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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye.”_WORDSWORTH.

net.

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 1904.

cannot see by what possible stretch of the imagination the achievements of, say, Marconi can be traced back to the prophecies of Galileo in 1632.

Mr. Sewall's method of compiling history appears APPLIED ELECTRICITY.

to consist chiefly. in making extracts from patents. (1) Wireless Telegraphy. By C. H. Sewall. Pp. 229.

Page after page of the book before us contains nothing (London : Crosby Lockwood and Son, 1903.) Price

more than reprints from the patents of Lodge, Marconi, 108, 6d, net.

Fessenden, and others, sometimes verbatim in inverted (2) Electricity in Agriculture and Horticulture. Ву

commas, at others with slightly altered · context Prof. S. Lemström. Pp. sv +72. (London: The

as original matter. We imagine it must be easier Electrician Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd., 1904.)

to write books in this way than it is interesting to read (3) Modern Electric Practice. Vol. iv. Edited by

them. Mr. Sewall would have been much better Magnus Maclean. Pp. viii + 304. (London : The

advised, we think, to digest his material properly and Gresham Publishing Co., 1904.)

present it to his readers in some more acceptable form. (4) The Theory of the Lead Accumulator.

By F.

He could then have given a connected account of the Dolezalek. Translated by C. L. von Ende. Pp.

remarkable developments that have followed the diskii+247. (New York: John Wiley and Sons;

coveries of Maxwell and Hertz which would have been London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1904.) Price

of great practical use-to students of the subject. At 105. 60. net.

present we doubt if his book is intelligible to the (5) Electric Motors. By H. M. Hobart. Pp. X+458.

amateur 'or useful to the expert. (London: Whittaker and Co., 1904.) Price 125. 60.

(2) The late Prof. S. Lemström occupied himself for 16) Notices sur l'Électricité. By A. Cornu. Pp. vii +

many years with experiments on the effect of electricity

on growing plants, and this little book contains the 274. (Paris : Gauthier-Villars, 1904.)

results of his work. If the conclusions at which the francs.

author arrives are confirmed by the work of other in(7) L'Année Technique (1902–1903). By A. Da Cunha.

vestigators, the subject is one which merits the most Pp. 303. (Paris : Librairie Gauthier-Villars, 1903.) careful consideration by all agriculturists. Practically Price 3.50 francs.

only one type of experiment was tried; an influence

machine was connected with one pole to earth and the recent development, it is apparently regarded other to a wire network over a field in which the crops by many as a legitimate subject for historical writing. were being grown. A discharge current could thus be The first volume before us is one of several which have passed either from the network to earth or vice verså appeared in the last three or four years in which the for any desired number of hours a day. The experihistorical progress of wireless telegraphy is dealt with ments were tried on a comparatively large scale in rather than its scientific principles. The book possesses several different localities. The effect produced by to our mind the same faults which characterise all the this treatment was remarkable. There other similar publications which we have read; there average excess of the crop of the experimental field is a lack of discrimination in the selection of material over that of a control field of 45 per cent. ; the shich is likely to leave the untechnical reader in a

varies considerably with the

nature of stale of considerable confusion. Wireless telęgraphy | the crop and the conditions, soil, weather, &c. Not as we know it to-day is wholly concerned with Hertzian only is this increase in quantity produced, but there is wave telegraphy, and even if accounts of the experi- also often an improvement in quality and a diminution ments of Lindsay and others in telegraphy by earth or in the time taken for the plants to mature. This last Water conduction should be regarded as legitimate, we is a factor often of great importance to the grower, NO. 1827, VOL. 71]

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who can realise much higher prices by selling early in The book is divided into two parts, the first dealing the season. Prof. Lemström calculated that in the case with continuous and the second with alternating of wheat the outlay on a field of 25 acres will be repaid current motors. The relative advantages of different in two or three years, and that afterwards a net profit types are considered in detail, and there are numerous of 401. a year or more can be realised. We cannot here calculations of motors of different types and capacities. enter into the details of the working, such as the best In addition, there are a large number of curves, time of electrification, the effect of wet and dry weather, diagrams, and photographs. and so forth, but we should strongly advise those (6) The essays which are comprised in M. Cornu's interested in the subject to study this book carefully; little book were written with a special and rather they will find it full of valuable suggestions, and the peculiar object, the author having been requested by time spent in reading it will be amply repaid.

