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again dissolve on cooling. This behaviour is very character (5, 6) The spectra of these two stars have been observed by stic of the acid, the barium salt showing the phenomenon Vogel, who states that the first has a spectrum of the solar alo in a striking manner. It is due to the different amounts of type, whilst the second is one of Group IV. The usual further

observations are required in each case. water of crystallization in the salts separating at different tem

(7) Notwithstanding the small magnitude of this star, it has, peratures. The chloride of the acid radical, the amide, and the according to Vogel, a magnificent spectrum of Group VI. The anilide of the acid have also been prepared, and found to resemble star is not included in Dunér's Catalogue, and Vogel gives no the corresponding derivatives of the fatty acids.

particulars as to the number and character of the bands present.

Further detailed observations are obviously required. The The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the intensity of the carbon band near 2564, as compared with the past week include two Indranee Owls (Syrnium indrance) from other bands, should be particularly noted. Ceylon, presented by Mr. A. R. Lewis ; two Lataste's Frogs (8) This variable will reach a maximum about April 27. Its Rana latasti) from Italy, presented by Mr. G. A. Boulenger, period is about 225 days, and it varies from 7*2-8.2 at maximum F.7.S.; a Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), British, is one of Group II., but very feebly developed. As no details of

to 10:2-12:8 at minimum. According to Dunér, the spectrum two Moorish Toads (Bufo mauritanica) from North Africa, the spectrum are given, it seems probable that the observation presented by Mr. Cuthbert Johnson ; an Indian White Crane was made near minimum, and the present maximum may afford Gru: leucogeranos), iwo Black-gorgeted Jay Thrushes (Garrulax an opportunity of securing further observations. As in similar sectoralis), an Indian Muntjac (Cervulus muntjaco) from variables, bright lines may also be looked for.

A. FOWLER. India, deposited ; a Pacific Fruit Pigeon (Carpophaga pacifica) from the Solonon Islands, four Madagascar Weaver Birds

MATHEMATICAL STUDY OF THE SOLAR CORONA. - The Fadia madagascariensis, 2 8 2 ) from Madagascar, six Smithsonian Institution, Washington, has published a paper by Common Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), European, two by spherical harmonics. The subject is treated by this theory

Prof. Frank H. Bigelow in which the solar corona is discussed Adelaide Parrakeets (Platycercus adelaida) from South Australia, on the supposition that the phenomenon seen is similar to that purchased ; a Puma (Felis concolor), born in the Gardens. of free eleectricity, the rays beirig lines of force and the coronal

matter being discharged from the body of the sun, or arranged and controlled by these forces. In order to give the solution

a general foundation the important parts of the theory of harOUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

monics specially relating to the case are recapitulated, and the OBJECTS FOR THE SPECTROSCOPE.

corresponding geometrical solution given in a notation adapted

to the sun. An analysis of the lines of force demonstrates the Sidereal Time at Greenwich at 10 p.m. on April 24 = applicability of the formulæ of statical electricity to the coronal 12h. Ilm. 3os.

structure, hence some repulsive force must exist on the surface

of the sun which acts upon the corona according to the laws of Name. Colour. RA. 1890. Decl. 1890. electric potential. It is shown how the concentration of potential

at each pole throws vertical lines of force at the polar region, h. m. s.

which gradually bend each side, and finally close on the equator at 11) G.C. 2838

+15 7 a certain distance from the centre. Similarly other lines are traced

which leave the sphere at various angles to the vertical axis and Canum Venat. Yellowish-red.

have diminished potentials; these therefore close on the equator 19) Virginis Yellow.

at a less distance from the centre than the high potential vertical Ö) Virginis White,

lines thrown out at the polar region. BD. 1° 2694 Red.

Applying these electrical principles to the solar corona, the ) S Ursa Majoris Strong red-yellow.' 12 3) 7

author thinks that the straight polar rays of high tension carry

the lightest substances, such as hydrogen, meteoritic matter, Remarks.

