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Latin II.

» pinus,

Examples of Latin Names of Plants, etc.
Anchor from anchora. Mint,

from mentha. Cedar cedrus.

Fennel foeniculum, Pumicestone


Lettuce lactuca.

Rue (6)


radix. (6) This word must have come through the French.


Examples of Greek Names of Plants, etc.
Almond, from amygdalum. Myrrh, from myrrha.
Balsam balsamum. Camel camelus.
, hyssopus.


» pæonia.

Norman French.

Norman French, from A.D. 1041 to A.D. 1362.

Norman words

and war.

The Norman-French in English was first introduced in the reign of Edward the Confessor, and afterwards, more plenteously, under the Norman kings.

It consists chiefly of words used in feudalism, relating to war, law, and the chase : as, aid, armour, asfeudalism

sault, baron, battle, captain, chivalry, count, esquire, fealty, guardian, homage, hostage, lance, challenge, peer, duke, tenant, trumpet, vassal, ward,

warrant, villain, etc. Relating to Advocate, arrest, assize, estate, judge, plaint,

statute, sue, suit, service, treasure, prison, etc. Relating to Bay, brace, covert, falcon, forest, park, quarry, the chase,

sport, venison, beef, mutton, pork, veal, etc.

Annoy, attire, change, crown, cry, country, mountain, power, peace, route, etc.

This was introduced between the battle of
Hastings and the Reformation. It relates to
religious, learned, and legal matters.



Of a miscellaneous nature.

Latin III. from A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1500.

Latin IV. from A.D.

A.D. 1800.


LATIN OF THE FOURTH PERIOD. This class of Latin words was introduced between the Reformation and the present cen- 1500 to tury, in the writings of the learned.

It differs from the words introduced from the Latin at other periods :

(1.) By being less altered in form: as, axis, istics. from Lat. axis ; apex, from Lat. apex, etc.

(2.) By preserving the Latin form of the plural in the nouns: as, axis, plural axes ; apex, plural apices; index, plural indices, etc.

(3.) In that it relates to objects and ideas for which the increase of science demanded names; as formula, nebula, superficies, momentum, etc.

Side by side with this Latin were introduced Greek. Greek words, preserving their own plural inflections, and relating to the same objects as the Latin of this period; as, phenomenon, dogma, chrysalis, automaton, etc.

Examples of Latin of the Fourth Period. Words ending in -a and forming their plurals Latin its

of plural in -ce : Sing. Plur.

Sing. Plur. Formula, formulæ.

Nebula, nebulæ.
Larva, larvæ.

Lamina, laminæ.
Words ending in -us, and forming their
plural in -i :
Sing. Plur.


Plur. Calculus, calculi,

Stimulus, stimuli. Genius, genii.

Magus, magi. Radius, radii.

Tamulus, tumuli.


Examples of Words ending in -um, and forming their
Latin IV.

plural in -a :


Plur. Animalculum, animalcula. Medium, media. Datum,

data. Memorandum, memoranda. Erratum, errata. Stratum, strata.

Words ending in -is, and forming their plural
in -es :



Hypothesis, (c) bypotheses.
Basis, (c) bases. Parenthesis, (c) parentheses.
Crisis, (c) crises. Thesis, (c)

(c) These words are of Greek derivation, but are included
in this class, as they follow the Latin rule in forming their

Words ending in -2, and forming their plural
in -ices :

Sing. Plur.
Appendix, Appendices. Radix, radices.
Index, Indices.

Vertex, vertices. Words ending in -Us, and forming their plural in -us: apparatus, apparatus ; impetus, impetus.

Words ending in -es, and forming their plural in -es : series, series ; species, species.

Word ending in -us, and forming their plural in -era : genus, genera.

Examples of Greek Plurals.

Examples. Greek.

Words ending in -on, and forming their plural in -a: Sing. Plur.

Sing. Plur. Aphelion, aphelia. Criterion, criteria. Automaton, automata. Phenomenon, phenomena.

Words ending in -is, and forming their

plural in -ides: cantharis, cantharides; chry- Examples. salis, chrysalides.

Words ending in -a, and forming their plural in -ata : dogma, dogmata ; lemma, lemmata.

Words not relating to science, of the Latin Latin IV. of the fourth period, which are fully naturalized, and form their inflections after the English manner :

Ambitious, artificial, cogitation, controversy, dimension, fastidious, indignity, numerous, ostentation, participate, etc.


This class includes all words from the Latin Latin V. or Greek, introduced in the present century. They are more correctly formed and more fully naturalized than the Latin words of the fourth period.

They chiefly relate to the improvements in the application of science in the present century.

Examples of Latin of the Fifth Period. Terminus, dentist, oculist, locomotive, centri. Examples. fugal, eccentric, emigrant, binocular, tertiary, granite, exhume, descriptive, incipient, respectable, socialism, etc.

Examples of Greek of the same Period.

Biology, geology, lithograph, panorama, Greek. photograph, telegraph, telegram, stereoscope, microscope, epidemic, phrenology, etc.

Miscellane- Besides the above, the English language ous words in English. contains words borrowed from almost every

language in the world.

Examples of Miscellaneous Words in English.


Arabio. Admiral, alchemy, alcohol, alembic, algebra,

alkali, almanac, amber, arrack, arsenal, artichoke, assassin, caliph, camphor, carat, caravan, chemistry, cipher, civet, coffee, cotton, crimson, elixir, emir, fakir, gazelle, giraffe, lute, magazine, mameluke, minaret, monsoon, moslem, mosque, mufti, mummy, nadir, naphtha, sultan, syrup, talisman, tariff, vizier, zenith, zero.

Abbey, abbot, amen, behemoth, cabal, cherub, ephod, gehenna, hallelujah, hosanna, jubilee,

leviathan, manna, sabbath, seraph, shibboleth. Persian. Azure, balcony, barbican, basbaw, bazaar,

checkmate, chess, dervise, emerald, hookah, indigo, jackall, lilac, musk, orange, paradise, pawn (in chess), saraband, scimitar, sepoy,

shawl, sherbet, simoom, taffeta, tiffin, turban. Hindustani. Batta, buggy, bungalow, calico, coolie,

cowrie, dimity, jungle, lac, loot, mullagatawny, pagoda, palanquin, pariah, punch, pundit, rajah, rupee, sugar, suttee, toddy.

Bohea, congou, hyson, nankeen, pekoe, satin,

tea. Caribbean.

Hammock. Malay. Amuck, bamboo, bantam, caddy, caoutchouc,

chintz, cockatoo, curry, gamboge, godown, gutta-percha, junk, mango, orang-outang, rattan, sago, shaddock.


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