some of his old pupils, who had been unable to keep (3) We have already reviewed the first three volumes touch with the rapid development of electrical engineerof this publication, so that it is only necessary here to ing, to write for them something which would enable refer briefly to the matter contained in the present them to appreciate better the technical or semi-technical volume. This is devoted to electric tramways, and literature of to-day. These Notices" is divided into seven chapters, dealing with overhead quently of a somewhat elementary character, nor can construction, feeders, surface contact systems, con- the book be regarded in any sense as a text-book of duit systems, rolling stock, electric boats and motor electricity. But M, Cornu has succeeded in writing a cars, and electric traction on railways. The defects book which should appeal to a very much larger to which we alluded in our previous review are not audience than that for which it was originally in. so noticeable in this volume, which furnishes a good tended; one cannot look through its pages without description of a very important branch of electrical realising at every point that it is the work of a master, engineering The excellence of the illustrations is a

and such works repay study by all-the most advanced characteristic of the whole production, and is a par- as well as the most elementary students. The beticularly valuable feature in the present instance, as the ginner will find here ideas expressed clearly and subjects are such that they cannot be effectually de- concisely, and cannot fail to derive great benefit from scribed without numerous photographs and diagrams. the book as an introduction to more detailed treatises.

(4) This exceedingly interesting monograph on the The engineer will see well known facts expressed in much debated theory of the chemical reactions taking new and suggestive language, and will doubtless have place in the lead accumulator is probably already well his own views enlarged in consequence. The subjects known in the original German to those who have con- dealt with are the correlation of the phenomena of cerned themselves specially with this subject. Since static and dynamic electricity, generators, transmission the book first appeared the discussion has progressed of power and polyphase currents, and we would a stage further, so that the English translation may strongly recommend anyone interested in any of these be said to be out of date to a certain extent. This is, matters to spend a few hours reading M. Cornu's however, the penalty that the average English student admirable booklet. has to pay for the neglect of his schoolmasters to (7) We cannot help being conscious that the end of teach him German, and he will probably therefore 1904 is rather late in the day to review a book which welcome the appearance of an English translation. contains a résumé of the technical achievements of Herr Dolezalek treats the subject from the standpoint of 1903 Still, as we gather that this publication is Nernst's osmotic theory, and shows that thermo- intended to appear annually, this notice may be of chemical considerations all point to the validity of the some service in directing readers' attention to the sulphate theory originally advanced by Gladstone and volume dealing with this year's progress, which we Tribe. Whether the author will succeed in satisfying imagine will appear very soon; in addition, it may be others to the same extent as he has apparently satisfied pleaded that the lapse of time enables one to see matters himself may be regarded as open to question, but in more in the right perspective, and so to form a better any case the book is one which cannot be neglected by estimate of the value of M. Da Cunha's work. The anyone wishing to study this complicated but fascin- book ranges over a great variety of subjects. Thus ating problem.

we find at one place a mathematical calculation of the (5) The design and construction of electric motors mechanical problems involved in " looping the loop," is becoming daily a matter of more importance to and in another a discussion of alcoholism and temperelectrical engineers on account of the very rapid ance worthy of the columns of a daily paper in the extension of the use of electricity for power purposes. silly season. Between these extremes lie such subjects When one considers the enormous number of tramcars, as the progress in wireless telegraphy, automobilism, lifts, factories, &c., which are driven by electricity, it aërial navigation, and the hundred and one other is easy to see not only how important the subject is, but technical developments which are taking place in all also how very varied is the work which the electric branches of applied science. To the engineer the book motor is called upon to perform. If the development can serve no other purpose than to while away an idle now is great, in a few years' time, when some of the hour or so. The general reader who is interested in numerous power schemes are more matured, it will be scientific and technical progress may read it with both much greater still. The student of electrical engineer- profit and pleasure. He will find the descriptions clear, ing may find here ample scope for his abilities, and he the style agreeable, and the illustrations and diagrams cannot consult a better guide than the volume before us. in many cases excellent.

M. S.

arose."

ADOLESCENCE.

practical interests are closely blended. Underlying the

scientific treatment there may be said to be two leadAdolescence: its Psychology and its Relations to ing principles. One principle is that of the intimate

Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, union, or rather the identity, of physiological and
Religion. By G. Stanley Hall, Ph.D., LL.D., psychological processes.
President of Clark University and Professor of

“ More summarily, then,” he says, " the idea of Psychology and Pedagogy. Vol. i., pp. xx +589; soul we hold to is in its lower stages indistinguishable vol. ii., pp. vi+784. (New York : D. Appleton and

from that of life, and so far in a sense we revert to Co., 1904.) Price 315. 6d. net.

