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Bey, chibouk, chouse, janisary, sash, tulip.

Cacique, calumet, condor, llama, maize, North moccasin, pampas, pemmican, potato, squaw, Indian. tobacco, tomahawk, tomata, wigwam. Tattoo, taboo, kangaroo.

Polynesian. Ayah, cash, caste, commodore, compound, Portuguese. fetish, mandarin, palaver.

Alligator, armada, barricade, carbonado, Spanish. cargo, chocolate, cigar, creole, desperado, don, duenna, embargo, flotilla, gala, grandee, grenade, jennet, mosquito, mulatto, negro, olio, paroquet, platina, poncho, punctilio, renegade, savannah, sherry, tornado, verandah,

Alert, balustrade, bandit, bravado, bravo, bust, Italian. cameo, canto, charlatan, conversazione, cupola, ditto, dilettante, favourite? (favorito), folio, gazette, gondola, grotto, harlequin, improvisatore, incognito, influenza, lava, manifesto, mezzotinto, motto, muster, opera, pantaloon, piazza, portico, proviso, regatta, scaramouch, soprano, stanza, stilletto, stucco, studio, tenor, terra-cotta, tornado, torso, umbrella, virtuoso, vista, volcano,

virtù, zany.

Beau, belle, belles-lettres, billet-doux, bon- French. mot, bouquet, déjeûner, dépôt, éclat, ennui, penchant, soirée, trousseau, congé, embonpoint, vinaigrette, toilette, etc.

Block, boom, boor, sprit, reef (v.), schooner, Dutch. skates, sloop, smuggle, stiver, tafferel, veer, wear (a ship), yacht, sketch, cable.

Besides, there are several words in English English which, though derived from foreign words, have of foreign

words. assumed an English form, so as, at first sight,

corruptions Corruptions.


If so,



to seem of native origin. Such are the fol. lowing corruptions of foreign words.

Rhyme is derived by some from the Gothic, and it ought therefore to be spelt rime. The Italian word rima favours this notion. rhyme is a word of Gothic origin simulating a Greek one, as if from puun. Puttenham, who wrote about minstrelsy in Elizabeth's time, spells it rime, and spells rhymers rimers.

Beef-eater (a royal servant), from the French, buffetierra side-waiter.

Shotover (a hill near Oxford), from the French château-vert=green-castle.

Jerusalem (a kind of artichoke), from Italian girasole, turning to the sun; Italian, from girare (to turn), sole (the sun).

Runagate is a corruption of renegade, from the Spanish renegado, an apostate, from renegare.

Lutestring (of which dresses are made), is a corruption of the Italian word lustrino, a kind of silk, from lustrare, to shine.

Lark (a game) is a corrupted form of the Scandinavian word lac=a game.





English Corruptions of French Words.

English corruptions of French words.


écrévisse. Country dance

contredanse. Causeway (e).

chaussée. (e) Milton uses causey :

“ The other way Satan went down

The causey to hell-gate.”—Paradise Lost.



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Of Latin Ancient (as “ Ancient Iago "). Latin, insigne.

words. Ancient=flag

ditto. Miniature

minimatus (vermillion).

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Somerset is a corruption of the Italian soprasalto ; hence the old spelling somersalt.

Ceiling for cieling, from cielo Italian; cælum Latin, the sky. Milton spells it cieling :

“And now the thickened sky
Like a dark cieling stood.”Paradise Lost.
Sovereign for sovran, from Italian sorvano, derived
from Lat. supernus.

Milton writes :
“Thy sovran sentence, that man should find grace.”

Paradise Lost.

English Corruptions of German Words.

duck-cooy (a cage). Of German Poland


Modern Corruptions of Anglo-Saxon.


Burgh Walter. Of Anglocoat-cards.


words. day's-eye.

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Corruptions Righteous

right-wise. of AngloIsland for

eyland. Saxon words.

The ey meaning island, as in Orkney, Guernsey, etc. from Scandinavian.

Goosebery for gorsebury, from the prickly nature of the tree.

Corruptions in Spelling of Foreign Words.

Of Latin words.


Latin collega. : Latin fronti-spiciam.

Author for autor, from Latin auctor, through French

auteur. Posthumous for postumus, i.e. last or youngest child.

Some justify the retention of the h, by the supposition that it is derived from post humatum patrem.

Anthony for Antony, from Antonius, Latin.
Bosphorus for Bosporus, from Greek Bous topos.

Mackenzie for Macenzie, mac being the Gaelic patrony. mic prefix, and Enzie the family name.


In derived words all the parts should belong to one and the same language. Any infringement of this rule is called hybrydism (from hybrida a mongrel.) Hybridism is a common fault in the introduction of foreign words into English.

It is generally brought about by affixing a Greek termination to a Saxon or Latin word ; as, witticism, deism, etc.

Or by adding a Latin termination to a Greek or Saxon word; as, huntress, songstress, deaconess,

etc. Or by putting a Saxon prefix or affix to a Latin or Greek word; as, unfortunate, bishopric, etc.


Or by prefixing a Latin or Greek word to a Examples. Saxon one; as, demi-god, hero-worship, etc.

of AngloSaxon into

Conversion of Anglo-Saxon into English :- Conversion Anglo-Saxon was converted into English

English. (1.) By contracting or otherwise modifying the pronunciation and orthography of words.

(2.) By omitting many inflexions, especially of the nouns, and, consequently, making more use of auxiliaries and prepositions.

(3.) By the introduction of French derivatives.

(4.) By using less inversion and ellipse, especially in poetry.

Of these, the second is the most important; and it was brought about so gradually is difficult to fix a definite period as the date of the change. There was nothing like the complete fusion Fusion of

Angloof the Saxon and Norman languages, as there Saxon and was of the Saxon and Norman laws.

Still it is French. very probable that the converse of foreigners has had something to do with the simplifications of the Anglo-Saxon language which appear about the reign of Henry II., more than a century after the Conquest; though it is also true that languages of a very artificial structure, like that of England before the Conquest, often become less complex in their form, without any such violent process as the amalgamation of two different races.

Modern Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian Examples bear the same relation to the old Norse that languages.


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