comparatively short distance cogniti on. The hand, because it was the organ in most conof the Montsouris Observatory, Paris, the former line being
about stant use in almost every calling and in many trades and pro80 metres distant, and the latter but some 60 metres. During the l of the work which it had to do. The ear was the precise
fessions, became modified according to the particular character passage of trains on the Ceinture line, which is nearest to the opposite to this. It changed very slightly, if at all
, except Observatory, the bifilar magnet is found to be disturbed, and its oscillations are registered photographically ; indeed the move perhaps in the case of prize-fighters, who developed a pecuments are so regular that the curve clearly indicates the exact liarity of the ear which it was easy to recognize
. The ear, time of each train passing the Observatory. This phenomenon is therefore, was an important organ to measure, inasmuch as the due to the fact that as the line crosses the direction of the
results were not likely to be nullified by a change in its con
formation. magnetic meridian the wheel-tires of the carriages become magnetized by induction, and so produce, in consequence of the
The following telegram was sent through Reuter's agency laws of magnetism, a deviation of the bifilar magnet. The
from New York on April 21 :-"Despatches from Mexico state trains on the Sceaux line give rise to a phenomenon not less that observations show that the height of the active volcano of curious. Whenever the engine-driver blows off steam, the electro Popocatepetl has decreased by 3000 feet since the last measuremeter is partly discharged, the electrical potential of the air falling ment was taken.” to about one-half of its original value. These disturbances are In the new quarterly statement of the Palestine Exploration brought forward by the Director of the Paris Observatory in Fund, the Committee announce that they have obtained a firman order to oppose the scheme which is now proposed of extending granting permission to excavate at Khắrbet ’Ajlân, the Eglon of the railway from Sceaux to la Place de Médicis.
Joshua. It is understood that all objects, except duplicates,
found in the course of the excavations shall be forwarded to the On Tuesday evening, M. Jacques Bertillon (head of the Museum at Constantinople, but that the Committee's agents Municipal Bureau of Statistics in Paris) delivered a lecture shall have the right of making squeezes, sketches, models, photobefore the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ire- graphs, and copies of all such objects. The Committee have land, on the method now practised in France of identifying been so fortunate as to secure the services of Mr. Flinders criminals by comparing their measures with those of convicted Petrie, who is now in Syria making arrangements to start the persons in the prison registers. Mr. Bertillon, who spoke in excavations. French, said that the system which he had come there to explain had for its object the recognition of a person 10, 15, 20, announced. He was a great authority on Entozoa.
The death of Dr. Gottlob Friederich H. Küchenmeister is or even 100 years after he had been measured, for by that method it was possible to recognize a person after death, if
IN the official outline of the principal arrangements at access could be had to his skeleton. Photography was now
the Crystal Palace for the summer of 1890, reference is used only as an aid to identification established by other means. made to the International Exhibition of Mining and MetalThe basis of the anthropometic system was to obtain measure- lurgy which is to be held there from July 2 to September ments of those bony parts of the body which underwent little 30. The subjects embraced within the scope of the Exhi. or no change after maturity, and could be measured with ex-bition comprise machinery in motion and at rest ; gold, treme accuracy to within so small a figure as to be practically exact. silver, diamond, iron stone, and iron ore mining ; manufactare These parts were the head, the foot, the middle finger, and the of iron and steel ; lead mining and manufacture ; tin mining extended forearm from the elbow. To clearly illustrate the and smelting ; copper and coal mining; the petroleum and sale system, let them suppose 90,000 photographs of men to have industries ; mining for precious stones, &c. There is every been collected. These would be divided into three groups of reason to expect
, through the co-operation of colonial and foreign 30,000, according to the height of the men. There would be Governments, many valuable exhibits from abroad. short men, men of medium height, and tall men. That these
The Engineer and Engineering of last week publish long three classes might be approximately equal, it was evident that illustrated accounts of the recent disaster to the City of Paris
