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Though the lacerations in my feet gave me much pain, especially at the first setting off, I pursued my journey in good spirits, being protected by the quiet disposition of the people, and sure of procuring a good meal in the evenings, with commodious lodging. The first night, we were received into a retail shop, at Dunshaulah, where I slept on my large blanket, and supped on some spiced meat and biscuits, which my Jumbo host had provided: and at Nagrolah we werte accommodated by a Mahometan family, who supplied me with a standing bed.

On the 19th, at Luttere—eight cosses. The latter part of the journey led me up a high and steep hill, and the sun, then at its meridian height, had nearly overpowered me; when, oh a sudden, I found myself on a summit, where some charitable Hindoo had erected a small, but a cool, building*, plentifully supplied with pots of water. Under this hospitable shade, I was permitted, though a Mahometan, to rest during the day, and to sleep at night. Many Hindoos came in for the benefit of the water and shade, and observing that I Mas lame, they treated me with an attentive kindness, and dispensed with my rising when any of their principal people entered.

* Called, in the language of the country, DurmsalUn, which signifies "A charitable foundation."


Tn the number of those who came to partake of the charitable uses of this house, was a Mahometan, who, ejaculating his Bismillah*, laid himself down, without farther ceremony, in the interior quarter of the apartment. A Hindoo of rank, accompanied by several attendants, entered soon after, and observing that the mendicant had occupied the most convenient as well as honorary place, and that he offered no mark of attention or respect, the Hindoo ordered that his chattels, which were heavy, should be thrown into the road. On exclaiming against this act of ejection, he was told, that though the house was ^erected for the purpose of common accommodation, with no view of excluding any nation or sect; yet in some cases, as in the present, an observance of precedency and deference was necessary. This anecdote will serve to generally delineate the native difference betwixt the temper of a Hindoo and a Mahometan. What <do you think would have been the reception of a Hindoo, particularly of a religious order, had •he come into a karavanserah, in a Mahometan country, and thrown his brass pot, his rice, or peas, into an apartment which Mahometans had previously occupied? Could the Hindoo have

An Ajabick compound word, signifying "In the name of God.'>>


acted with such indiscretion—his punishment would have been more disgraceful and severe than death. From long observation, I can with confidence say, that the Hindoos are a more temperate people, and much more useful in the various relations of life, than any class of Mahometans that have come within my knowledge.

At the vicinity of Nagrolah commence the districts of the Chinnanee chief, a dependent on Jumbo, who possesses a revenue of about a lack of rupees. This chief does not remit any tribute to his superior, but assists his government with a quota of troops in the event of exigency; and conformably to this tenure he now serves in the campaign against the Sicques.

On the 30th, at Chinnanee; a neat and por pulous town, situate on the brow of a hill; at the foot of which, on the eastern side, runs a rapid stream, passing to the left. This channel is passed by means of two stout fir beams, one of which reaches from the shore to an insulated rock in the centre of the current, on which it is fastened by wooden stakes; and the other extends from the rock to the opposite bank. The velocity with which the water was precipitated, its roaring noise, and tlie narrow shaking bridge, gave full occasion for the use of my eye, and thp steadiness of my head. At Chinnanee, I was taxed in the sum of a rupee for permission to cross the river Chinnaun, which forms the western limit of this chiefship.

On the 21st, at Dumomunjee—seven cosses, A few scattered houses, in one of which I was accommodated by a Kashmirian family, who had taken a farm in that quarter. The approach to this village leads through a valley, covered with luxuriant herbage, and interspersed with some of the most beautiful shrubs I ever saw. From Jumbo hither, the road tended, as nearly as I could ascertain, to the east and east-bysouth; but from the vicinity of Dumomunjee it leads to the north and north-by-west*.

On the 22d, at Nausman—nine cosses: a small village in the Kishtewer country; the only independent Hindoo territory I have yet seen in India. This day, crossed the Chinnaun, usually denominated at this place, from the mode of crossing it, the Chickah. The manner of conveying passengers and all sorts of property over this stream is curious, and deserves explanation. The Chinnaun is about seventy or eighty yards broad, and, like the rivers of this part of India, from the declivity of the country, very rapid. On the opposite banks are fixed strong wooden posts, of about four feet in height, on the upper ends of which a stout rope is tightly extended, and is joined below to a smaller one, by hoops of twisted osiers.—In the centre of the small rope, to which only the hoops are firmly attached, hangs a vehicle of net-work, for the conveyance of merchandise and passengers, which is supported from the main rope by a wooden slider, in the form and size of a bullock's yoke, to whose ends the vehicle is fastened; and a sufficient length of both ends of the small rope permits it to be landed on either side of the river. It appears that the seat, or, as it is termed in this country, the Chickah, is by mutual agreement kept on the Kishtewer side, during the night. In defiance of my passport, the officer at the Chinnanee limit, taxed me in an additional fee; and I was also compelled to buy my way through an inferior tribe of harpies, who infested the waterside. Anxious to arrive at the end of the stage, being both hungry and tired, I endeavoured to pacify their clamours; but other demands were yet against me: for this extraordinary race of ferrymen, having conveyed my servant and our little baggage over half of the river, kept them swinging there, and declared, that they should

* My servant informed me that robberies are often committed in these parts, by the inhabitants of an adjacent district; and to avoid which, travellers have been induced to make a deviation from the more direct track. But I apprehend that the abrupt steepness of some of the ranges of mountains in this quarter, has caused this oblique direction."

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