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than 17 per cent. occur the population is termed blond, REPORT OF THE SURVEY OF INDIA. where more than 30 per cent. dark. According to this grouping the two extremes are the THE Indian Survey report is a full record of useful
work and widespread progress, but it lacks some of Swedish (3 per cent. brunettes) and southern Italy (70 per
the interest which used to attach formerly to the very varied cent.). From this point of view the map showed that north
character of the work undertaken by the Survey department. Europe was mainly blond, South Europe dark, and Central
The scientific section of the report is included within the Europe intermediate. He traced the southern limit of the
limits of a few pages; and the narratives of individual blond races through the various countries, showing that it nowhere reached below the 50th parallel in Central Europe,
surveyors (which always formed a most interesting chapter
or two) have entirely disappeared. and below 55th parallel in Britain and Russia. The northern
The main work of the department, now, is the revision of limit of the dark peoples is more irregular. In the inter
old mapping in districts which have been sorely in need of mediate zone blond areas are rare (one of these occur in
such revision for many years. The plains of India, in fact, south England, i.e. Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Hampshire, Sussex and Middlesex), dark areas fairly numerous, but
are being re-surveyed, and, on the whole, the work of the
department is increasing, rather than diminishing, on purely individually very small. Intermediate areas in the blond
utilitarian lines. It would almost seem as if the days of zone are only found in the British Isles, but in the dark
Indian geodetic triangulation, which once took such a strong zone are fairly frequent in western Europe. From these data and certain other considerations relating
lead amongst the scientific triangulations of the world,
were numbered. Only one first-class series is in progress to shape of face and nose, character of hair, &c., Dr.
at present, and this is to connect the great meridional Deniker had been confirmed in his theory that the present population of Europe is composed of six main races.
These Mandalay series of Burma with a future extension follow
ing the Salwin valley. It is, however, satisfactory that the he proceeded to enumerate, giving their typical character
practice and training necessary for surveyors in this class istics, tracing their positions throughout the map, and
of work is well maintained so far, for it is impossible to indicating the proportions in which they had intermingled say what the future may demand in the way of similar to form the existing populations of the various countries.
extensions in Persia, Tibet, or even in China. The following is an abbreviated sketch of his classifi
One subject of special interest dealt with in the report is cation :
the deflection of gravity. In 1901 a theory was advanced (1) A race, blond, wavy-haired, long-headed, very tall,
by Major Burrard that deflections of gravity in India could with long face, a straight prominent nose; the northern
be classified by regions. Astronomical determinations of race, so called because its representatives are confined almost
latitude have therefore been carried systematically through exclusively to North Europe. This is the Cymric race of
considerable arcs to prove whether this theory were sound. Broca, the Germanic or Reihengräber race of German
The results undoubtedly support Major Burrard's predicauthors, the Teutonic race of Ripley, or the Homo Euro
tion, and it is expected that the substitution of this regional paeus of Lapouge. With this race is connected a subrace, blond or inter
law for the old theory of local attraction will exercise a pro
found influence on future investigations. mediate, straight-haired, medium-headed, of tall or medium
The report on geographical or reconnaissance surveys (on stature, angular face, and retroussé nose, the subnorthern
the scale of 1/500,000) includes an out-turn of 38,000 square race, found in the neighbourhood of the northern.
miles of survey of this class by one native assistant in (2) A race blond, straight-haired, moderately short
western Tibet. This seems a remarkably large out-turn for headed, and of short stature, broad square face, nose often
one surveyor to secure during the progress of a “ shooting retroussé; the Eastern race, so named since its principal expedition ”; but it is only one instance amongst many of the home is in eastern Europe.
remarkable capacity of well trained native explorers for Connected with this is a subrace, blond or intermediate,
work of this nature. In reasonably easy country there seems medium-headed, of very short stature, named the Vistulian
to be hardly any limit to their power of producing fairly race, occurring in Poland, parts of Prussia, and probably
accurate geographical maps so long as they have a few Saxony and Silesia.
fixed points to work upon. (3) A race dark, hair sometimes curly, long-headed, of
In this connection it is well to note the remarks of the very short stature, straight or retroussé nose; the Ibero
Surveyor-General (Colonel St. G. Gore) on the difficulty insular race. This is the Mediterranean race, or Homo
that constantly faces him of finding qualified native Mediterraniensis of certain authors, found chiefly in the assistants to meet the demands of military or political Iberian Peninsula and the islands of the
missions or geographical expeditions. He most justly Mediterranean.