débris of comets and other coronal material away from the sun, (1, 2, 3) Although the constellation Virgo is so exceptionally lateral rays which form the appendages conspicuously seen at

and they soon become invisible by dispersion. The strong quadririch in nebule, comparatively few of them have been submitted periods of great solar activity are produced by four lines of o spectroscopic examination. Smyth remarks that "the situa. force having potential o'9, 0:8, o'?, and 06, of the potential at lion of the extraordinary conglomerate of nebulæ and com each pole, and the explanation of the long equatorial wings, with pressed spherical clusters which crowd the Virgin's left wing absence of well-marked quadrilaterals, seen at periods of miniand shoulder is pretty well pointed out to the practised naked mum, is that they are due to the closing of the lines of force eye by , 8, 7, in, and B Virginis, forming a semicircle to the about the equator. The theory is tested by applying it to two east, whilst, due north of the last-mentiɔned star, B Leonis photographs taken by Messrs. Barnard and Pickering on January 1, marks the north-west boundary.” As it is not possible to give 1889, and Prof. Langley submits it to astronomers and physicists anything like a complete list, three of the brighter ones which as a possible clue to the explanation of the corona and as sug. have not yet been spectroscopically observed have been selected. gesting the direction to be taken in future observations and 8o. 1 is the remarkable spiral nebula 99 M Virginis, and is investigations. thus described in the General Catalogue :-"A very remarkable object ; bright ; large ; round; gradually brighter in the

SOLAR OBSERVATIONS.— The following is the résumé of solar wildle; three-branched spiral.” No. 2 is 84 M Virginis, and observations made at Rome, by Prof. Tacchini, during the first

described as “Very bright ; very large; round; much three months of this year :brighter in the middle." No. 3 is described as “Very bright;

Spots and Facule. considerably large ; pretty much elongated in a direction about 63 ; very suddenly much brighter in the middle to a nucleus."

No. of Relative frequency Relative magnitude Number days of

of spotIt is a remarkable fact that all the nebulæ in Virgo, which have 1890. obser

of days of of groups far been examined, exhibit so-called "continuous" spectra.

vation.
spots. without

faculæ.

per day. D'Arrest observed the nebulæ G.C. 2930 (84 M Virginis), 2961

spots. (86 M), 3021 (49 M), and Lieutenant Herschel observed G.C. Jan. ...

1:40 0-55 2'35 33450 0.60

Feb....

Some of these may be 021, 3132, 3227, 3229, and 3397.

23 0'13 0995 O'09 13-26 0'04

Mar.... reexamined for bright maxima in the continuous spectra.

20 I'00 070 2075 25*75 0*30 4. The spectrum of this (Group II.) star is thus described by

Prominences. Duner :-**"The bands 2-8 are well' marked by strong lines

No. of days which terminate them on the violet sides. But, with the excep

Mean

Mean Mean of

number. height. extension. nou of 2 and 3, they are rather narrow, and the spectrum ap

observation. proaches to the type of Aldebaran.” The star is obviously at a Jan.

12

1'92 iransition stage between Groups II, and III., and a special

16
1.69

0'9 Letailed study of the lines and bands should be made.

Mar.... 14 2'21

35.5

1116.C 3035 (1) G.C. Joga

12 13 13
12 25 15
1 2 2 50
12 14 23
II 52 36
12 14 18
12 19 7

+ 12 59 - 3 11 +49 35 + 9 29

3 +1 27

4

Var.

+61 42

of

spots.

20

1&90.

33-6

17

Feb....

37-8

I'1

de conférences et professeurs, nous y consacrerons notre dévoue must be especially uncertain at stations on the edge of the area ment, nos efforts : nous avons la confiance que, pour l'honneur of our survey. de la Science et de la France, nous saurons fidèlement le If, then, the general westward tendency of the horizontal remplir."

disturbing forces was due to some source of error, stations in the extreme south of the Hebrides would in all probability be simi larly affected. If the directions of the forces were due to a

physical cause, such as a centre of attraction out at sea to the SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.

