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J. N. Langley, Mr. J. E. Marr, Sir William D. Niven, building and fittings will be about 11501., and so far 400l. K.C.B., Prof. W. H. Perkin, jun., Prof. J. Perry, Mr. A. has been received in subscriptions toward this object. The Sedgwick, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. A. Tilden, Rear- school can, if necessary, afford out of its own resources the Admiral Sir William Wharton, K.C.B.

sum of 600l., but no more, so it seems that at least 150l.

should be raised by subscription if the building is to be We announce with deep regret that Dr. Frank McClean, F.R.S., died at Brussels on Tuesday morning in his sixty

opened free of debt during the archæological congress in seventh year.

Athens next spring. The committee will have, it is to be

hoped, no difficulty in securing this further sum of money. Mr. James Cosmo Melvill has presented his general

Subscriptions may be sent to Mr. George Macmillan, St. herbarium to the Manchester Museum of the Victoria Uni

Martin's Street, London, or may be paid into the account versity. The herbarium has taken nearly forty years to of the Penrose Memorial Fund at the London and County collect, and it was formally opened in its new quarters by Banking Company, Ltd., Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., on October 31. W.C.

The portraits of Prof. Osborne Reynolds and Prof. A. S. Wilkins, by the Hon. John Collier, will be formally presented

MR. J. FLETCHER MOULTON, F.R.S., gave an address on

the Trend of Invention in Chemical Industry " before the to the Victoria University of Manchester on Friday, November 18. Dr. A. W. Ward, the master of Peterhouse,

Society of Chemical Industry on Monday. In the course of

his remarks he said that there are two departments of great Cambridge, formerly principal of the Owens College, and Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University, will make the

interest at the moment from the inventive development they presentation on behalf of the subscribers.

are manifesting in their products. The first is that of

pharmaceutical products. Physiologists are beginning to A CHRISTMAS course of lectures, adapted to a juvenile associate specific effects on the human organism with auditory, will be delivered by Mr. Henry Cunynghame, specific chemical groups. These groups appear in countC.B., at the Royal Institution, on “ Ancient and Modern less combinations, and their effect 'may be masked or Methods of Measuring Time."

hindered by the setting in which they are placed. It may

thus be that many of the forms in which these effective An inaugural dinner of Royal School of Mines men resident in South Africa was held at Johannesburg on Saturday,

groups have up to now been administered have influenced

and distorted their normal action, and a line of genuine October 8. The chair was taken by Mr. A. R. Sawyer,

research and invention is now being pressed forward seekpresident of the Geological Society of South Africa, and

ing practical solutions of the problem of the best way to many old students of the school were present.

use these operative groups. The second department concerns The Times correspondent at Tokio reports that a serious food-stuffs. A vast waste of nutritious matter is going on earthquake occurred in Formosa at 4.30 a.m. on Sunday, all round us. A substantial part of the ability now devoted November 6. The centre of the disturbance was at Kia-yih, to the practical solution of difficult chemical questions in where 150 houses were overthrown and 33 damaged, 78 existing industries could be usefully applied to the prepersons killed, and 23 injured.

servation of food-stuffs. The main' trend of invention

in chemical industry is rendering certain and comThe deaths are announced of Forstmeister Schering, formerly professor of mathematics and geodesy in the School | unprofitable by reason of the uncertainty of the reactions

plete in their action processes formerly unmanageable or of Forestry at Munich ; Clemens Alexander Winkler, professor at Freiberg; and Dr. Francesco Chizzoni, professor necessity of uniformity of conditions in order to obtain full

that actually and locally took place. The realisation of the of geometry at Modena.

yield manifests itself not only in the efforts to improve old THE Society of Arts will commence its fourth half-century processes, but also in the choice of new ones; that process on November 16, when Sir William Abney, as chairman of is a good one which permits the necessary conditions to be the society's council, will open the 151st session with an secured at every point and at every moment. address. The subjects on which papers will be read at the meetings before Christmas include British trade, canals,

A List of awards to exhibitors from Great Britain and the St. Louis Exhibition, patent law, Burma, and street

Ireland at the St. Louis International Exhibition has been architecture. There will also be a course of lectures on wind received from the secretary of the Royal Commission instruments, with musical illustrations.

appointed for the exhibition. The number of grand prizes

gained by Great Britain is 121, while 238 gold medals, 162 The Times correspondent at Copenhagen announces that silver medals, and 132 bronze medals have been awarded Mr. Mylius-Erichsen's expedition returned there from Greenland on November 6, having been absent two years

to British exhibitors, making a total of 653. It is therefore and a half. Mr. Mylius-Erichsen was accompanied by Mr.

only possible here to mention a few of the awards to men Knud Rasmussen and Count Harald de Moltke, a well

of science and scientific bodies. Among these awards are known painter. The expedition travelled along the west

the following :--Department of Liberal Arts : photography,

grand prize, Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., F.R.S.; the coast, and drove round Melville Bay on sledges. During the whole time the explorers lived with the natives, learning

Royal Observatory, Greenwich; the Royal Photographic

Society; the Solar Physics Observatory; and Sir Benjamin their language, and studying their manners and customs of life.