This accident is without a parallel in the history of steam navi. THE Ballarat School of Mines, in the University of Mel. gation ; the circumstances were so remarkable that many con bourne, presented its annual report at a meeting of governors ficting explanations of the cause have been suggested. The and subscribers on Monday, January 20. The general efficiency ship is propelled by twin screws, and the engines are placed side and usefulness of the school have been greatly promoted by exby side in separate compartments. When she was off the coast tensive additions to the buildings and plant, and the numerous of Ireland, at half-past five on the evening of the 25th ult., the improvements effected in connection with the mining and low-pressure cylinder, with the whole of its gear, of the star-metallurgical departments. That the institution now affords board engine, went to pieces, and fell to the bottom of the a superior training in scientific and mining subjects is shown engine - room in a confused mass, the débris of the top by the attendance of a more advanced class of students, and by cylinder cover being apparently at the bottom of the wreck. the better results obtained at the examinations. It attracts to The smashing of the condenser allowed an enormous rush of its classes students from all the neighbouring colonies, including water to flood the starboard engine-room, and the longitudinal Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasbalkhead between the engines, being also damaged, allowed the mania, as well as from distant places within Victoria. The port engine-room to become flooded, and of course stopped that total number of enrolments in the various classes held during engine from working. Our contemporaries say that, in the the year was 982, and of individual pupils who attended the opinion of experts in Liverpool, the accident did not originate elementary science lectures delivered in the State schools, 723. in the engine, but in the tail shaft, as follows: the brass liner The mean average number of students in attendance at the on the tail shaft burst; then the lignum-vitz strips were torn school classes for the whole year was 526, whilst during the out, bringing metal to metal. This, naturally, would allow the same period 286 lectures on elementary chemistry were desteel shaft to grind itself and the bracket away, and the shaft livered in nine of the State schools in the city and town, with an dropped. Then the continual bending of the shast resulted in its average attendance of 53 at each lecture. fracture. The engines, being relieved of the resistance of the screw, raced, with the result shown in the engravings. The months' trip in Western Australia. The Victorian Naturalist
MR. A. J. Campbell has returned to Melbourne after a three Engineer at present neither accepts nor rejects this theory of says he has been very successful in his observations and colthe cause of the disaster.
lections. He obtained about 80 different species of eggs, 13 of The Manchester Field Naturalists' Society opened the which it will be necessary to describe as new. The number of summer excursion session on the 19th inst., by a visit to the well- eggs obtained altogether was about 400. About 100 skins inown herbaceous garden of Mr. Wm. Brock bank, Withington, of birds were collected, though Mr. Campbell made no special lear Manchester. The grounds, of about six acres in extent, effort to secure them. With regard to geographical range of are laid out in woodland, shrubbery, rockeries, and fernery, with birds he was particularly successful in his observations. No less a patch of wilderness, and are entirely devoted to the growth of than 17 species will be recorded as new for Western Australia. the native flowers, and the horticulturists' modifications, so far Possibly one or two may be deemed new varieties, while others 23 they will thrive. The special feature, at the time of the will be restored, having been omitted from a lately issued tabular visit, was the display of daffodils, over a hundred varieties being list
. Baron von Mueller has examined the plants, and finds that included in the gardens, several of them locally raised. Mr. two ferns, Asplenium marinum and A. trichomanes (both Erockbank explained that the double variety of the daffodil is British species, by the way) are recorded for the first time from not obtained by the absorption of the essential organs, as gener- the western colony. Of 30 lichens collected, the Rev. F. R. M. ally supposed; the pistils and stamens remain, and specimens Wilson has identified 20 as new for the same colony. Specimens were shown, in vigorous health, obtained from their seeds, of characteristic lizards and frogs (e.g., Heleioporus albo-punctatus)
were secured. About three dozen photographs turned out fairly It has been suggested that the epidemic of influenza was in well, those of the remarkable flights of sea-birds being of great the last resort due to floods in China. The fertile land in the interest. Mr. Campbell considers that he brought nearly 1000 valley of the Yellow River, it has been said, was covered with a natural history specimens back to Melbourne. deposit of alluvial mud, and in this mud countless numbers of organic spores were developed from the refuse of a dense popula- Naturalist-of the effect of musical sounds upon animals, Mr. R.