west of Tiree, then the disturbing forces in the Southern

Hebrides would almost certainly be directed southwards The American Journal of Scienre, April 1890.-On the towards it. æolian sandstones of Fernando de Noronha, by John C. Bran The observations made last summer prove (1) that the direcner. These sandstones lie upon the eastern or south-eastern tion of the disturbing horizontal force at Bernera, which is the sides of the island, at an elevation of 70 feet on Ilha do Meio, 90 southernmost island of the Hebridean group, is due south ; and feet on São José, and about 100 feet on the Ilha Rapta, and at (2) that, as this point is approached from the north, the dowothe base of Atalaia Grande. The author has closely investigated ward vertical disturbing attraction on the north pole of the the formation, and finds that the material was originally de needle regularly increases, which exactly agrees with the supposited in the form of sand dunes blown up by winds from position that a centre of attraction is being approached. the south or south-east. Analyses of several specimens of the There is, therefore, now no doubt that there is a centre of rock are given.-A mountain study of the spectrum of aqueous attraction on the north pole of the needle to the south of the vapour, by Charles S. Cook. The author has devised a means Hebrides and to the west of Tiree. of producing an artificial line whose intensity can be varied at (2) In one of the maps communicated to the Society last year will alongside the line whose intensity is required. The varia- we drew two lines, bounding a district about 150 miles long tions in the blackness of the artificial line are effected by the use and 40 miles broad, in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and gave of a micrometer screw, the readings of which constitute an reasons for the belief that a ridge line or locus of attraction lay arbitrary value of intensities. It is found, (1) that the spectro between them, scope studies vapour height primarily, and humidity only This conclusion has now been tested by means of thirty-five secondarily; (2) during stormy weather vapour ascends to alti- additional stations, with the following results :tudes greater than is usually supposed ; (3) the great absorption (1) At all stations (with one exception) on or near the two of storm clouds is due to their great thickness, or to extensive lines, the horizontal disturbing forces tend towards the centre strata of damp air associated with them, more than to any of the district they bound. peculiar behaviour as clouds.--- On the occurrence of basalt dykes (2) The downward vertical disturbing forces are greater in in the Upper Palæozoic series in Central Appalachian Virginia, the centre of the district than at its boundaries. In particular, by Nelson H. Darton ; with notes on the petrography, by J. there are two well-marked regions of very high vertical force. Si Diller. --Additional notes on the tryolite from Utah, by W. (3) The greatest vertical force disturbances occur at Market F. Hillebrand and E. S. Dana. The composition and crystal Weighton, where the older sedimentary rocks are known to line form of this mineral are considered. - W. S. Bayley, on the approach the surface, and at Harrogate, which is on the apex of origin of the soda-granite and quartz-keratophyre of Pigeon an anticlinal. Point, Minnesota. These rocks have been previously described (4) The central ridge line runs from the Wash parallel to the by the author (Amer. Fourn., January 1889). In the present line of the Wolds to Brigg. Thence it appears to turn west, note the reasons are pointed out which lead to the conclusion and reaches Market Weighton via Butterwick and Howden. that the red rock is of contact origin, and produced by the action One or two additional stations are, however, required to deterof the gabbro upon the slate and quartzites.--Frank Waldo, in mine whether this bend is real, or whether the line runs direct recent contributions to dynamical meteorology, gives a general from Brigg, to Market Weighton. From the latter towa it idea of the nature of each of fourteen papers on meteorology : passes to the limestone district of Yorkshire and traverses its most of the papers being by German physicists. The attitude of centre. It has not yet been traced west of the line of the Midthe writers towards meteorology is also indicated by reference to land Railway between Settle and Hawes, but there is ground for other work done in the same direction.-Two methods for the believing that it continues to the Lake District. direct determination of chlorine in mixtures of alkaline chlorides Although, therefore, one or two points of detail remain for and iodides, by F. A. Gooch and F. W. Mar.-On the occurrence further investigation, the existence of a line of attraction 150 of polycrase, or of an allied species, in both North and South miles long is proved beyond the possibility of doubt, and for Carolina, by W. E. Hidden and J. R. Mackintosh. The about 90 miles its position is known to within 5 miles. analyses, so far as they go, show that a mineral previously There are, then, even in those parts of England where the noticed (Amer. 7 ourn., November 1888) is very closely allied to, superficial strata are not magnetic, regions of high vertical force if not identical with, the polycrase from Hitteroe, Norway, comparable in size with small counties, and ridge lines or loci of analyzed by Rammelsberg. ---Origin of some topographic features attraction as long and almost as clearly defined as the rivers. of Central Texas, by Ralph S. Tarr.-On the formation of Their course is closely connected with the geology of the silver silicate, by J. Dawson Hawkins. A simple method for districts through which they run. the preparation of this compound is described. The reaction

Royal Meterological Society, April 16.—Mr. Baldwin made use of is Na Sioz + 2AgNO3 = Ag, SiO3 + 2NaNO3. Latham, President, in the chair. --The following papers were

read :-The cold period at the beginning of March 1890, by Mr.

