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Appendix. Lat. keen, Fr. aigre. Lat. macer = lean, Fr.

maigre, Eng. meagre. Lat. facimus=we do, Fr. faisons. Lat. licere =to be free, Fr. loisir, Engl. leisure. Lat. crux, genitive crucis=& cross, Fr. croisade, Eng. crusade.

C is often omitted before r or t; as, Lat. auctor=a maker, Fr. auteur, Eng. author. Lat. jactare=to throw, Fr. jeter, Eng. jet. Lat. pectus =the breast, Fr. poitrine. Lat. planctus =a striking of the breast as a sign of grief, Fr. plainte, Eng. plaint. Lat. fructus =profit, Fr. fruit, Eng. fruit. Lat. punctum=& small hole, Fr. point, Eng. point. Lat. sanctus =sacred, Fr. saint, Eng. saint. Lat. lacrima =

=a tear, Fr. larme. C is also often omitted between two vowels ; as, Lat. locus a place, Fr. lieu. Lat. nocere = to injure, Fr. nuire, Eng. nuisance.


D is often changed into j; as, Lat. diurnus =daily, Fr. journal, journée, Eng. journey.

D is often omitted between two vowels; as, Lat. gaudium=gladness, Fr. joie, Eng. joy. Lat. gladius = a sword, Fr. glaive. Lat. fides =faith, Fr. foi, Eng. fealty. Lat. prædicare =to proclaim, Fr. precher, Eng. preach. Lat. radius =a rod, Fr. rayon, Eng. ray. Lat. videre = to see, Fr. voir, Eng. view.


Long e is often changed into ei, oi, and i ; as, Lat. vena =a vein, Fr. veine, Eng. vein. Lat. avena=oats, Fr. avoine. Lat. credere = to believe, Fr. croire. Lat. ecclesia=an assembly (really a Greek word), Fr. église. Lat. cera=wax, Fr. cire.

Short e is often changed into ie; as, Lat. fel=the gall, Fr. fiel. Lat. hedera =ivy, Fr. lierre, corrupted from l'hierre,


Appendix. F is often changed into b in English ; as, Lat. frater, Eng. brother. Lat. ferre, Eng. to bear. Lat. frangere, Eng. to break.

G. G is sometimes changed into j and v; as, Lat. galbanus =yellow, Fr. jaune, Eng. jaundice. Lat. gyrare = to wheel round, Fr. virer, Eng. veer.

It is sometimes changed into y or i; as, rex, genitive regis =a king, Fr. roi, royal, Eng. royalty. Lat. lex, genitive legis =a law, Fr. loi, loyal, Eng. loyalty.

G is often omitted before d and between two vowels ; as, Lat. Magdalena (really a Greek word), Fr. Madeleine, Eng. Maudlin. Lat. Augustus, Fr. Août. Lat. ligare= to bind, Fr. lier, Eng. lien. Lat. pagus = a village, Fr. pays, paysan, Eng. peasant.

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H is generally omitted in French; as, Lat. habere = to have, Fr. avoir. Lat. homora man, Fr. on.

I is often changed into oi ; as, Lat. bibere to drink,
Fr. boire. Lat. digitus =a finger, Fr. doigt. Lat. frigi-
dus =cold, Fr. froid. Lat. minus=less, Fr. moins.

I long by position is often ged into e; as, Lat. imperator =a commander, Fr. empereur, Eng. emperor. Lat. insignera mark, Fr. enseigne, Eng. ensign. Lat. littera, Fr. lettre, Eng. letter. Lat. virga =a rod, Fr. verge, Eng. verger.

I followed by gn or ng is often changed into ei, ai, or a; as, Lat. dignari =to deem worthy, Fr. daigner, Eng. deign. Lat. constringere = to bind together, Fr. contraindre, Eng. constrain. Lat. fingere=to fashion, Fr. feindre, Eng. feint. Lat. lingua=the tongue, Fr. langue, Eng. language. Lat. pingere, Fr. peindre, Eng. to paint.



J is sometimes changed into i and y; as, Lat, major= greater, Fr. maire, Eng. mayor. It is sometimes omitted; as, Lat. adjutare=to help, Fr. aider, Eng. aid.