In the latest of his series of instances-printed in the American tion. These germs were carried by merchandise to Russia, E. C. Stearns mentions the case of a canary “who is particularly whence they spread to Europe generally. Dealing with this fond of music.” This interesting bird belongs to the Rev. Mr.. theory, the Shanghai Mercury points out (1) that there has been no epidemic of influenza in China. (2) There is no valley what- James, who writes as follows :-"Immediately I begin to play ever of the Yellow River, the peculiarity of that stream being upon the flute she chirps about as if enjoying the music. If í that it flows on the surface of the ground, which actually slopes open the cage-door and leave her, she will come as near to me down on both sides from the river bed, so that in case of a
as possible, but not attempt to fly to the music; but if I put her breach of either embankment the river is free to flow to the sea upon my desk, and lay the flute down, she will perch upon the almost anywhere between Tientsin in the north, and Shanghai end, and allow me to raise the instrument and play. I often in the south
. (3) The plain of the Yellow River is by no means take her into the church and play there upon the organ, and she fertile, and is rapidly deteriorating. (4)
. So far from the deposit of the motion of the hands, and chirp in evident delight at the
will perch upon my fingers, notwithstanding the inconvenience len aster 2 breach being alluvial mud, it is unmitigated sand, and for years refuses to grow any crops whatever ; and it is only after
sweet sounds." 23 exposure of some fifteen or twenty years that the phosphates LAST week Prof. Stricker submitted to the International which enter sparingly into its composition begin to break up, Medical Congress at Vienna a new electrical lantern which will, and the land is restored to cultivation. (5) There are no exports it is expected, be of great service to lecturers and medical of any sort from the plain of the lower Yellow River. Almost students. According to the Vienna correspondent of the Times, the only product exported to Europe from districts anywhere Prof. Stricker, by an ingenious combination of lenses, contrives Dear the river is straw braid, which is shipped not to Russia but to project the magnified images of objects on a white screen in tu England and the United States ; and this not from the plain, their natural colours, so that, for instance, a small pimple on a but from the highlands of Shantung, far removed from any patient can be shown in its real appearance to an audience of wamunication with the river.
many hundred students.
At the seventh Congress of the American Ornithologists' in the library is about 3500, and every facility is given to students Union, Dr. R. W. Shufeldt read a report on progress in avian consulting them. In a prefatory note Mr. J. Wood-Mason, anatomy for the years 1888–89. Towards the end of this report, superintendent of the Indian Museum, says that most of the which has now been reprinted separately, Dr. Shufeldt said he books are on zoology and kindred subjects, and he has no doubt had greatly felt the need of a good hand-book to the muscles of that “the gradual spread of scientific education in India will birds. In looking about him, he soon found that there was no largely extend the field of tusefulness of the Museum library in such manual in the English language ; at least, there was not the the future." kind of work that the thorough dissector required. To meet
CH, this want he undertook the preparation of a volume devoted to
CH, CH, the subject. A thoroughly cosmopolitan form, or rather a form A NEW acid,
the first member of a series well representing a cosmopolitan group of birds, the raven, was
CII, HC, selected. He carefully dissected out on many specimens every
CH muscle of this type, and figured them in a careful series of drawings. These he supplemented by a series of drawings of
COOH the skeleton of the same form, and on the bones indicated the possessing the generic formula CnH2n-,0, derived from the origin and insertion of all the muscles. Full descriptions were
CH, written out, and the groups of muscles classified ; and finally
, some comparative work was added. Both the drawings of the saturated hexa-hydride of benzene,
the so-called muscular system, as well as the skeleton, were life-size, which
CH, CH, made the parts very clear and convenient for use. "To my
CH, surprise," says Dr. Shufeldt, "when it was all completed, the naphthene and its homologues of the generic formula C Han, manuscripts for a small volume were on my hands.” The work is has been isolated by Dr. Ossian Aschan, of the L'niversity of now in the press, and will be published shortly by Messrs. Helsingfors, from the natural oil of Baku (Berichte, 1890, No. Macmillan and Co.