C. Harding. At the commencement of the month a rather SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES

heavy fall of snow was experienced in many parts of England,

and very cold weather set in over the midland, eastern, and LONDON.

southern districts, the temperature on the 3rd and 4th falling

to a lower point than at any time in the previous winter. The Royal Society, April 17.-"Preliminary Note on Sup lowest authentic thermometer readings, in approved screens plementary Magnetic Surveys of Special Districts in the British were 5* at Beddington, 6° at Kenley in Surrey and Hillington İsles.” By A. W. Rücker, M.A., F.R.S., and T. E. Thorpe, in Norfolk, 79 at Chelmsford and Beckenham, so at Addiscombe, Ph.D., B. Sc. (Vict.), F.R.S.

9o at Reigate and Brockham, and too in many parts of Kent an! During the summer of 1889 we carried out additional mag Surrey, At Greenwich Observatory the thermometer registered netic surveys of the Western Ísles and the West Coast of Scot- 13, which has only once been equalled in March during the last land, and of a tract of country in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. 100 years, the same reading having occurred on March 14, 1855

Both districts were selected with special objects in view. We During the last half century the temperature in March has only had found that powerful horizontal disturbing forces acted west previously fallen below 20° in three years, whilst during the wards from the Sound of Islay, from Iona, and from Tiree, and whole winter so low a temperature has only occurred in eight we had deduced a similar direction for the disturbing force at years.--Note on the whirlwind which occurred at Falford, near Glenmorven from Mr. Welsh's survey of Scotland in 1857-58. | York, March 8, 1890, by Mr. J. E. Clark. A sharp and hesro The whole district presents peculiar difficulties, partly from the thunderstorm occurred at York about 2.30 p.m. At the same time. fact that local disturbance is likely to mask the effects of the or shortly afterwards, a whirlwind passed a little to the south id regional forces, partly because the normal values of the elements the city, from Bishopthorpe to Heslington, a di-tance of about

4 miles, its width varying from 3 or 4 to 250 yards. The author triangular curves, of plane anharmonic curves, and of asymptotic made a careful survey of the track of the whirlwind, and de lines of Steiner's surface, by M. G. Fouret.--A paper by M. A. scribed the damage done by it to trees, buildiogs, &c.-- On the Ditte, on the action of nitric acid on aluminium, shows that this possibility of forecasting the weather by means of monthly acid acts upon aluminium in much the same way as sulphuric averages, by Mr. A. E. Watson. The author is of opinion that acid. The slowness of the reaction is due to the formation the average values of meteorological phenomena are constant of a protecting covering of gas. As in the case of zinc, quantities, and that any variation from them is sure to be met by when weak nitric acid is employed the gases produced consist of i compensating variation in the opposite direction.

nitric oxide and nitrogen, together with some ammonia ; Zoological Society, April 15.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger, in with 3 per cent. acid in presence of a little platinum chloride, the chair.-Mr. A. Smith-Woodward, read a paper on some new

ammonia is almost the sole product. Just as with the sulphate, fishes from the English Wealden and Parbeck Beds, referable to nitrate with liberation of hydrogen.-On the preparation of

the nitrate forms with aluminium in presence of water a basic the genera Oligopleurus, Strobilodus, and Mesodon. Detailed descriptions of several fossils of these genera, now in the British hydrobromic acid, by M. A. Recoura. The author passes a Moseum, were given. Oligopleurus was stated to be represented stream of HS through, bromine, and washes the gaseous HBr by a single species in the Wealden of the Isle of Wight, occurring produced by passing it through a solution of HBr containing a also in the Purbeck of Dorsetshire ; and the latter formation had little red phosphorus in suspension. The method admits

of the gielded at least one species both of Strobilodus and Mesodon. production of gaseous HBr at any desired rate, and without the Previous researches had already indicated a close connection necessity of the continual watching required by the methods between the fish-fauna of the English Purbeck Beds and that of formerly employed.-- On the oxidation of hypophosphorous acid the Upper Jurassic Lithographic Stones of France, Bavaria, and by hydrogenized palladium in the absence of oxygen, by M. R. Wurtemberg; and the new forms now described tended to demon- Engel. In the precipitation of palladium by hypophosphorous atrate that alliance even more clearly.—Mr. G. A. Boulenger acid according to the method followed by Wurtz and Graham, read the second of a series of reports on the additions to the the author finds that the product, contrary to the stateBatrachian Collection in the Natural History Museum. Since ments of those investigators, contains hydrogen. The spongy 1886, when the first report was made on this subject, examples palladium produced decomposes an unlimited