The letter k is not found in Latin, its place being sapplied by c.


L is often omitted or changed into ll, r, or u; as, Lat. pulvis =dust, Fr. poudre, Eng. powder. Lat. pilare= to pluck off the hair, Fr. piller, Eng. pillage. Lat. delphinus, Fr. dauphin, Eng. dolphin.


M is often changed into n; as, Lat. semita=& path, Fr. sentier. Lat. columna =a column, Fr. colonne, Eng. colonnade.


N is often omitted in French; as, Lat. hiberum= wintry, Fr. hiver. Lat. infernum=infernal, Fr. enfer.

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U long is often changed into eu and ou; as, Lat. copula =a bond, Fr. couple, Eng. couple. Lat. hora, Fr. heure, Eng. hour. Lat. honor, Fr. honneur, Eng. honour. Lat. favor, Fr. faveur, Eng. favour.

O short is sometimes changed into eu and @u, and eo and ee; as, Lat. populus, Fr. peuple, Eng. people. Lat. dos, genitive bovis =

=an ox, Fr. bæuf, Eng. beef. O long by position is sometimes changed into ou, ui, or u; as, Lat. cohors, Fr. cour, Eng. court. Fr. puis, Eng. puny.

Lat. post

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P is often changed into p, v, or f; as, Lat. apotheca= a storehouse (really a Greek work), Fr. boutique. Lat. cooperire, Fr. couvrir, Eng. to cover. Lat. sapor, Fr, saveur, Eng. savour. Lat. caput = head, Fr. chef, Eng. chief.

Qu is sometimes changed into g in the middle of a word; as, Lat. aquila, Fr. aigle, Eng. eagle.

Q is sometimes omitted; as, Lat. coquere, Fr. cuire, Eng. biscuit. Lat. sequi =to follow, Fr. suivre, Eng. pursuivant, pursue.


R sometimes changes its place in French ; as, Lat. temperare, Fr. tremper, Eng. to temper.


Initial S with p, c, and t, often has e prefixed, or is omitted; as, Lat. species =a kind, Fr. espèce, Eng. especial. Lat. scribere=to write, Fr. écrire. Lat. status =a standing, Fr. état, Eng. estate.

Medial s is generally omitted in modern French, and a circumflex is substituted ; as, Lat. festum=a feast, Fr. fête. Lat. apostolus =an apostle (really a Greek word), Fr. apôtre. Lat. asinus =an ass, Fr. âne.


T is often omitted; as, Lat. fraterra brother, Fr. frère, Eng. friar. Lat. ruta = a herb, Fr. rue, Eng. rue. Lat. gluten, Fr. glu, Eng. glue.

T is often changed into c; as, Lat justitium, Fr. justice, Eng. justice. Lat. notitia, Fr. notice, Eng. notice. Lat. pretium =a price, Fr. précieux, Eng. precious.

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U short is sometimes changed into ou and eu; as, Lat. dubitare, Fr. douter, Eng. to doubt. Lat. lupus =& wolf, Fr. loup. Lat. gutta =a drop, Fr. goutte, Eng. gout.


V initial and medial is sometimes changed into b or g; as, Lat. vervex = & wether sheep, Fr. brebis. Lat. serviens =serving, Fr. sergent, Eng. sergeant.

V medial is sometimes omitted ; as, Lat. civitas, Fr. cité, Eng. city.

V final is often changed into f; as, Lat. brevis =short, Fr. bref, Eng. brief. Lat. novus=new, Fr. neuf.


X is sometimes omitted ; as, Lat. extraneus, Fr. étranger, Eng. stranger.

W, y, and > are not found in Latin proper, though some Greek derivatives with an initial z are found in the Latin dictionaries.


The following is the example of utility of punctuation, and the ludicrous effect of the misapplication of stops. It is taken from the prologue in the Pyramus and Thisbe Farce in "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Act V., Scene 1.

Prologue loquitur :-
“If we offend, it is with our good will.

That you should think we come not to offend,
But with good will. To show our simple skill,

That is the true beginning of our end.

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