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Syntax (suntaxis arrangement, Greek) teaches Syntax. the arrangement of words in sentences.

It is subdivided into Concord and Regimen.

Concord (concordia agreement, Lat.) is the Concord. agreement of one word with another in a sentence; as that of the verb with its nominative case.

Regimen (regimen = government, Lat.) is the Regimen. influence or government which one word in a sentence has over another; as that of a transitive verb over the objective case of the following noun.

Prosody (pros = with reference to, and odé = Prosody. an ode, Greek) treats of the accentuation and arrangement of words in verse, their division into metrical feet, and the number of such feet in each line; and the laws of punctuation.

Accent (accentus = tone, Lat.) is the stress Accent. laid by the voice on a particular syllable in pronouncing a word.

Note.—The accent of a word is fixed by custom, and is invariable, though it is sometimes transposed in poetry for the sake of the metre.

Emphasis (emphasis = a speaking on, Greek) Emphasis. is the stress laid by the voice in pronouncing a particular word of a sentence.

Note.—Emphasis is variable, and depends on the will of the speaker, and the effect he intends to produce on his hearers.


In English the accent is generally placed as Accent. near the beginning as possible; that is, the





Orthoepy. genius of the language and the laws of euphony

require the accent nearer the beginning than the end of English words.

In monosyllables, of course, it is on the first syllables.

and only syllable; as, mán.

In dissyllables on the first syllable; as, ty'rant. syllables. Trisyllables. In trisyllables on the first syllable; as,

ty'rannous. Poly

In polysyllables on the antepenult, or the third syllables.

syllable from the end; as, tyrannical.

Such words as lu'minary, au'ditory, etc., are only seeming exceptions, since they are pro

nounced lu'min'ry, au'diťry, etc. Secondary As a general rule, English words have only

one accent; but in trisyllables and polysyllables there is a secondary accent as well as the principle one, which is rendered necessary by the recurrence of the metrical accent in Iambic, Trochaic, and Spondaic verses; as,

“And stripes and árbitráry púnishmént.”--MILTON. Difference In some words, a difference of accent marks

a difference of meaning; asof meaning. Noun.

Verb. an áttribute

to attribute. a consort

to consórt. a concert

to concert. an éxport

to expórt. an import

to impórt. incense

to incense. a rébel

to rebél. a súrvey

to survey. a désert

to desért. etc.


of accent marks a difference

In the above words, the accent is thrown towards the last syllables in the verbs, as they have to take additional syllables in their in- Orthoepy. flections, particularly the long one of -ing, the Accent, termination of the present participle.

The nouns have no such reason for requiring the accent at the end, as the only addition they have to bear in their inflections is that of the letter s, which can be pronounced without the addition of another syllable, except where the noun already ends in s or some sound of s, such as x, soft ch, and ce.

There are several other words in which a difference of accent marks a difference of meaning, without thus distinguishing the noun from the verb as in the above instances.

The accent in most of the words which are French deaccentuated towards the end is due to their French origin; as in privatéer, referée, caréer, pursuit, complaisánt, etc. In some, simply to the necessity of distinguishing words of similar letters but of different meaning, such, as, —


(The month) August An august person. A cómpact (a contract) Compáct (close). Inválid (not binding)

Invalíd (a sick person).
A mínute (60 seconds)

Minúte (small).
A súpine (inflexion of a verb) Supine (careless).
To conjure (magically) To conjúre (to entreat).

Note.—Except for the sake of emphasis or metre, short. monosyllables, when used in close combination with other words, are generally unaccented, both in ordinary speech and in verse ; as,I will be thére. Leáve it alone. On earth. In heaven.

“ I would híde with the beasts of the cháse."

Orthoepy. Measurement of syllables.

The measurement of the length of a syllable in English is determined

(1.) By the length of the vowel : as the o in note, which is long compared with the o in not, which is short; this is generally produced by an e mute at the end.

(2.) By the presence of one or two vowels, or a diphthong: as, feed is long compared with fed; coat with cot; read with red.

(3.) By the number of sounds involved : as ten is short compared with tend or tends; a short vowel followed by two or more nants forming generally a long syllable.

(4.) By the position of the accent or emphasis; as áccent compared with accént; rébel, rebél, etc.





The English Alphabet (Alpha, Beta, the two first letters of the Greek Alphabet) consists of twenty-six letters; of which five are vowels—a, e, i, o, u; two, w and y, are semivowels; and the rest are consonants.

A Vowel (vocalis easily sounded, Lat.) is a sound produced by the emission of the breath anchecked by any of the organs of speech, as the lips, etc.; a, 0, and u, are called broad vowels, from their broad open sound; while e, i, y, are called the short vowels, from their short sharp sound. Wand y are vowels except where they . begin a syllable, as in handy, why, bow. U at

the beginning of some words is pronounced as Ortho

graphy. yu, and may

then be considered a semivowel. Vowels. It then takes the indefinite article a instead of an ; as, a unit, a union, etc.

A Consonant (consonans-sounding together, Consonants. Lat.) is the sound produced by the emission of the breath considerably checked and modified by the different organs of speech, and is so called because it cannot be pronounced without the aid of a vowel; as, f is pronounced eff, etc.

Consonants are divided into mutes and liquids.

The liquids (liquidus = flowing) are l, m, n, r, Liquids. are so called from their flowing sound, as they most readily coalesce with other sounds.

The mutes (mutus=dumb, Lat.) are so called Mutes. because their sound cannot be prolonged to the same extent that vowels and liquids can. They are subdivided into flats and sharps. Each flat has its corresponding sharp; as,

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Sharp mutes ought always to be followed by sharp mutes, and flat mutes by flat mutes; as in the words wept, where the sharp t follows the sharp p; and robbed, where the flat d follows the flat b.

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