observes that in the first place it is difficult to find the men (4) A race dark, very short and round headed, of short
who possess the necessary qualifications, and in the second stature, round face, broad nose, and thick-set body; the that, having found them, it is impossible to train them Cevenole or western race. This type occurs in its greatest efficiently in country which is unsuitable for instruction. purity in the extreme west of Europe, though found It is due to a combination of natural aptitude with perfect sporadically elsewhere. This is the race called variously educational environment that the native explorer of the by other authors Celtic, Celto-Ligurian, Celto-Slavonic, Indian Survey becomes so extraordinarily efficient as a topoSarmatian, Rhetian, Ligurian, or Homo Alpinus.
grapher. If these men are wanted (and they are wanted) (5) A race very dark, moderately long-headed, and fairly for Imperial duty over half of the continents of Africa and tall; the Littoral, or Atlanto-Mediterranean race, situated Asia, it seems but fair that the Imperial Treasury should on the coast of the Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to the contribute something towards maintaining a sufficient stafi Tiber, and in occasional groups on the Atlantic Littoral, to meet all demands. but never more than 150 miles from the sea.
T. H. H. (6) A race dark, short-headed, tall, nose slender and straight or arched; the Adriatic or Dinaric race, which is found grouped round the northern Adriatic, particularly in
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
INTELLIGENCE. Bosnia, Dalmatia, Croatia, and the centre of the Balkan Peninsula, but found also sporadically and with somewhat CAMBRIDGE.—The State Medicine Syndicate reports that modified characteristics in Central Europe.
during the current year there were 57 candidates for the With the last two races are connected two secondary diploma in public health, of whom 34 were successful. For races, which are perhaps no more than types, produced by the diploma in tropical medicine and hygiene there were the admixture of the two former with each other or with 12 candidates, of whom 8 were successful. The syndicate the northern, subnorthern, and western races.
has resolved to hold two examinations for the latter (a) The north-western, long- or medium-headed, situated diploma in 1905, the first beginning on January 10, the between the northern and Atlanto-Mediterranean races, second on August 8. spread chiefly in Ireland.
Applications for the vacant readership in botany (annual (b) The sub-Adriatic, moderately short-headed, more stipend 300l.) are to be sent to the Vice-Chancellor by rarely short-headed, of medium stature, found in many Tuesday, November 15. parts of Central Europe, probably the result of admixture Mr. R. H. Lock, late Frank Smart student in botany, between the Adriatic and subnorthern and western races. has been elected to a Drosier fellowship at Gonville and
Caius College. Dr. A. C. Haddon, university lecturer in
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. ethnology, has been elected 10 a senior fellowship at Christ's
Entomological Society, October 19.– Prof. E. B. A DEPARTMENT of experimental psychology has been estab- Poulton, F.R.S., president, in the chair.- Dr. T. A. lished, says Science, in the Western University of Penn- Chapman exhibited a series of Lozopera deaurana, ylvania, under the charge of Dr. Edmund B. Huey.
Peyr., bred last spring at Hyères, a species regarded
as lost, or mythical, until he re-discovered it three years Tue new medical buildings of the University of Liverpool
ago at lle Ste. Marguerite, Cannes. He also exhibited will be opened by the Chancellor, Lord Derby, on Saturday,
behalf of Mr.
specimen of November 12, and on the same day Lord Kelvin will formally
Pieris brassicae, the anterior and posterior wings of open the new George Holt Physics Laboratory.
which had been symmetrically injured, probably by the The council of the University of Liverpool has just girdle when in the pupal stage.—Mr. G. C. Champion exappointed Dr. J. H. Grindley leciurer in engineering, Mr. hibited specimens of Nothorrhina muricata, Dalm., from
Leitch assistant lecturer in engineering, and Mr. G. E. Las Navas, Spain, found trapped in the earthenware cups Piper demonstrator in applied mechanics and engineering used to collect the exuding resin on the trunks of pines.design and drawing.
Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited specimens of the
rare beetle, Čis bilamellatus, Wood, taken at Shirley on We regret to learn of the death of Prof. D. W. Fiske on
October 10 last.- Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited a speciSeptember 17. The bulk of his estate, including the great
men of the rare dragonfly Agrion armatum. He said that book collections, has been left to Cornell University. It is
ao and a were taken in the Broads by Mr. F. B. stale in Science that the bequest amounts to between
Browne last year, and this year about ten more, probably www.noor, and 200,000l.
all $ %, were taken in the same district. Besides these DR. E. G. COKER, of the McGill University, Montreal, there are possibly no other examples in Britain. It is quite has been appointed to the professorship of mechanical distinct from our other six blue Agrionines in form and engineering and applied mathematics at the City and Guilds colouring.-Mr. W. J. Kaye exhibited five specimens of Technical College, Finsbury, vacated by the appointment of Dianthoecia luteago, var. ficklini, from North Cornwall, Prof. Dalby to the professorship of engineering at the taken during the first week of July, 1901, and remarked institute's Central Technical College.
that while the typical D. luteago of the Continent was tolerMR. FRANCIS GALTON, F.R.S., has endowed a research
ably constant, wherever it occurred in Britain it assumed fellowship in the University of London for the promotion of
a special local form.—Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., the study of “national eugenics," defined as the study of
hibited a number of specimens of the genus Sphecodes, five the agencies under social control that may improve or impair species in all, and of Ocyptera brevicornis, a Tachinid, their the racial qualities of future generations either physically
mimetic fly, illustrative of Mr. Edward Saunders's recent or mentally." The fellowship is of the annual value of
paper on the aculeate Hymenoptera from the Balearic 250., is tenable for one year in the first instance, and is
Islands and Spain.-Mr. C. A. J. Rothney sent for ex
hibition a series of the Indian ant Myrmicaria fodiens, from renewable for two subsequent years. The person appointed to the fellowship will be required to devote the whole of his
a colony established thirty-two years in the big banyan tree time to the study of the subject, and in particular to carry
in Barrackpore Park; and specimens of Monomorium our investigations into the history of classes and families,
salomonis, Lin., and Solenopsis geminata, Fab., successand to deliver lectures and publish memoirs on the subject fully encouraged in Madras as a protection against white of his investigations.
ants—termites.-Mr. E. E. Green exhibited a spider from
Ceylon mimetic of some coccinellid beetle, at present unThe report on the work of the department of technology identified.—Colonel J. W. Yerbury exhibited specimens, and of the City and Guilds of London Institute for the session read notes upon, deer gadflies taken by him this year in 1903-7 has now been published. The general introduction Scotland. to the report points out that the encouragement now offered
MANCHESTER. by the Board of Education to the teaching of technology
Literary and Philosophical Society, October 18.- Prof. is among the causes contributing to the increase in the
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Dr. number of students in the institute's registered classes.
W. A. Bone read a paper entitled “The Mode of ComCompared with the figures given in last year's report, those bustion of Hydrocarbons,” in which he gave an account of for the past session show a decided improvement. In the researches carried out by Messrs. R. V. Wheeler and W. E. different branches of technology, the number of students Stockings and himself, at the Owens College, on the slow in November last attending classes in the United Kingdom combustion of hydrocarbons below their ignition points.was 41,089 as compared with 38,638 in the previous year, Dr. Charles H. Lees exhibited a modification of the and the number of examinees was 20,051 as against 17,989.