6, p. 867). The acid may be considered as a saturated hexa. have now been completed. With the current number, just with evolution of hydrochloric acid and formation of a calcium Two volumes of the Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie hydride of benzoic acid ; it is a very stable liquid substance of
strongly acid properties, readily decomposing calcium chloride issued, the third volume begins. In a prefatory note, the editor, Dr. Schmeltz, refers with satisfaction to the help he has receivei salt. The raw mixture of acids obtained by treating the oil from eminent contributors ; and he is able to promise that the
with alkali, and subsequent decomposition of the sodium salts periodical shall be not less instructive and interesting in the by dilute sulphuric acid, was first distilled and the lower b siling future than it has been in the past. In the present number portion specially examined. Upon partially saturating this there are several valuable papers. One of them, by Dr. Franz fraction with caustic soda solution, and again decomposing with Boas, deals with the use of masks and head-ornaments on the sulphuric acid, a colourless oil separated. In order to separate north-west coast of America. Herr Strebel, of Hamburg, con the various acids contained in this oil, they were converted into tributes the first of a series of studies” on a peculiar kind methyl esters by the action of methyl alcohol and strong of stone implements found in Mexico and Central America. distillation, when a large quantity of an ester boiling constantly
sulphuric acid. These esters were then submitted to fractional Hitherto it has been generally supposed that these implements at 165°5-167°'5 C. was eventually isolated, possessing the comwere put on the necks of human victims destined for sacrifice. position CH1, COOCHg. This was
, in fact
, the methyl ester The author undertakes to show that this view is mistaken.
of the new acid, the first member of the series, of which other The Journal of the Anthropological Institute (vol. xix. No. 3) higher members have previously been obtained by Markovnikoff contains an elaborate and most interesting paper, by Prof. A. C. and others. The methyl ester is a highly refractive colourless Haddon, on the ethnography of the western tribe of Torres oil of pleasant fruit-like odour. By saponification with alcoholic Strait. The other contributors to this number are Dr. Beddoe, potash, crystals of the potassium salt of the acid itself were obwho writes on the natural colour of the skin in certain Oriental
tained. On acidification of the aqueous solution of these races; and the Rev. James Macdonald, who has a paper crystals, the free acid separates as an oil, which after rectification on the manners, customs, superstitions, and religions of South boils constantly at 215-217o. It is a colourless thick liquid African tribes.
of unpleasant and very persistent odour, and does not solidify at The Photographic Quarterly, of which three numbers have been - 10°. Its strength as an acid has already been alluded to as published, meets a need which must often have been felt by evidenced by the turning out of hydrochloric acid from chlorides those who specially devote themselves to photography. It in. of the alkaline earths ; moreover, the calcium and barium salts cludes among its contributors many eminent students, and deals are not decomposed by carbonic acid. Strong sulphuric acid freely with all important questions in which photographers are readily dissolves it, with decomposition upon heating. Its specific interested. The third number opens with an article on photo gravity at 18°:4 is o'95025. This acid is isomeric with the methyl graphy of the sky at night, by Captain W. de W. Abney. pentamethylenic acid synthesized by Messrs. W. H. Perkin, Among the other contents are papers on the limits and possi- Jun., and Colinan, the latter boiling a little higher, at 2199-21995, bilities of art photography, by George Davison ; photogravure and possessing a higher specific gravity, 102054 at 15°. The and heliogravure, by P. G. Hamerton; the optical lantern as an potassium salt CeHCOOK is a soft soap-like substance, which aid in teaching, by C. H. Bothamley; and a phase of naturalistic may sometimes be obtained in distinct crystals. It is readily focussing, by H. Dennis Taylor.
soluble in water and alcohol and is strongly hygroscopic. The A Complete index of the papers printed in the Proceedings sodium salt much resembles its potassium analogue, and may be of the London Mathematical Society has been issued. It will obtained crystallized in flat prisms from alcohol
. It likewise be of great service to all who have occasion to refer to the series, deliquesces very rapidly in the air. The calcium salt dissolves which now includes twenty volumes.
readily in alcohol, but is more dificultly soluble in water. If an
aqueous solution is allowed to evaporate over oil of vitriol, the A CATALOGUE of the books in the library of the Indian salt, (C,H,,Coo),Ca + ,H,O, is obtained in long needles. Ifa Museum has been issued by the trustees. It has been compiled solution saturated at the ordinary temperature is heated to boilby Mr. R. Leonard Chapınan. The number of separate works ing, it becomes turbid and viscous drops begin to separate ; these