Aristotle, in holding that any truly scientific psycho

logy must be first of all biological. ... The first THIS "HIS work is one of wide-reaching scope and chapter of a scientific psychology, then, is metabolic

interest. The subject of human growth has and nutritive, and the first function of the soul is in already been studied in relation to the earlier years food getting, assimilation, and dissimilation." and in its special features. The period intervening

The other principle, of greater novelty and interest, between childhood and adult life, which has been com

is the application of the recapitulation theory to the paratively neglected, is the one to which Dr. Hall has mental as well as the bodily life of childhood and youth. directed his investigation. The work is thus of interest in focussing attention on an important section of recapitulation theory in the biologic field, I am now

“Realising the limitations and qualifications of the human life; it is of value also in that the results of convinced that its psychogenetic applications have a biology and anthropology are freely used in supple- method of their own, and although the time has not menting and interpreting the data which are gained yet come when any formulation of these can have much from physiological and psychological investigation. value, I have done the best with each instance as it

The first three chapters deal mainly with physical growth, taking up in order the increase in height and In his application of this theory Dr. Hall is unweight, the growth of parts and organs, and the doubtedly original, but it is strange that among the growth in muscular power. The next two chapters many references to the literature of the subject there deal with the physical and mental disorders of should be no mention of the work of Baldwin on adolescence, and with juvenile faults and immorality. “Mental Development in the Child and the Race,” in Sex is taken up in three chapters, one relating to boys which the same theory is applied in detail. and two to girls; of these two chapters one deals with That the work took its origin in courses of lectures the physiology of sex, the other with its bearing on may perhaps explain in part the diffuseness and repetieducation. Dr. Hall insists with great earnestness on tion which appear in these pages. There is an unthe necessity of ceasing to mould woman's education necessarily frequent use of strange words; one is at a on that of man, and of finding an education which loss to understand, for example, what is meant by the shall be adapted to her nature, physical and mental. solipsistic hopo and by minds that are rily." The volume closes with an account of adolescence in One meets with long lists of objects and with masses literature, biography, and history.

of facts which are not adequately correlated. In the second volume, after a preliminary survey of It is impossible to enter on a discussion of the many changes in the senses and in voice, the emotional theoretical and practical questions which are raised. phenomena of adolescence are treated under the head. The treatment of the material, gathered from the most ings of adolescent love and adolescent feeling towards varied sources, is original and suggestive in a high nature. Several chapters deal with social and degree; but among the wealth of new material and historical relations; initiations in savage and classical new conceptions one misses an exact discussion of the times, confirmation as their correlative in modern method by which the processes of psychogenesis are to religion, the social instincts and institutions of youth, be ascertained. Prominent among the data in the ethnic psychology, and the treatment of uncivilised book are the results of the questionnaires which have races, form the subject of successive discussions. In been so much used by Dr. Hall and his pupils. We treating the subject of religious conversion, Dr. Hall have, however, no presentation of the difficulties points out that it is peculiarly a phenomenon of inherent in such a method of investigation, and of the adolescence, and that it has close relations to the sexual precautions to be adopted in utilising its results. life. “ It is thus," he says, “no accidental syn. Apart from this special point there is the difficulty, chronism of unrelated events that the age of religion which does not receive adequate attention, of disand that of sexual maturity coincide.” In the chapter tinguishing in any stage of adolescent development on intellectual development and education there is a what is to be regarded as “ palæopsychic,” what is careful review of education in school and college, and due to traditions and customs handed down from a discussion of its value in the light of the results generation to generation of boys and girls, and lastly, presented in preceding sections. Dr. Hall does not what is conditioned primarily by the awakening mental hesitate to condemn vigorously and comprehensively and physical activity of the individual as he reacts on the studies and methods of schools for their aridity his experience. There is not sufficient treatment and want of vital relation to the developing individual, of the idea of individual growth in completeness and and though his criticisms are directed to American complexity, and of its relation to factors of deschools, they have a wider application.

velopment, the meaning of which is to be sought in It will thus be seen that we have in these volumes past organic history; and one feels that some of the a text-book of adolescence in which scientific and suggestions of racial influences are little more than

66

one

Our

an

rare

interesting fancies. We may illustrate these points by tion of no less than eighteen Black Terns, more than reference to the author's interpretation of the child's fifty Turnstones, several Common and Arctic Terns, attitude towards water. Human infants, we are told a number of Dunlins, Grey Plovers, Whimbrel and in one passage, have an untaught horror of water, and Godwits, and not least worthy of a glance, three man must learn to swim. This is part of the evidence Spoonbills.” that there are psychic vestiges in man which are To who is learned in the fishes of suggestive of former arboreal life.” Again, we learn seas, ready access to Yarmouth Market, and

have that “ children are phyletically older than women, and extensive acquaintance among the fishermen

been after the first shock and fright most of them take the a great advantage, and many a

fish greatest delight in water.” This, among other pheno- has the author rescued from oblivion and added mena, may be interpreted as a pelagic vestige." Do to the east coast catalogue of fishes. Not the least we need arboreal or pelagic vestiges to account for the valuable part of the book is that containing the fish fact that, while some children dislike water at first notes, although the bulk of the volume deals with

and and others delight in it, most of them in the end find birds, their migrations habits. Among the it an excellent plaything?