Stone ; gold medal, the Geological Photographs Committee

of the British Association; the Cretan Exploration Fund; It was decided early last year, soon after the death of and the Survey of India. Maps and apparatus for geography, Mr. F. C. Penrose, to commemorate his work in Athens by grand prize, Board of Agriculture and Fisheries ; Ordnance building on to the Students' Hostel of the British School Survey of Great Britain and Ireland ; Royal Geographical in Athens a library to bear his name. Mr. Penrose was the Society; Admiralty (Hydrographical Department); the first director of the school in Athens, and was called on Survey of India ; Palestine Exploration Fund. Chemical more than once by the Athenian authorities to advise as to and pharmaceutical arts, grand prize, low temperature rethe preservation of the Parthenon. The total cost of the search exhibit of the British Royal Commission; Sir

William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; gold medal, Dr. Ludwig to him by Lieut.-Colonel Simpson, R.A.M.C., and concludes Mond, F.R.S.; the Owens College; Royal College of that while most of the correlations both for immunity and Science, London. Awards to collaborators, gold medal, recovery are distinctly sensible, having regard to their probProf. James Dewar, F.R.S. (low temperature research able errors, yet they are so irregular that little reliance can exhibit); Mr. T. Wilton, and Dr. A. R. Garrick. Various be placed upon them as representing any definite uniform applications of electricity : awards to collaborators, grand effect. He considers that the data suggest that a more prize, Lord Kelvin (for important contributions to electrical effective method of inoculation must be found before it should engineering); gold medal, Prof. Hugh Langbourne become a routine practice in the Army. Callendar, F.R.S., Mr. W. du Bois Duddell. Theory of agriculture : grand prize, the Rothamsted Experimental

Ar a special meeting of the Charity Organisation Society Station (Lawes Agricultural Trust); gold medal, Board of

on October 31, Dr. Orme Dudfield, medical officer of health Agriculture and Fisheries ; Royal Agricultural Society.

for Kensington, contributed a paper on the need for sanaDepartment of Horticulture : appliances and methods of

toria for persons suffering from consumption. He pointed pomology, grand prize, Board of Agriculture and Fisheries ;

out that more than one-tenth of the total mortality from all Royal Horticultural Society; the British Royal Commission ;

causes was due to tuberculous diseases, and that consumpgold medal, Dr. Henry. Department of Forestry : appli

tion accounted for nearly three-quarters of the tuberculous ances and processes used in forestry, gold medal, Forest

mortality. He suggested that the Metropolitan Asylums Department, India; silver medal, the Royal Scottish Arbori

Board, which, on an order by the Local Government Board, cultural Society. Department of Mines and Metallurgy: ores

has the power to do so under the various Health Acts, and minerals, grand prize, Home Office (Mining Depart

should take the matter in hand and equip sanatoria, the ment); Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction

present Gore Farm Asylum being a very suitable building for Ireland. Geological maps and plans of mines, grand

and site. With regard to the expense of such institutions, prize, Geological Survey of India. Mining literature, grand

Dr. Dudfield remarked that the loss caused to London by prize, the Iron and Steel Institute ; the Geological Survey

tuberculosis could not be less than 43 millions per annum, of India: gold medal, the Institution of Mining Engineers.

and he contended that the expense incurred would be amply Fishing equipment and products : grand prize, Marine Bio

recouped by the money saved to the community. On the logical Association of the United Kingdom, for an exhibit

motion of Sir W. Broadbent, it was resolved “That it be prepared at their Plymouth laboratory illustrating the life

referred to the Administrative Committee to consider Dr. history and the food of fishes, and a gold medal for publi- T. Orme Dudfield's paper and the discussion upon it, and cations. Department of Anthropology : ethnography, grand

to report to the Council of the Charity Organisation Society prizr, Cretan Exploration Fund ; Egypt Exploration Fund;

at some subsequent meeting." Palestine Espioration Fund.

