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Analysis. Most propositions, however, are made up of Modifying words. more words than the simple subject, predicate, and copula.

All such words are called the modifying words of the proposition; as, in the proposition, Some men walk quickly, some and quickly are the modifying words to the proposition men walk; that is, they serve to modify

and qualify its general meaning. Words Nouns and pronouns are the only classes of proper for subject. words that can by themselves form the subjects

of a proposition ; as, men walk; he is dead.
" But sometimes virtue starves while vice is fed.

POPE. For predi

Adjectives, participles, and nouns are the cate only.

only classes of words that by themselves form the predicates of a proposition; as, the sun is shining ; life is sweet; this is gold.

“My name is Norval.” Intransitive verbs (other than the verb subcopula and predicate. stantive to be, and the other auxiliary verbs) are

the only classes of words that can by themselves form both predicate and copula; as, the

sun shines. Modifying

None of the other parts of speech can be used by themselves, to form either predicate, subject, or copula, but only as modifying words of the subject or predicate.

Note.—Wben the verb substantive means to exist, it can form the predicate of a proposition by itself; as, whatever is, is right. " Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be."


For both



Also when haver possess, and do=perform Analysis. or suffice, they can form predicates ; as, He has done a horrible deed; Any instrument will do.

I have another weapon in this chamber.”-Othello.

of a pro

The object of a transitive verb is called the Object. supplement of the predicate. As it is always expressed by the same parts of speech as the subject, nouns and pronouns, it introduces no new element into the proposition, as a transitive verb would be incomplete without its object; as, Achilles slew Hector.

A phrase, consisting of two or more words, Expansion may be used instead of a noun, both as subject position: and object; as, “To be, or not to be; that 's inf. mood as

subject. the question "—that is, life or death ; where a

l; phrase in the infinitive mood is substituted for the noun as subject of the sentence.

The infinitive mood of a verb can be substituted for a noun either as subject or object only when the noun denotes some action or state of being; as to exist = life; to walk=walking.

Phrase in

[blocks in formation]

Here to err = error, and to forgive = forgive


In the proposition, Men love to be praised, As object. instead of Men love praise, a verb in the infinitive mood is substituted for the noun as object of the transitive verb love. A participial phrase may be substituted for Participial

phrase as the noun as subject of a sentence; as, Being subject. disappointed is unpleasant, instead of Disappoint

of the pre

dicate of the verb.

Of the

Analysis. ment is unpleasant; or as the object of a tran

sitive verb; as, I hate being disappointed, for I

hate disappointment. Expansion The verb which forms the predicate of a

sentence can always be expanded into a copula and participle, or copula and adjective ; as, the sun is shining, instead of the sun shines ; or, fire is hot, instead of fire burns.

The adjective which forms the predicate of a adjective.

sentence, can be expanded into an adjectival

phrase; as, He is full of years, for He is old. Expansion Both adjectives and adverbs, when used as of modifying words. modifying words, may be expanded into phrases

of corresponding meaning; as, He is a man of great piety, for He is a pious man; He did it in great haste, for He did it hastily.

Dependent sentences may be substituted for

the noun, adjective, or adverb, in any of the As subject.

above cases ; as, That we should be disappointed is unpleasant; where a dependent sentence, that

, we should be disappointed, is substituted for the noun disappointment, as subject of the sen

tence. As object.

In Men like that they should be praised, for, Men like praise, a subordinate sentence is used

for a noun as object of the transitive verb like. As modify- A relative clause may be used in the place of ing words.

an adjective as a modifying word to the subject; as, A man who is virtuous is happy, for, A virtuous man is happy.

A dependent sentence may be employed instead of an adverb or adverbial phrase; as, He spoke as if he were in great haste, for, He spoke in great haste, or hastily.

Subordinate sentences.

The following passage from Thomson's “ Cas- Analysis. tle of Indolence” will serve as an example of

Example of grammati

cal analysis. grammatical analysis:

“The gentle knight, who saw their rueful case,
Let fall adown his silver beard some tears.

Canto LXIX.

(1.) The gentle-qualifying words to subject. (2.) knight-subject of the main sentence.

(3.) who saw their rueful case-dependent relative clause, used as further qualifying words to knight.

(4.) let fall-predicate of main sentence.

(5.) adown his silver beard- prepositional phrase qualifying the predicate let fall.

(6.) some-qualifying word of tears. (7.) tears-object of the predicate.

The dependent relative clause may also be analysed separately in the same manner; as :

(a.) who-subject of the dependent sentence.
(b.) saw-predicate of subject.
(c.) their ruefulqualifying words of case.
(d.) case-object of the predicate saw.

The above lines considered etymologically Example of

etymologionly, would be treated as follows:

cal parsing The-definite article. gentle-adjective, positive degree. knight,---noun of masculine gender and singular number. who-relative pronoun and nominative case, masculine gender. Sawverb of perfect-absolute tense, and strong conjugation. their possessive adjective. rueful — adjective of positive degree. case — common noun, singular number, and neuter gender. letverb of doubtful conjugation. fall-verb of strong conjugation and present tense. adown—preposition. his—possessive adjective. silver—adjective of positive degree. bearda common noun of singular number and neuter gender. some -- indefinite adjective. tears ---- common

noun of plural number and neuter gender.

If the above words are to be considered syn- Example of

syntactical tactically, they would be treated thus :



Analysis. The-definite article, qualifying noun knight. Syntactical gentlean adjective, qualifying noun knight. parsing. knight-a noun, nominative to verb let.

who—relative pronoun, agreeing with its antecedent knight in number and gender, and nominative case to the 'verb saw.

,—third person singular, and agreeing with its nominative who in number and person.

their-possessive adjective, qualifying noun case. rueful—adjective, qualifying noun case.

case-noun in the objective case, after the transitive verb saw.

let-verb in the third person singular, agreeing with its nominative knight, and of the past-absolute tense.

fall-verb in the infinitive mood after the pther verb let.

adown—preposition, governing objective case beard. his-possessive adjective, qualifying beard. silver-adjective, qualifying noun beard.

beardnoun in the objective case after the preposition adown.

some --indefinite adjective qualifying tears.

tears--noun in the objective case after transitive verb let fall.

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