W. G. S. various interesting scraps of information here collected

we find record of the value of birds and the prices

realised by the wildfowler and at the sales of noted A NATURALIST ON THE EAST COAST.

collections; accounts of wildfowl brought into the Notes of an East Coast Naturalist. By Arthur H. market in hard winters, and incidents related by old

Patterson. Illustrated in colour by F. Southgate. | time wildfowlers, whose habits and customs, as well Pp. xiv + 304. (London : Methuen and Co., n.d.) as their recollections of the hard winters and wildfowl Price 6s.

of the “ old days,” are most amusing. Whales, crabs, "HE author of these notes, who has been in the lobsters, toads, insects, and rats all find a place in

a moored on Breydon Water and other East Anglian valuable paragraphs relate to the old English black lagoons, has naturally enjoyed opportunities of making rat, now extinct in most parts of the country, but so observations which are given to few people; for abundant in the malthouses and sail lofts of Yarmouth Breydon is a locality probably more famous than any that Mr. Patterson can write of “a plague of Black other in the annals of British ornithology as a place Rats.” This and many other of the records are well where rare birds are in the habit of “ dropping in.” worth preserving as of permanent value, and the Moreover, as all field naturalists know, early morning author is quite justified in thinking that some value and nightfall, ay, even night itself, are the times when may attach to these notes and observations "owing the good things of their lives come to them. Hence

to their dealing with a period during which great the advantage of living on the field. In the latter part changes have taken place in the habitat of the local

fauna.' of the quarter of a century which these notes cover the author discarded the gun in favour of the field-glass,

The twelve plates of bird-life reproduced in colours and could thus give undivided attention to observation

are among the most pleasing things of the kind we without being distracted by the hopes and fears

have seen, and these alone make the book one which 'attendant on the wildfowler's efforts to obtain "a

all field naturalists will like to put on their shelves. shot.”

O. V. A. Breydon is a very carefully protected breeding area. A watcher has been stationed there for several years

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR BEGINNERS. during the close season; but it will perhaps be disappointing (although we hope it may prove instructive) Tables for Qualitative Chemical Analysis. By Prof. to ardent advocates of county council" orders ” to

A. Liversidge, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (London: find that Mr. Patterson writes, “I must, however,

Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 4s. 6d. net. state that since stricter preservation has obtained, not THE

'HE introductory chapter of Prof. Liversidge's nearly so many birds are to be seen on Breydon. ' book makes it clear that it is only when It is impossible to deny the fact that no amount of analytical methods are used intelligently that the time preservation will bring back the breeding birds which devoted to qualitative analysis is well spent, and to "left us with the spread of population and buildings, and that end the student must have some preliminary the alterations in the system of agriculture. The training in other kinds of simple practical work (not spoonbills come and go in safety, but the late date at described in the book), and be frequently supervised, which they arrive shows that nesting is not the object | lectured to, and examined as his work progresses. of their visits. As a former east coast naturalist, re- All this is very right and proper, and quite as it markable for his common-sense views of such subjects, should be, but leaving out the excellent counsel of wrote years ago, “ Unless England becomes dis-i perfection set forth in the introduction, the book is peopled and uncultivated, nothing can ever bring back' very much like other books on this subject. That in numbers or variety the wealth of the ancient avi- is to say, it describes a series of qualitative tests in fauna." But for all that the naturalist still “ has his which inorganic and organic bases and acids, rare delights" on Breydon; as, for instance, on May 15, metals, and alkaloids are treated individually, and '1893, when the author, paddling up stream, saw on then collectively in tables after the old-established lumps” still uncovered by water congrega

manner and with the old-established purpose.

the

a

It should be stated, however, that some attempt is

OUR BOOK SHELF. made to introduce quantitative notions into the Les Lois naturelles. By Félix Le Dantec. Pp. qualitative methods by using roughly weighed

xvi + 308. (Paris : Félix Alcan, 1904.) Price amounts of the substances; but the effect is somewhat 6 francs. discounted by the frequent omission of the quantity Just as anyone can play the piano" with a pianoand strength of the reagents. I refer more particu- player, so anyone can write a book on the philosophy larly to the use of " drops," which may vary con

of science. The result gives satisfaction and pleasure siderably in bulk, and to the omission of the strength other, but whether his particular interpretation is

to the performer in one case and to the writer in the of the acids.

