« PreviousContinue »
“How many things by season seasoned are To their right praise and true perfection !"
Merchant of Venice.
RULE II.-Two nouns, pronouns, verbs, ad- Rule II. verbs, or adjectives, used without any qualifying words, and connected by the copulative or disjunctive conjunction, are not separated from each other by any stop; as, “ Lovers and madmen have such seething brains.”
Midsummer Night's Dream.
“ Jones! when from Calais southward you and I
Travelled on foot together.”—WORDSWORTH.
“ Some neither can for wits nor critics pass,
As heavy mules are neither horse nor ass.”—POPE.
“ To be direct and honest is not safe.”-Othello.
" In every grove
RULE III.-A short subordinate sentence, a Rule III. phrase in the infinitive mood, a short participial, adjectival, or relative clause, immediately following the words to which it refers, is not separated from them by any stop; as, “ What harmonious pensive changes
Wait upon her as she ranges
“ To da aught good never will be our task.”
“ The injustice done to an individual is sometimes of service to the public.”—JUNIUS.
" He is a soldier fit to stand by Cæsar
And give direction.”-Othello.
“ A perfect judge will read each work of wit
RULE IV.–Long subordinate sentences, long participial and adjectival phrases, long relative clauses, are pointed off by commas; as, " 'Tis dangerous, wh the baser nature comes
Between the pass and fell-incensed points
Of mighty opposites.”—Hamlet.
" To an oak,
One might be likened.”—WORDSWORTH.
Into two ample horns his forehead wide,
RULE V.-The nominative of address, the nominative and infinitive absolute, adverbs, conjunctions, or other words used elliptically, any phrases or dependent sentences placed out of their usual position in the main sentence, are pointed off by commas ; as, “ Haste, virgins, haste! and you, ye matrons grave, Go forth with rival youthfulness of mind.”
WORDSWORTH. “ Nature well known, no prodigies remain.”—POPE.
“ And, to conclude,
In wit a man, simplicity a child.”—POPE.
In short, however, moreover, nevertheless, Fons indeed, when used alone are enclosed in
RULE VI.-In elliptical co-ordinate sentences, Rule VI. when several nouns have reference to one verb, or when several verbs have reference to one noun or pronoun, they are separated by commas, whether connected by conjunctions or
" But not to me returns
“For interest, envy, pride, and strife, are banished
“ So fails, so languishes, grows dim, and dies,
All that the world is proud of.”—WORDSWORTH.
“ So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn,
“ I saw an intermingled pomp of vale and hill,
Tower, town, and city, and suburban grove,
RULE VII.—Co-ordinate sentences, which are Rule VII. perfectly independent of one another in grammatical structure, if connected by a pronoun or conjunction, are separated by a semicolon; but, if there is not a pronoun or a conjunction, then by a colon; as,
“ The quality of mercy is not strained ;
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Merchant of Venice. “ All that glisters is not gold,
Often have you heard that told :
Merchant of Venice.
Merchant of Venice. “ A thrilling voice was heard that vivified My patriotic heart; aloud it cried : • I, the guardian of this land,'" etc.
WORDSWORTH. RULE IX.-When two or more co-ordinate sentences refer to a common apodosis, a semicolon is used after each but the last, which is pointed off with a colon; as,
“ Nuns fret not at their convent’s narrow room ;
And hermits are contented with their cells;
RULE X.-A full stop is used after a com- Punctuaplete sentence, which has no grammatical con- Role X. nection with the following sentences; as,
“ Talk not of genius baffled.
Genius is master of
Genius does what it must; and talent does what it
A full stop is also used after abbreviations ; as, MS., M.P., F.R.S., etc., verbum sap., nem. con., fi. fa. A note of interrogation is used after direct Note of in
terrogation. questions; as,
- In tasks so bold can little men engage ?
A note of exclamation is used after interjec- Note of extions, and expressions of strong feeling or surprise; as, “O upright judge ! Mark, Jew!_0 learned judge !
Merchant of Venice.
“ O all you host of heaven! O earth !”—Hamlet.
“ 'Tis rising from the dead-alas! it cannot be !”
THOMSON. A parenthesis is used to enclose words which Parenthesis. may be added or withdrawn without affecting the grammatical structure of the sentence in which they stand ; as, " Know then this truth (enough for man to know):
Virtue alone is happiness below.”—POPE.
“ Absent or dead, still let a friend be dear