quantity of phosAmongst these was a remarkable new form allied to the family ties of charcoal.-M. E. Jungfleisch, in a note on camphoric of 74 additional species of Batrachians had been acquired. phorous acid, hydrogen being evolved.-M. P. Cazeneuve

contributes a paper on the oxidizing and decolorizing proper. Engsstomatids, proposed to be called. Genyophryne thomsoni, acids, shows that the separation of several acids is possible Sudest Island, near South-East New Guinea. The form was when advantage is taken of their differing solubilities, -A stated to be unique in having teeth in the lower, but none in the note on the acid malonate, the quadromalonate, and the upper jaw.-Mr. Frank E. Beddard read a paper on the structure quadroxalate of potassium, by M. G. Massol, gives the thermal of Paphia, and on its relations to other birds. The author was properties of these salts, and an analysis of the quadroaclined to consider Psophia most nearly allied to Cariama and malonate.-M. L. Lindet describes a method for the extraction Cauna, and more distantly to Rhinochetus, but entitled to stand of raffinose from molasses, and for the separation of raffinose - a distinct family in the group of Cranes and their allies. --Mr. from saccharose, the separation depending upon the greater Henry Seebohm gave an account of a collection of birds from the solubility of raffinose in absolute methyl alcohol, and its much northern part of the province of Fokien, South-Eastern China. inferior solubility in 80 per cent. ethyl alcohol, as compared with Several interesting species were represented in the series, the solubility in each medium of saccharose. --On a pseudoamongst which was a new Hemixos, proposed to be called H. typhoid bacillus found in river water by M. Cassederat. The caspennis.

author has found in Marseilles drinking-water a bacillus having

a great resemblance to that of typhoid fever. The investigations, Linnean Society, April 3.-Mr. Carruthers, F.R.S., Presi so far as they have gone, seem to fully establish the identity of dant, in the chair.-Prof." P. Martin Duncan exhibited a trans

the two bacilli.-On the microbes of hæmoglobinuria of the verse section of a coral, Caryophyllia clavus, showing septa and bull, by M. V. Babes. An examination of the character of this irregular theca between them.-Mr. B. D. Jackson exhibited organism shows that it has no well-established place in the classiwe seeds of Mystacidium filicornu, an epiphytic Orchid for- fication of microbes, and that the conditions of culture are not warded from South Africa by Mr. Henry Hutton, of Kimberly:- yet well determined. Nevertheless, its special reactions, its A paper by Prof. W. H. Parker, on the morphology of the localization in the red globules, and its transmissibility to Quinacea, in the unavoidable absence of the author was read animals, leave no room for doubt as to its pathological sigby Mr. W. P. Sladen ; and a discussion followed, in which Dr. nificance. -Nutrition in hysteria, by MM. Gilles de la Tourette St. George Mivart, Prof. Duncan, and Mr. J. E. Harting took and H. Cathelineau. It is noted that in hysteria, notwithstandpar

ing nervous pathological manifestations other than permanent PARIS.

affections, nutrition is effected normally.--On operation for Academy of Sciences, April 14.-M. Hermite, President, strabismus without tenotomy, by M. H. Parinaud. -- On the in the chair. ---On the theory of the optical system formed by a function of air in the physiological mechanism of hatching, telescope and a plane mirror movable about an axis, by MM. Sloughing, and metamorphosis among Orthopterous ins of Lewy and Puiseux. One of the problems studied is to deter the family Acridides, by M. J. Kunckel d'Herculais.-On a new mine the exact co-ordinates of a star with a telescope and a Lycopodium of the Coal-measures (Lycopodiopsis Derbyi), by M. gelade mirror placed in front of the object-glass. - On the elements B. Renault.-Pebble impressions, by M. Ch. Contejean. The of peritoneal serum, by M. L. Ranvier. The humour was paper refers to Tertiary pudding-stones found near Montbéliard. obtained from the domestic rabbit, the rat (Aus decumanus), and the cat. Microscopical examination of the preparations showed