During last week a demonstration was given at StratA CONFERENCE on the teaching of hygiene and temperance ford, in connection with the process invented by Mr. Powell in relation to physical deterioration was held at Caxton Hall, for treating timber with a solution of sugar. The result Westminster, on November 2, under the auspices of the is that all kinds of wood are made tougher, heavier, and National Temperance League, Sir. John Gorst presiding. more lasting, while the softer varieties become more useful The various speakers dealt with the evils of intemperance,

and more ornamental when worked. Besides this it is and attention was directed to the petition prepared by the possible to put fresh and unseasoned timber through the British Medical Association in which the medical profession process without delay, and after treatment the “ powellised" urged that the teaching of the elements of the laws of health wood is ready for immediate use, as there is no danger of should be made compulsory in the elementary schools. its shrinking or warping. The timber is placed in cages The American Bar Association has passed a resolution in

which are wheeled into a boiler, and after this has been farour of establishing in the Department of Justice,

closed, a solution of beet sugar is pumped in, though Washington, a laboratory for the study of the criminal,

apparently an open tank can be utilised. The solution pauper, and defective classes. In the Bureau of Education,

takes the place of the air in the timber, and is absorbed Washington, Mr. MacDonald has for some years been carry

by the individual fibres, for microscopical examination fails nog on work of this kind under many difficulties, and it is

to demonstrate the presence of sugar crystals between them. mainly owing to his initiative that the foregoing resolution

It is therefore difficult to remove the sugar, and wood blocks was framed.

which have been treated are no longer porous, so that

pavements made from them should be more sanitary Is connection with the review on “ Cancer Research" than those in present use. After being taken from the (NATURE, vol. Ixx. p. 279), an American correspondent, Mr. receiver the wood is dried in ovens by artificial heat, the Harbert Hamilton, has directed our attention to the reported temperature varying with the kind of wood. When subOrcurrence of a tumour in an oyster. The original paper jected to a breaking strain,“ powellised " timber recovers (Prof. J. A. Ryder in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Phila- itself to a greater extent than untreated wood, and is able, delphia, 1887, p. 25) records that the tumour was growing even when broken, to support a greater weight without in the pericardial cavity ; it consisted of alveoli containing collapsing. It is also claimed that timber so treated is not numbers of round nucleated cells resembling the colourless subject to dry rot,” and by the addition of some poison blood and lymph cells of the oyster. The opinion is ex- to the sugar it is hoped to make it withstand the attacks pressed that the growth was of mesodermal origin, and prob- of termites in tropical countries. abh benign.

ACCORDING to the report of the Natural History Society Win regard to the note on anti-typhoid vaccination which of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne for appeared in these columns last week (p. 14), it may be of 1903-4, the “ museum talks" given once a month in winter interest to direct attention to a statistical inquiry on the by the curator have been continued. They were fairly well Ume subject contributed by Prof. Karl Pearson, F.R.S., to attended, although most of the audience contented themthe Entish Medical Journal (November 5, p. 1243). Prof. selves with listening to the discourse, only a few taking the Prarson analyses mathematically certain statistics submitted opportunity of inspecting the museum,

SOME excellent photographs of rorquals spouting who will welcome a book of this kind, accompanied as it illustrate a paper on these cetaceans by Dr. G. M. Allen is by the actual specimens that are described. in the September issue of the American Naturalist. In height and volume the “ spout of all the species is much The Royal Society has published its second annual issue less than was supposed to be the case by the older observers,

of that part of the “ International Catalogue of Scientific even tha of the huge “ sulphur-bottom" averaging only

Literature " dealing with meteorology, including terrestrial about 14 feet in height, although it may occasionally reach magnetism. Our readers generally will know that this 20 feet. In the same number Dr. C. R. Eastman has an catalogue is an outgrowth of the catalogue of scientific article on fossil plumage, in which it is pointed out how papers published by the Royal Society. This second issue extremely seldom are birds' feathers preserved in marine comprises mainly the literature of 1902, but includes some deposits ; indeed, the only formations of this nature from

works published in 1901. Not only the titles of papers which they have been recorded appear to be the Solenhofen appearing in periodicals or as independent works are given, limestones, the Cretaceous of Kansas, and the Monte Bolca but their subject-matter has been indexed. The referee of Eocene.

this valuable contribution is Mr. T. D. Bell (librarian of the

Meteorological Office), which, we consider, is sufficient The practice of planting trees and shrubs by stockmen guarantee of the care that has been taken in the preparation around their ranch-houses is advocated in a Bulletin of the of the work. We note that a very important addition has New Mexico Experimental Station, in which the author, been made by including the contents of the Meteorologische Mr. Wooton, describes the native ornamental plants. Zeitschrift for 1902 as well as for 1901 which were omitted Poplars or cottonwood trees are recommended for shade, in the first issue. But we also note some important also the hackberry, and a maple known as box-elder. The omissions which will probably be remedied in a future issue, indigenous Aora contains many climbers, including species e.g. the valuable papers which appear in the U.S. Monthly of Ipomea, Maurandia, and clematis, while for the gardens Weather Review. The Royal Society appears to receive on the Mesa native yuccas, the sotol, Dasylirion, and the notification of very few daily weather reports, as only those ocotillo are suitable.

