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a more vigilant watch over the actions of the English, whom, it was said, he feared; and also more conveniently prosecute the war against the Mahrattas, who had invaded his country, on the side of the Kuttack. Rajah Mhal bears at this day an impoverished aspect; and were it not for the heaps of ruins interspersed through the town and its environs, which have now mouldered into a state of deep decay, it would be difficult to discover, that this place had been, so lately, the principal city of a powerful and opulent chief. Sauntering amongst the ruined buildings, I strayed into a small garden adjoining the bank of the river; where perceiving an old man, employed in digging, I entered into a conversation with him. Happening to be more intelligent than the common class, and agreeably to the period of his life, very narrative, he afforded me much amusement in his relation and remarks. This old Cicerone observed, that the very spot which he was then cultivating, was the site of the Nobet Ghah, or the music-hall of the old palace; and that within his recollection, a capacious garden had extended in front of his littler enclosure, which the Ganges had now swept away. The instability of the monuments of human grandeur cannot, in any region of the globe, I apprehend, be more faithfully, or more grievously exemplified than at.Rajah Mhal; yet I must exclude from this range of ruins the convenient and hospitable house of Mr. Cleveland, which formed a part of the Subahdar's palace.
On the 26th, passed, with a fresh easterly wind, the village of Sickergully, (where a heavy swell had nearly overset the boat) and observed near it a neat building, which had been erected by Mr. Cleveland, for the accommodation of pas- • sengers.
27th.—Saw the town of Pointee, near which, on an eminence, stands an Hindoo, or Maho* metan mansion; and a mosque, now apparently in disuse. Adjacent to these buildings, a monument has been raised to the memory of a Mr. Middleton, who died there, on his journey to Calcutta: these objects would not perhaps deserve notice, did they not present picturesque land-marks.
28th.—The wind being light, and the current strong, the men were obliged to track the boat. These two last days we proceeded only about thirty miles. An evident danger is incurred by approaching the banks of the Ganges during the latter season of the rain, from their frequently falling, being of great height in many places, and chiefly composed of loose soil, the weight of earth descending on a boat, would undoubtedly destroy it.
39th.—At noon, arrived at Jungherah, a
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sm;ill rocky island, on which stands a seminary of Hindoo mendicants, and on one of the sides are seen some figures of very ancient sculpture. A long line of hills, running from the south-east to the north-west, forms here a beautiful termination of a broad range of the river. It has been said, thac Seraje-ud-Dowlah was assassinated at Jungherah, whither he had fled for shelter from the pursuit of Meer Jaffier; but it should seem more probable, that he was apprehended near this place, and carried to Mooreshedabed.
This day, observed the frame of a well, built of bricks, that stood in the middle of the stream, with its wall in perfect condition, full fifteen feet above the surface of the water. It must have pertained to some village, bordering on the Ganges, now destroyed by the encroachment of it-6 flood.
Proceeded this day, about 35 milete, and in the evening, saw Mongheer, where I arrived the next day. The fort is in a decayed condition, as well as the private buildings, which are uninhabited. The situation, which occupies a flat of great extent towards the westward, and has the Ganges on the north, is equally well chosen for defence, and conveniency. One of the angle bastions commands a beautifully winding view of the river, which is closed by a range of distant hills. It appears that the present fort of Mongheer was built by Sultan Shujah, the second son of Shah Jehan,* who governed the provinces of Bahar and Bengal, and was held in high estimation by the natives, for his liberality and equitable administration. As some relation of Sultan Shujah, (especially of the latter period of his life, which was involved in a series of calamity) may excite your attention, and enable me to offer up a tribute of pity to the memory of an unfortunate, but gallant, prince, I will lay it before you, agreeably to the memoirs of M. Bernier, one of the most accurate and ingenious writers, on the history of Hindostan. After the battle of Alhabad, in which he had been worsted, Sultan Shujah retired into the interior parts of Bengal, with his army, where he made a vigorous stand against the arms of the Emperor f. Bernier says, "There re" "mained, now, no other thorn in the side of "AuTungzebe, than Sultan Shujah, who still "maintained himself in Bengal; but he was at "length forced to yield to the power and for"tune of his brother.
* This Prince caused a broad and deep trench to be cut from the river to the hills, (very perceptible tracet of which are now to be seen) for the more effectually defending this post against the attack of Aurungzebe's army, which had pursued him from the upper parts of the country.
"Amir Kumla,* by the numerous bodies of
"troops that had joined him, was enabled to
"hem in the army of Sultan Shujah, on both
"sides of the Ganges, and to compel that prince
"to seek refuge at Dacca, a town situate on
"the extremity of Bengal, towards the sea side;
"and here, ensues the conclusion of the tra
"gedy. The Sultan Shujah, being destitute of
"ships to put to sea, and not knowing whither
"to fly, sent his eldest son, Sultan Banque, to
"the King of Racan.t or Mug, who was of
"Heathen religion, to know, whether he might
"be permitted to take shelter in his country,
'* for a certain time, and when the monsoon, or
"periodical winds should set in, whether he
"could be furnished with a vessel, to carry
"him to Mecca, from whence he intended
"passing into some part of Turkey, or Persia
M Sultan Banque returned to Dacca, with some
"galleasses, manned, with Feringhis, I mean,
"those fugitive Portuguese Christians, who had
"entered into the service of the King of Racan,
** and were employed in no other business than
"ravaging the lower parts of Bengal. The
"young man reporting to his father, that he had
"been kindly received, and had full assurances
"of protection, and assistance given him;
* The Officer commanding the expedition against Sultan Shujah. f More commonly known by the name of Aracan.