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ceived in 1806 to be 275. per cwt. on 60,000 hogsheads, or 972,000l. But the gross duty received in 1806 was only 673,500l. more than that of 1805- leaving a difference of 298,5ool., answer. ing to about 221,000 cwt., or about 18,400 hogsheads, for Great Britain alone. But it will be said, this estimate proceeds upon the comparison of the gross duties, and makes no ailowance for reexportation. This, however, is favourable to the argument of the West Indians; for the export of 1806 exceeded the export of 1805 by about 7400 hogsheads. And accordingly, the net du. ties of 1806 exceed those of 1805--that is, the duties, after allowing for drawback and bounty-by only 657,7951. ; being a difference in favour of our argument, which answers to about 1000 hogtheads. The difference between the criterion of consumption assumed by the West Indians, and that afforded by the revenue, is still more remarkable in the year 1807. The former makes the consumption of Great Britain less, by about 43,000 hogiheads, than it was in 1806;--the latter, if taken from the gross duties, makes it near 30,000 hogsheads greater ; if taken from the net duties (which, on account of the great increased export of 1807, is certainly much fairer) only about 4103 hogfheads less ; in other words, the revenue shows only about one tenth part of the diminution, which the criterion assumed by the West Indians would establish.

These calculations may be trusted, when different years are to be compared; because, if there is any incorrectness in the principle (and we admit that they only give a wide approximation), the same will affect all the years in the same proportion. But the Committee might, with the greatest ease, have given the account of the revenue, so as to furnish a most accurate criterion of absolute consumption. If, instead of stating merely the sums received as gross duty, the sums paid in drawback, and the sums paid in bounties, under these three general heads, they had stated the proportion of drawback paid upon export of muscovado, and the proportion paid, in name of bounty, upon ground or powdered refined sugar, (both of which payments are classed under the head of drawback by the statute, vid. 45. Geo. III, c. 93, and all the other acts regulating the drawbacks on sugars); and had also stated the proportion of bounty paid upon refined sugar in loaf, and bastards; it would have been easy to ascertain the quantity of sugar reexported after payment of duty; and the difference between this and the quantity which had paid duty would give the total consumption, independent of smuggling. We shall add the formula of the account which we should wish to see produced, in order to prevent all misapprehension.




Gross duties Drawback on
received. Moscovado.

If the arrangements at the customs do not allow of this account, much might be gained by a clear statement of the rates at which the bounties were paid,--that is, of the proportions in which those bounties were allowed at the different sums specified in the statutes : and an account, showing the proportion of sugar réexported without payment of duties, to that reexported after payment, distinguishing refined from raw, would answer nearly the same purpose. As we are wholly destitute of the lights which such statements would afford, we must endeavour to grope our way, as far as we can, towards the object of our search ;-and the only path which we have been able to find, is the following: It is known, that one cwt. of muscovado sugar yields about five tenths of refined loaf, and two tenths of bastards. We may suppose, that the quantity of refined, exported, (independent of the powdered, which ranks with muscovado), consists of these two kinds in the proportion just now specified. If so, we can calculate the amount to which the bounty corresponds ; for "se have two equations, and only two unknown quantities. The operation is very simple, and may be seen below : * it leads to this rule, -Multiply the number of shillings in the bounty paid any year by seven, and divide by the sum of five times the number of shillings in the average bounty payable that vear per cwt. on loaf, and by twice the number of shillings in the average bounty per cwt. 011 bastards; the quotient gives the number of cwts. of refined and bastards exported : increase this in the proportion of seven to ten, on account of molasses and waste; and you obtain the whole VOL. XIII. NO. 26.



* Let à = whole bounty paid in any year; m = average bounty per cwt. on refined loaf in that year; n = average bounty on bastards; x = total of cwts. of both sorts exported; 3 = total of cuts. of refined loaf exported :-We have y: x - Y::5:2, and y = id; also my + n (x-y) = a; or (m —- n) y + nx = 0, and (m—n) +n x = a, or x = 5m 7.21

Whence the quantity of inuscovado corresponding is casily found, being topr as 10 to 7


full 7 per cent. This gives, when compared with the five years ending 1790, a very trifling augmentation of quantity_only 4000 hogsheads; therefore we may expect the consumption to fall nearly to its former level, when the prices shall rise to their former rate. The average import of the three years ending 1807, was 307,000. Of this it is probable that a good deal more could be consumed, were the price again raised to 575., than was consumed at that price eleven years ago. If we allow 18,000 hogsheads for this increase, we have a home consumption of 150,000; and we are the rather disposed to think this estimate not greatly wide of the truth, because it supposes that as much sugar will be consumed at 845., duties included, as was twenty years ago consumed when the gross price was only 45s. It supposes the middle classes of the community to spend above three millions and a half more than they formerly did upon the same quantity of sugar, besides the rise of the retailer and refiner's profits; a very ample allowance both for the progress of wealth and the depreciation of money.

Let us next consider what the export of the remainder is likely to be. The average export during four years ending 1797, was annually 56,500 hogsheads. In this period we had possession of several foreign colonies. Tobago was taken in April 1793 ; Martinico in March 1794; St Lucia in April of the same year. These islands, producing nearly 28,000 hogsheads, we retained during the whole of this period. Guadaloupe was captured in April, and retaken in December 1794 ; and from St Domingo we imported, in 1798, above 2000 hogsheads. We had possession of much greater part of it during the period in question : 50 that, allowing for the supply of Guadaloupe in 1794, and making no calculation on account of Trinidad, which we consider as a colony permanently British, * the average yearly import from the conquered colonies, in that period, must be estimated at 35,000 hoursheads. Deducting this from the total export from Great Britain to the Continent, we have 21,500 hogsheads as the average annual quantity of British colony sugars required by the demand of the Continent during four years ending 1797. Since that period, the enemy's produce has been much more easily and systematically conveyed to Europe, by the intervention of neutrals, than it was in the earlier stages of the war. + The quantity of that produce has also increased most rapidly, as we had occasion to show in our former Number. Nothing but the extreme depression of prices at which British produce was sold,


* It was captured February 1797 ; but its produce was then very

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