U-tube used in electrolysis which he had devised, and which The closer connection of the work of the department with diminishes to about one-half the correction for pressure due tbar of the Board of Education is shown, also, not only by to the coiumn of liquid in the unsealed limb of the tube. that recognition of the City and Guilds of London Institute as an organisation for the inspection of classes in
Paris. technology, manual training, and domestic economy, but Academy of Sciences, October 24.-M. Mascart in the alen by the stamping by the Board of Education of full chair.—Stereoscopy without a stereoscope : J. Violle. In a certificates granted by the institute to students who pass
camera, furnished with two objectives, directly in front of in technology and have qualified in the cognate science the plate is placed a grating, ruled with 100 black lines to or art subjects required by the institute." It is interesting the inch. The negative from this contains the two sets to find that the question of arranging courses of instruction of images, each crossed with a set of fine bands. When adapted to the requirements of operatives engaged in ship- this is looked at through a similar ruled plate the picture building is under consideration : it is intended to extend the appears in relief.-On the modifications of glycolysis in the syllabus in ship carpentry and joinery so as to make it capillaries caused by local modification of the temperature : suitable for artisans engaged in other branches of the R. Lepine and M. Boulud. The experiments were made industry. Care is to be taken not to overlap the syllabus on dogs. Relatively to the arterial blood, the venous blood in naval architecture of the Board of Education, and it is of the warmer part always contains a little more sugar. expected that the new examination will appeal to a different In the case of the paw kept cool, this difference is inclass of candidates from those who have hitherto presented creased to about double, and is in the same direction.themselves for examination. It should be noted that the On integral functions of finite order : L. Leau.—On certain department of technology of the institute occupies an inter- partial differential equations of the second order : mediate position between the central and local education S. Bernstein.-On the period of antennæ of different authorities and the several trade societies. The latter forms: C. Tissot. On account of the high value of the bodies have shown a growing interest in technical instruc-deadening, the rotating mirror method does not give tlon, and year by year the department has grown into more accurate figures for the period, and the author describes intimate relationship with these trade organisations. another method which is free from this objection. It is
shown that, independently of the principal period, the Fisher.--Notes on Upper Jurassic Ammonites, with Special Reference to antennæ give rise to oscillations of a higher order, the laws
Specimens in the University Museum, Oxford. No. II. : Miss Mand
Healey.--Sarsen-Stones in a Clay.Pit : Rev. E. C. Spicer. for which have been experimentally worked out.-Study of
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 10. the sea bottom of the North Atlantic; the Henderson and
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.—The premiums awarded Chaucer Banks : M. Thoulet. The examination of the
for papers read or published during the session 1903-4 will be preseated, deposits obtained from the bed of the North Atlantic by the and the president, Mr. Alexander Siemens, will deliver his inaugural Prince of Monaco renders the existence of the Henderson
MATHEMATICAL Society, at 5:30.-Annual General Meeting.-Presiand Chaucer Banks improbable. The proportion of lime dential Address on the Theory of Waves on Liquids: Prof. H. Lamb. found was remarkably uniform, whilst the amount of sand Note on the Application of the Method of Images to Problems of Vibrawas very variable. It results that the usual method of tions : Prof. V. Volterra.--On the Zeros of Certain Classes of Integral classification by sand, although very useful near the coasts,
Taylor's Series : G. H. Hardy.-The Linear Difference Equation of
the First Order : Rev. E. W. Barnes. --Curves on a Conicoid: H. is useless for the study of great depths.-Remarks on a Hilton.-Remarks on Alternants and Continuous Groups: Dr. H. F. recent series of calorimetric determinations : P. Lemoult. Baker.-On the Expansion of the Elliptic and Zeta Functions of $K in Some recent calorimetric determinations with the Kræker Powers of q: Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher.- Examples of Perpetuants :
J. E. Wrighi.-Two Simple Results in the Attraction of Uniform Wires bomb by E. Fischer and F. Wrede are re-calculated to con
obtained by Quaternions, with, for comparison, their Verification by stant pressure, and the results compared with the original the Geometry of the Complex : Prof. R. W. Genese. - On the Reduc. figures of Berthelot and some later unpublished ones of bility of Covariants of Binary Quantics of Infinite Order : P. W. Landrieu. The numbers given by the formulæ of the author
Wood.-On some Properties of Groups of Odd Order : Prof. W. Burnare also tabulated in parallel column.—The extraction of
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 11. vanadium from the natural lead vanadate and the manu- Rovai. ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5. facture.of some alloys of this metal : H. Herrenschmidt. MALACOLOGICAL SCciety, at 8.-Descriptions of Three New Species of
Opisthostoma from Borneo : E. A. Smith, I.S.O.-Two Apparently New The mineralis treated in a reverberatory furnace with
Species of Planispira from the Islands of Jaya and Gisser: Rev. R. Asbcarbonate of soda and carbon, and a slag obtained contain- ington Bullen.-The Anatomy of Siliqua patula, Dixon : H. Howard ing the vanadate, aluminate, and silicate of soda along Bloomer.-On the Genus Tomigerus, with Descriptions of New Species: with oxide of iron. This is again melted, and air blown
H. von Ihering.-Notes on Some New Zealand Pleurotomidæ: Henry
Suter.- Notes on Some Species of Chione from New Zealand : Henry through until the vanadium is completely oxidised, and the Suter. sodium vanadate lixiviated.-On a new anhydride of SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 4.-Relation between Sociology and Ethics: dulcite : P. Carré. The new anhydride is obtained by
Prof. Höffding. heating dulcite with phosphoric acid at 135° C. It is isomeric with mannide, and is named dulcide.-A new method for preparing organic derivatives of phosphorus:
PAGE V. Auger. The solution obtained by dissolving granu. lated phosphorus in alcoholic soda is heated with an alkyl Applied Electricity. By M. S. . . . iodide or bromide. An alkylphosphine is formed, recognised Adolescence. By W. G. S. .
