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No apology is required for any well-considered attempt to provide a manual of Mine-Surveying for the use of English readers. The absence of any general work on the subject has long been a source of practical inconvenience alike to teachers and students. The text-books recommended to candidates for the examination in Mine-Surveying held by the City and Guilds of London Institute, namely, Budge's Practical Miner's Guide, published in 1825, and Hoskold's Practical Treatise on Mining, Land, and Railway Surveying, published in 1863, are too limited in their scope, the former dealing only with the mines of Cornwall, the latter only with those of the Forest of Dean; besides which both works are out of print, and increasingly difficult to procure.
The present work is intended primarily for students, and embodies the substance of the course of instruction in MineSurveying given at the Royal School of Mines. At the same time, it will also, it is hoped, be found useful as a companion to the standard works of reference on Land-Surveying.
In the plan of the book, the surveying of collieries and that of metalliferous mines do not receive separate treatment. The two have much in common, and the one may often advantageously borrow a method from the other. Few mine-surveyors in Great Britain appear to be acquainted with the methods and instruments used abroad. This is the more to be regretted, as no mine-surveys made in this country approach in accuracy those of the collieries of Pennsylvania, or those of the metalliferous mines of the Harz. Attention therefore has been directed to the recent improvements in foreign practice. With the exception of a few diagrams borrowed from Professor Rankine's Manual of Civil Engineering, the figures elucidating the text have been specially drawn for this book.
The Appendix of examination-questions and exercises for plotting has been culled from recent papers set at the examinations of the Science and Art Department, of the City and Guilds of London Institute, of the local boards under the Home Office for granting certificates of competency to Colliery Managers, and of various Mining Schools. These will, it is trusted, be found of use to such students as have not the advantage of regular instruction in the subject. It must, however, be borne in mind that the mere reading of a text-book will never make a minesurveyor. The most that a book can do is to help the student to obtain a knowledge of the theory of the subject. The mechanical manipulation of the instruments can only be learnt under the personal supervision of a teacher, whilst the technical skill requisite for carrying out subterranean surveys must be obtained in the mine itself.
I have taken for granted on the part of my readers an elementary knowledge of mathematics, such, for example, as would enable them to pass the second stage of the Science and Art Department's examination in that subject.
In the preparation of the work, I have received valuable help from numerous friends at home and abroad. In particular, I am indebted to Mr. H. W. Hughes, Assoc. R.S.M., F.G.S., for several important additions to the text, and to Mr. A. Pringle, M.A., B.Sc., who ably assisted me while the volume was passing through the press.
BENNETT H. BROUGH.
THE ROYAL SCHOOL OF MINES,
LONDON, February, 1888.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The First Edition having been exhausted sooner than was anticipated, advantage has been taken of the opportunity of a re-issue to correct a few errors that had escaped notice in the former edition, References to some papers published during the year have been inserted, and a frontispiece, copied from Georgius Agricola's De re Metallica (Basel, 1556), has been added. This illustrates the primitive method of connecting the underground and surface surveys by means of a stretched cord and two plumb-lines.