BERLIN. the presence of red globules of blood (hæmatics) whatever pre Physiological Society, March 28.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, cautions were taken. It is therefore considered as a normal President, in the chair. Prof. Salkowski spoke on fermentative clernent, physiological, not accidental, of peritoneal serum. processes which occur in animal tissues, employing chloroformColourless spherical lymphatic cells, having dimensions from 20u water to discriminate between the action of ferments (organized to 100, are also described; the volume, structure, and re- and enzymes (unorganized). He had thus found that a fermentation actions of these cells from the three animals, however, is found (zymolysis) occurs in yeast-cells, by which their cellulose is partly to vary.-On the artificial production of silk, by M. Emile Blan- converted into a lævo rotatory sugar and the nuclein into subchard -Résumé of solar observations made at the Royal Obser-stances of the xanthin series. He had further isolated from vlory of the College of Rome during the first three months of yeast-cells, apart from their cellulose, two other carbohydrates, The year 1890, by M. P. Tacchini. ---Observations of sun-spots one belonging to the gum series and one resembling glycogen ; made in 1889 at the Lyons Observatory, by M. Em. Marchand. either of these might have been the source of the aboveThe Grst three months of this year are also included in the list. mentioned sugar. In a similar way he had studied the Tables are given showing the number of days without spots, the fermentative changes which take place in liver and muscle, and slusation and latitude of spots, and their mean total surface (umbra found them to yield a series of distinct products which could be and penumbra) expressed in millionths of the sun's visible surface. determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. He concluded - Approximate rectification of an arc of a curve, by M. A. E. from his researches that fermentative (zymolytic) processes are follel-Construction for the radius of curvature of symmetrical continually taking place in living tissues, and play a most

important part in the chemistry of their metabolism.--Dr. in ova taken from the oviducts a number of spermatozoa pene
Rosenberg demonstrated a new reaction of uric acid. When trate deeply among the yolk-masses as far as the level of the
urine is made faintly alkaline, it yields a dark blue colouration female pronucleus. Peculiar karyokinetic appearances are
on the addition of phosphotungstic acid, which he had satisfied described.-Contribution to the theory of the even Abelias
himself was due to the presence of uric acid alone among the sigma-function of three arguments, by Érast Pascal. This is a
other constituents of the excretion.--Dr. Goldscheider gave an continuation of the author's previous work on the odd sigma-
account of some experiments which he had made some five years function. The terms of the developments are combinants of a
ago, to show that the principle of "specific nerve energy" holds net of quaternary quadratic forms.-On a hyperelliptic multi-
good for the sense of taste. By isolated stimulation of separate plication equation, by H. Burkhardt. This equation for hyper-
taste-papillæ he succeeded in showing that there exist, in all, four elliptic functions (p = 2) is the generalisation of Jacobi's
kinds or qualities of taste-sour, sweet, bitter, and salt ; and that equation for elliptic functions.
specific end-organs exist for each kind of taste. By electrical
stimulation there arises at the anode not only the sensation

AMSTERDAM
of sour, but also of bitter and sweet ; at the kathode purely
sensory impulses are aroused in addition to the gustatory, and Waals, Vice-President, in the chair.-M. H. A. Lorentz dealt

Royal Academy of Sciences, March 29.-Prof. van der some authors speak. It appeared from his researches that the the known formula for the vapour-pressure of such solutions may hard palate contained end-organs chiefly for the perception of be derived from considerations on molecular motion and attracsweet tastes.-Dr. I. Munk spoke on muscular work and nitrogenous metabolism. He criticized the recent work of tion, and how a similar theory applies to a conceivable mechanism Argutinsky, according to which the work done in climbing al of osmotic pressure.-M. Baehr gave some observations on the mountain, and the heat produced, are the outcome of a breaking herpolhodie of Poinsot, and explained that this cannot have any down of nitrogenous material. Having recalculated Argutinsky's points of inflexion, unless the ellipsoid be not a central one. - M. results, he came to the conclusion that (1) his body was not in Pekelharing spoke of "the destruction of anthrax spores by nitrogenous equilibrium even during rest ; (2) the amount of

