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modes of cultivation, and machinery adopted for watering the grounds; the different breeds of cattle; the extent and tenures of the farms, and the usual price of labour; the cultivation and preparation of cotton, pepper, sandal wood and cardamums, and the means by which these may be extended; the state of the manufactures and manufacturers; the climate and seasons of Mysor ; and, lastly, the general condition of the inhabitants with respect to food, clothing and habitations, as well as the subdivision of casts and tribes prevalent among them. It was stated, that the information expected to result from this investigation, might not only prove advantageous to Mysor itself, but that a comparison with the situation of other parts of the Company's territories in those particulars, might eventually lead to improvements in agriculture and manufactures there also, and open channels of commerce hitherto unexplored. · The English reader has frequently ascended the lofty moun. tains which support the flat but elevated land of Mysor, in the train of hostile armies, marking the wide-spreading desolation of war, or pursuing the flying hosts of Indian cavalry, till stopped by some fortress which nature meant to be impregnable. In retracing these steps, in the suite of a mission suggested solely by benevolent views, our sensations acquire force by contrast, and novelty adds her charm to the illusion.
Dr Buchanan began his journey from Madras on the 23d April 1800. His route through the Company's Jaghir, lay nearly in a westerly direction ; and the frequent occurrence of inns or choultriés, evinces an attention to travellers. At these places, the poorest, without expense, have shelter from the inclemencies of the weather; and the richest traveller can purchase, both for himseif and his cattle, at least the necessaries of life.' The tank of Swagambrahm is formed by shutting up, with an artificial bank, an opening between two natural ridges of ground, and contains an expanse of water seven or eight miles in length, and three in width. This, applied to the purpose of irrigation during the dry season, is sufficient to supply with water, during eighteen months, the lands of 32 villages, containing 5000 persons employed in agriculture. A level country, and wretched soil, extends to Conjeveram ; but the affluent natives have, in pursuance of their religious tenets, contributed to the comfort and fertility of the country, by the erection of choultries, or the excavation of tanks. Conjeveram is a large and regular, but not a populous town. The Brahmans belonging to two great temples, are the principal inhabitants. A desolate country, little capable of improvement, extends nearly to Arcot, excepting where the tank of Caveripak supplies moisture to the parched soil. Arcot is seated on the Pa
and army, scarcely any manufactures having been established.' Having procured from the minister authority to call upon all the native officers for information, our author, after inspecting the country contiguous to Seringapatnam, proceeded to visit the chief places of the Rajah's dominions, returning at the end of each tour to the capital, as a central situation.
His first tour embraced the districts situated towards the northeast. In this direction much arable land is unoccupied, even near the capital. The depopulation occasioned by the march of hostile armies renders unavailing, at Muduru, the beneficent labours of an antient Hindu prince, for the irrigation of his dominions. Chinapatan possesses manufactures of glass and steel wire, and extensive plantations of coco nut and betel palms in its vicinity. Numerous herds of cows and goats pasture near the banks of the Arcayati. The hilly tract near it is inhabited by a tribe in a very dow state of civilization, but whose language attests their Hindu origin.
The trade of Bangalor, formerly considerable for an inland mart, begins to revive. It consists principally in betel nut, black pepper, sandal, and woollen cloths, which are universally worn throughout the Mysor dominions. From Bangalor, Dr Buchanan proceeded north-east, through a country generally level, but mostly uncultivated, to Colar, the birth-place of Hyder. The vicinity of Colar, formerly the capital of a province subject to the Mohamedan sovereign of Vigayapur, is fertile, and well cultivated, but entirely dependent on artificial irrigation. This mart escaped the ruin which awaited Bangalor in the late hostilities, and continues a thriving emporium, whence the imports and productions of the coasts are disseminated in the interior districts. From Colar in a north-westerly direction to Silagutti, a depopulated country bears only the traces of former prosperity. Little Balapur was formerly a place of great commerce, and is again beginning to revive. It at present contains 400 houses. The soil of the neighbouring lands is fertile, but the scantiness and poverty of the inhabitants impedes its cultivation.
Great Balapur contains 2000 houses, and was formerly the seat of a polygar, become independent after the fall of Vijayanagar. The route to Sira discovered the same marks of present depopulation and former prosperity. That city was ruined by Tippu, who removed 12,000 of the inhabitants to the suburbs of his capital. In addition to the causes so frequently assigned for the scanty cultivation, the dryness of the climate concurs, in Sira, to discourage the labours of the husbandman. From Şira, Dr Buchanan visited the pastoral country which skirts the frontiers of the Nizam's dominions, and returned to Seringapatnam by a different route.
of the state of their respective districts, as a foundation for the bundubust or settlement of the ensuing year. The great financial operation of Lord Cornwallis just alluded to, was the result of much investigation and local research. Since its establishment, various circumstances, of an incidental nature, have rendered local inquiries indispensable. The whole of the documents produced by these inquiries are now in the possession of the Bengal government, and constitute ample and authentic materials for a regular statistical work, superior, probably, to any that could be obtained in most kingdoms of Europe. The extension of the permanent settlement to the peninsula, has rendered similar information necessary there. Dr Buchanan's travels show what progress the gentlemen recently appointed to the charge of districts, had already made in procuring valuable and solid materials for judging of the state of the country. The established officers of government had, indeed, many advantages of which Dr Buchanan was destitute. The object of their inquiries was understood and definite. Falsehood would have incurred, and deserved punishment. Previous acquaintance with the districts, long residence, and personal reputation, furnished in abundance the means of detection. Under widely different circumstances were the inquiries of our author conducted. Notwithstanding the adjustment of the treaty, it might perhaps be allowable even for the minister himself to suspect, that a discovery of unexpected resources might pave the way for additional demands by the English government. The inquiries of our author must, on the other hand, have suggested to the peasantry new demands of rent; and concealment and evasion would of course be employed to elude them.
In appreciating, therefore, the correctness of the information contained in these pages, we must never lose sight of the impression under which it was given. Every thing the author has seen is described perspicuously, unaffectedly, and, beyond all que-stion, with the strictest veracity. All that he has heard we are disposed to receive with no common portion of scepticism. Thus, when he describes the simple processes of husbandry enployed by the Hindu peasantry, we rely implicitly on his account: But when, advancing further, he attempts to ascertain the produce of the field, and its numerary value, whence an inference might be drawn as to the ability of the husbandman to submit to an increase of rent, our scepticism returns with redoubled force.
One lamentable defect appears to have been unavoidable, from the nature of his instructions,—that of treating subjects which his information by no means qualified him even to investigate; for in nothing, perhaps, is knowledge more requisite, than to enable