3 after its oxidation to the corresponding alkylphosphinic acid. | A Naturalist on the East Coast. By O. V. A.
4 --The influence of the products of the breaking down of Chemical Analysis for Beginners. By J. B. C. albuminoid materials on the saponification of oils by cytoplasma : Ed. Urbain, L. Perruchon, and J. Lancon.
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“ Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous ---On a parasite of Audouinia tentaculata, Angeiocystis
6 audouiniae : Louis Brasil.--Oscillations of
Hartog : Lectures Scientifiques animals synchronous with the tide : Georges Bohn.--On
Dugast : "L'Industrie oléicole (Fabrication de l'Huile the geology of the Lower Engadine : Pierre Termier.-On
6 the toxicity of the chlorohydrate of amyleine : L. Launoy.
Letters to the Editor :
A Note on the Coloration of Spiders. - Oswald H.
6 Sir John. Eliot's Address at Cambridge.-J. R: Sutton ; DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
Sir John Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S.
6 THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 3. The Origin of Life.-George Hookham .
9 CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Note on the Action of Nitric Acid on the Thinking Cats.-Y. N. . .
9 Ethers: J. B. Cohen and J. Gatecliff. --The Condensation of Form- Fish-passes and Fish-ponds. -Howietoun Fishery Co. 9 aldehyde with Acetone (Preliminary Note): E. A. Werner.-Union of Hydrogen and Chlorine. Rate of Decay of Activity of Chlorine :
Average Number of Kinsfolk in each Degree.-Prof. J. W. Mellor.-The Action of Phthalic Anhydride on a.Naphthyl
G. H. Bryan, F.R.S.
9 magnesium-bromide: S. S. Pickles and C. Weizmann. - The Con. Misuse of Words and Phrases.-T. B. S.
9 stitution of Nitrogen lodide: 0. Silberrad.-The Available Plant Floods in the Mississippi. (Illustrated.) Food in Soils : H. Ingle.-The Combustion of Ethylene: W. A. Bone and R. V. Wheeler.-The Decomposition of Methylurea : C. E.
What is Brandy?. .
13 ium Persulphate on the Estimation of Hydrogen peroxide: J. A. N.
Qur Astronomical Column:-
Astronomical Occurrences in November
16 the Dissolving of Gold in an Aqueous Solution of Potassium Cyanide :
Encke's Comet 1904 6. (Illustrated.).
16 W. A. Caldecott: (1) The Fractional Hydrolysis of Amygdalinic Acid;
Simultaneous Occurrence of Solar and Magnetic Dis* (2) l-oamygdaline : H. D. Dakin.
16 RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 8.15.-The Presidential Address : C. Thurston Holland.
The Third Band of the Air Spectrum
17 CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 8.- Presidential Pre-Glacial Topography. (Illustrated.) By Frof. • 'Address, The Effect of Patent Law on Modern Civilisation : C. T. Grenville A. J. Cole Hanssen.
17 FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 4.
The Salmon Fisheries of England and Wales. By GEOLOGISTS' AssocIATION, at 8.-Conversazione.
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18 MONDAY, NOVEMBER 7.
The Anatomy of Corals. (Illustrated.) By Prof. Sydney ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY (Albert Hall), at 8.30– The Work of the J. Hickson, F.R.S.
18 National Antarctic Expedition : Captain R. F. Scott, R.N. SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-The Trend of Invention in
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19 Chemical Industry : J. Fletcher Moulton, F.R.S.
The Racial Elements in the Present Population of
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