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DANIEL DEFOE (1661-1731), writer of prose English fictions; chief work, Robinson Crusoe.

ALEXANDER POPE (1688-1744), poet, translated Homer, wrote the Rape of the Lock, moral essays in verse, Windsor Forest, the Dunciad.

JONATHAN Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, great political writer ; died in 1783; chief works, Tale of a Tub, Drapier's Letters, Gulliver's Travels.

John GAY (1688–1732), wrote The Beggar's Opera, and some pastoral poems.

JAMES THOMSON (1700-1748), born in Roxburghshire wrote a poem called The Seasons, and an allegorical one, The Castle of Indolence.

SIR RICHARD STEELE (about 1709), born in Dublin, edited the Tatler and Guardian.

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU (1690-1762), wrote a series of descriptive letters from Con-. stantinople.

ALLAN RAMSAY (1686–1758), born in Leadhills, Scotland, wrote a pastoral drama called The Gentle Shepherd.

Thomas GRAY (1716–1771), wrote Elegy in a Country Churchyard, Progress of Poesy, The Bard, etc.

EDWARD YOUNG (1681-1765), wrote The Night Thoughts, a poem.

WILLIAM COLLINS (1720-1756), wrote an Ode on the Passions, etc.

MARK AKENSIDE (1721-1770), wrote The Pleasures of the Imagination.

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (1728–1774), wrote The Traveller and The Deserted Village, in verse, The

, Vicar of Wakefield, and other works in


English writers,

CHARLES CHURCHILL (1731–1764), wrote The Rosciad.

TOBIAS SMOLLETT (1721-1771), wrote An Ode to Leven Water, and several novels, Roderick Random, etc.

SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-1784), wrote Vanity of Human Wishes, and London poems; Lives of the Poets; Rasselas, and the Rambler in prose, and composed a dictionary.

Henry FIELDING (1707-1754), wrote the celebrated novels, Tom Jones, and The History of Joseph Andrews.

DAVID HUME (1711-1776), born in Edinburgh, wrote a history of England and some essays.

ADAM SMITH (1723-1790), born in Kirkaldy, wrote a work on political economy called The Wealth of Nations.

SIR WILLIAM BLACKSTONE (1723-1780), Judge of King's Bench, wrote Commentaries on the Laws of England.

HORACE WALPOLE (1718-1797), wrote The Castle of Otranto and Catalogue of Noble Authors.

WILLIAM ROBERTSON (1721–1793), a Scottish clergyman, wrote histories of Scotland, of Charles V., and of America.

EDWARD GIBBON (1737-1794), wrote the history of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

ROBERT BURNS (1759–1796), a Scottish poet, wrote lyrics; chief works, Cottar's Saturday Night, Tam o' Shanter, etc.

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WILLIAM COWPER (1731-1800), moral poet, English

. wrote The Task, The Sofa, and translated Homer.

EDMUND BURKE (1730-1797), born in Dublin, famous orator; chief works, An Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful, and Reflections on the French Revolution.

Hugh BLAIR (1718–1800), a Scottish clergyman, wrote

sermons and lectures on Belles Lettres.

WILLIAM PALEY (1743–1805), Archdeacon of Carlisle; wrote Natural Theology, Horce Paulince, and Evidences of Christianity, etc.

LORD BYRON (1788–1824), poet, wrote Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Bride of Abydos, etc.

DUGALD STEWART (1753-1828), born in Edinburgh, wrote Philosophy of the Human Mind, and Outlines of Moral Philosophy.

SIR WALTER SCOTT (1771-1832), poet and novelist; chief works, The Lady of the Lake, Marmion, The Lay of the last Minstrel, in verse,

, and the Waverley Novels, and Life of Napoleon in


SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE (1772-1834), poet and prose writer; philosopher; author of Christabel, The Ancient Mariner, etc.

ROBERT SOUTHEY (1774-1843), poet and prose writer; wrote Joan of Arc, and Thalaba in verse, and a Life of Nelson, in prose, etc.

Thomas CAMPBELL (1777–1844), poet, author of The Pleasures of Hope, The Battle of the Baltic, etc.

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (1770-1850), poet;

English writers.

author of The Excursion, White Doe of Rylstone, etc.

Thomas MOORE (1780–1851, an Irish lyric poet; wrote Lalla Rookh, and Irish Melodies.

John LINGARD (1769-1851), Roman Catholic, wrote A History of England up to the Revolution.

SAMUEL ROGERS (1762-1855); chief poems, Pleasures of Memory and Italy.

LORD MACAULAY (1800-1859). English historian of the reigns of James II., and part of William III., also wrote Lays of Ancient Rome, and numerous essays on literature and politics.



Showing the changes letters undergo in French

and English words derived from the Latin.

A. A is often changed into ai ; as, Lat. par=equal, Fr. Appendix. pair, Eng. pair. Lat. planus =level, Fr. plain. Lat. placère=to please, Fr. plaire. Lat. vanus rempty, Fr. vain, Eng. vain.

B is often inserted in French words between m and a
liquid; as, Lat. cumulare to heap up, Fr. combler.
Lat. numerus =number, Fr. nombre.

B is often changed into v; as, Lat. gubernare=to steer a ship, Fr. gouverner, Eng. govern. Lat. debere= to owe; Fr. devoir. Lat. habere=to have, Fr. avoir. Lat. liber=free, Fr. livrer, Eng. deliver. Lat. verbena = a sacred plant, Fr. verveine, Eng. vervain.

C. C before a is changed into ch; as, Lat. caballus = horse, Fr. cheval, Eng. chivalry. Lat. carus=dear, Fr. cher, Eng. cherish. Lat. calidus

warm, Fr. chaud. Lat. capitulum=a little head, Fr. chapitre, Eng. chapter. Lat. carmen=song, Fr. charme, Eng. charm. Lat. camera =an arch, Fr. chambre, Eng. chamber. Lat. canis =a dog, Fr. chien. Lat. calx =limestone, Fr. chaux, Eng. chalk. Lat. campus = a field, Fr. champ, Eng. champion.

C before other letters is often changed into g or 8; as,

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