rabbits' blood." carbohydrate which he took was insufficient to account for the

STOCKHOLM.
heat-production during rest. As is well known, both these Royal Academy of Sciences, April 9.-On the researches
factors lead to an increased nitrogenous metabolism when extra in zoology made at the Zoological Station of the Academy during
work is done, the energy required for the excess of work being 1889, by Prof. S. Lovén.-On the possibility of the triangulation
obtained from the breaking down of proteids ; hence no con of Spitzbergen, by Prof. Rosén. -An analysis of the liquid
clusions as to wbat normally takes place can be drawn from inclosures in topaz, or the so-called Brewsterlinite, by Otto
Argutinsky's experiments.' He further pointed out that Nordenskiöld. ---On the use of invariants and seminvariants for
Oppenheim's experiments have shown that dyspncea leads to the solution of common algebraic equations of the four lowest
increased nitrogenous metabolism, and that hence dyspncea may degrees, by Dr. A. Bergen. - On the structure of the fruit-wall
very probably have played some part during the exertion of in the Labiatæ, by Miss A. Olbers.--Some researches on acci-
excessive climbing. While not doubting the accuracy of the dental double refraction of gelatinous substances, by Dr. G.
experiments, he did not feel that the conclusions which Bjerkén.---On the action of iodohydric acid on 1.5 nitronaph-
Argutinsky had drawn from them were justifiable.

thalin-sulphon-acid-amid, by A. Ekbom.
GÖTTINGEN.
Royal Society of Sciences, Oct. 15, 1889.- On the granular

CONTENTS.

PAGE pigments occurring in man, by Dr. F. Maas. Two chemically distinct groups of pigments occur : (1) melanin, (2) the granu- | The Revised Instructions to Inspectors

577 lar colouring matters here referred to. The latter are found at Oranges in India. By C. B. Clarke, F.R.S.

579 all periods of life, but increase in quantity and in the size of the A Naturalist among the Head-hunters. By A, R, W. 582 granules with age. They are normal products, not morbid. Our Book Shelf:They are not only transformed but produced by the corpuscle. Girard: "Recherches sur les Tremblements de carrying cells. They are not wholly derived from the blood : Terre"

583 the pigment found in the heart is derived from a fatty body. The Eder: "La Photographie à la Lumière da Magseveral pigments can be distinguished by their reactions with nésium

584 hydrochloric and acetic acids, and with caustic potash.-On the Letters to the Editor :analogue of Kummer's surface for p = 3, by W. Wirtinger. Panmixia.-Prof. George J. Romanes, F.R.S. ; The author investigates the continuum obtained by taking, as R. Haig Thomas

584 the eight homogeneous point-co-ordinates of a 7-dimension The "Rollers" of Ascension and St. Helena.-Prof. space, eight linearly independent squares of theta-functions of Cleveland Abbe.

585 three variables. It appears that this possesses collineations Self-Colonization of the Coco-nut

Palm. - Captain analogous to the system for Kummer's surface, as also the cor W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., F.R.S.

585 responding system of reciprocal transformations into itself.

Nessler's Ammonia Test as a Micro-chemical Reagent October 23, 1889.---Determination of the elastic constants of for Tannin. --Spencer

Moore Iceland spar, by W. Voigt. The author uses the refraction The Moon in London.-T. R. R. Stebbing observations of G. Baumgarten, and gives elaborate tables of his Foreign Substances attached to Crabs.-Ernest W. own measurements. He discusses the property of spar by L. Holt, which the crystal can be forced by shearing into its twin form, The Relative Prevalence of North-east and Southand gives diagrams illustrating the changes in the traction and west Winds.-William Ellis torsion coefficients. -Determination of the elastic constants of Science at Eton. ---Lieut.-General J. F. Tennant, certain dense minerals, by W. Voigt and P. Drude. The R.E., F.R.S.

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585

586

587 minerals are dense fluor spar, Solenhofen stone, and dense Modigliani's Exploration of Nias Island. (Nias: barytes.

trated.) By Prof. Henry H. Giglioli December 3, 1889.-On thermo-electric currents in crystals, by Notes

501 Th. Liebisch. The author confirms some of Bäckström's results, Our Astronomical Column:and finds that, in a rectangular parallelepiped of homogeneous Objects for the Spectroscope.-A. Fowler.

595 conducting crystal of the triclinic system, embedded in homo Mathematical Study of the Solar Corona .

505 geneous isotropic “normal” metal,' "the thermo-electric force Solar Observations in the direction of the steepest temperature gradient is repre. D'Arrest's Comet .

598 sented by the squared reciprocal of the parallel radius vector of Influenza and Weather, with Special Reference to a certain ellipsoid E."-On contrast-phenomena resulting from the Recent Epidemic. By Sir Arthur Mitchell and suspended attention, by Dr. F. Schumann, Psycho-physical Dr. Buchan..

gor experiments on the estimation of short periods of time, &c. Mathematical Teaching at the Sorbonne, 1809-1889 391

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