equally satisfying to an outsider is another question. Prof. Liversidge attaches great importance to The effects are, however, more lasting in the case the study of qualitative analysis as a means as well of the author, for we are getting such an enormous as an end of chemical education. It is an opinion accumulation of books on space, matter, force, the very widely held, and is well worth discussing.

ether, and laws of nature that it is becoming a The fact is sometimes lost sight of that chemistry their pages, if the publisher has failed to attend to his

wonder who finds time to read them or even to cut is a handicraft as well as a science, and that its

proper duties in this respect. science is as yet not exact.

Let us examine how M. Le Dantec deals with Perhaps there is no branch of chemistry wherein thermodynamical considerations. In commencing the skill of the craftsman is in greater demand, or he supposes bodies to have definite thermic masses, the inexactness of the science more clearly emphasised, and he defines quantities of heat by the products of than in chemical analysis.

these masses into the changes of temperature. He A student may study intelligently the reactions for according to which the heat gained by one body is

also enunciates the principle of conservation of heat individual elements, and so learn their properties; but equal to that lost by another. But in the first place he finds that when they are mixed they behave the quantities which he calls thermic masses are not differently, and the more observant and careful he is constant for the same body between the same limits the more will these subtle influences, which conform of temperature, but they also depend on whether the to no equation, become apparent.

changes take place at constant pressure or constant

volume; and, in the second place, his equation of conNo substance is insoluble; mass action is a power- servation of heat is contrary to common experience ful factor; a precipitate will carry down a substance of what happens when two rough bodies rub against which should, for all he knows, remain in solution, each other. In the next chapter the author goes on and a substance will retain another in solution a different tack, and speaks of the equivalence of which, for equally occult reasons, should form a quantities of work and quantities of heat, quite precipitate.

regardless (to all outside appearances) of the fact

that the term “ quantity of heat” is meaningless Tables for the analysis of mixtures, which are

except in the case of passage of heat from one body based on the behaviour of single substances by a

to another. In the next chapter the author condemns process of simple logic, become artificial and illusory, the use of the term “ quantity of heat " altogether. and give a sense of false security which subsequent | What ideas can a reader form of the nature of experience alone can dispel.

physical laws after perusing such a series of chapters

as this? Is this a subject for extended study on the part of a beginner in chemistry? In the opinion of the Nature Teaching. By F. Watts and W. G. Freeman.

Pp. xi+ 193. writer the preparation of simple substances and a

(London : Murray, 1904.) Price careful study of their properties, into which the general principles of qualitative and quantitative This little book forms a welcome change from the

many appearing under similar titles in that it is analysis are introduced, is his proper sphere of work. The host of reactions and elaborate tables of separa-things about which the writers really know and have

avowedly based upon experiments, and treats of tions, and still the countless precautions,

not merely read up.' Dealing in the main with the life kunstgriffe, and manipulative details of practical of the plant, it describes a simple series of experiments analysis are a part of the handicraft of the specialist within the capacity of an elementary school or an evenin chemistry. To thrust this work upon a beginnering continuation class, illustrating the function of seed,

root, stem, leaf, &c., and amplifying the knowledge who is not to be a specialist is almost equivalent to

thus obtained with further examples drawn from the expecting a student of mechanics, who is not to be practice of the garden or the farm. A certain lack of an engineer, to work a lathe use a planing | definiteness in the description of experiments militates machine.

at times against the spirit in which the book has been The crux of the whole question lies in this, that conceived ; in a subject where everything depends upon

the cultivation of accurate observation and rigorous qualitative analysis is a branch of practical work, call

scientific method the authors should not allow theming itself chemistry, which can be easily adapted to the

selves to fall into the slipshod generalised accounts of process of examination. Were the practical examin- things which are the bane of so much of the current ation banished from the syllabus and replaced by note-teaching of this nature. For instance, in their account books supervised, signed and submitted by the of striking cuttings, the authors do not direct attention responsible demonstrator or teacher of recognised to the differences in the management of herbaceous standing, the mass of ill-digested analytical tests and and woody cuttings, the time of year at which they

should be struck, and so forth, so that the teacher withtables would soon vanish from the curricula of

out experience would be apt to fumble over the matter schools and colleges, and its place supplied by a series at first, and would in real life be discouraged from tryof rational exercises.

J. B. C.

ing any experiments in this particular direction unless

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