of four countries are included out of some twenty-five that

are actually published. The latest number of the West Indian Bulletin, vol. V., No. 2, contains an article on the cold storage of fruit, in Mr. John W. BUTTERS, writing in the Edinburgh Mathewhich it is pointed out that previous to storage it is

matical Society's Proceedings, advocates a much more exnecessary to have the fruit cool before and while it is being

tensive use of the principle of symmetry in teaching packed. Reference is made to the installation of Hall's geometry, a proposal with which many mathematicians will system for cooling the fruit chambers on board the West

no doubt agree. Indian Royal Mail Steamers Tagus and Trent. A review of the cacao industry indicates that Trinidad and Grenada An amusing anecdote about Linnea borealis is told by continue to show a satisfactory increase in their exports, M. V. Brandicourt in Cosmos for October 1. This rare and Trinidad stands fourth in the list of cacao-producing plant was reported to have been discovered in 1810 by the countries.

Empress Josephine when on a visit to the Montanvert at

Chamounix. But it transpired later that the specimens CONTINUING the “ Materials for a Flora of the Malay

were planted there by a certain Bonjeau, who was Peninsula,” Sir George King, F.R.S., with the cooperation of Mr. J. S. Gamble, F.R.S., has worked out in the latest pharmacist to Her Majesty, and the secret was let out by

the man who planted them in a letter to her asking for help part (No. 15) the uniovulate series of the Rubiaceæ. This coincides with the subdivision Coffeoideæ adopted by

when he was incapacitated by an accident. As M. Brandi

court remarks, no one will ever again find Linnea borealis at Schumann in Engler's “ Planzenfamilien." The authors retain Cephælis as

the Montanvert or anywhere near-the Empress took them a generic name, and include under

all ! Webera only a portion of the genus as understood by Hooker in the " Flora of British India." The most important In the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, genera are Ixora and Lasianthus, for the latter of which xxv., 4, Dr. J. Erskine Murray describes a simple differentino fewer than twenty-five new species are given. No species ating machine. In it the differential coefficient of a function of the Indo-Malayan genus Myrmecodia is recorded, and the graph of which has been drawn is obtained by recording only one species of Hydnophytum.

the slope of the tangent at each point, and to give this the

machine is guided so that two near dots on a piece of We have received from Messrs. J. R. Gregory and Co.,

celluloid shall at each instant lie along the curve, while of Kelso Place, London, W., the prospectus and first part of the “ Twentieth Century Atlas of Microscopical Petro

a tracing point on a second sheet describes the required

graph of the first derived function as thus obtained approxigraphy.” This elaborate work is intended to supply draw

mately. This method, rough as it sounds in description, ings, descriptions, and microscopic slides of typical rocks

is said to give valuable information in many statistical to its subscribers; while, for an additional guinea, chips of

problems where existing methods would prove too laborious. the same rocks, mounted by a smooth face on glass plates, are issued to complete the materials for study. There are We have received parts i. to vii. of the Rendiconto of many good points about the idea, and we do not know why the Naples Academy (January to July), and in them notice so capable a draughtsman as the author should veil his obituary accounts of three members of the academy. Antonio identity under the not very attractive title of "a senior de Martini studied medicine at Naples and Paris. In 1839 inedallist and first-class honoursman in Natural Science of and 1840 he published with Salvatore Tommasi two papers the University of Edinburgh.” The subject is not treated on the organism of reptiles and one on the lamprey, and systematically, and we note that, while the plates can be these were soon followed by many other papers. In 1847 he arranged in a portfolio according to the owner's taste, the was appointed professor of anatomy and physiology at the text is paged continuously, and cannot be cut up. There veterinary college. The new morphology emanating from are many students, especially those forced to work alone, Germany at that period attracted Martini's attention, and he published a valuable work on embryology. About 1860 an eighth edition. This little volume of 83 pages has been he was nominated professor of physiology, and two years completely re-written, and now contains a practical account later he was appointed to a newly founded chair of pathology. of the results of recent researches in sporting gunnery. He was also appointed consulting physician to Princess The actions of guns and gunpowder are based on the laws Margherita, mother of the present King. Throughout his of physics and chemistry, and the results which have career he worked hand in hand with his colleague Tommasi. followed the application of the scientific method to the (saetano Giorgio Gemmellaro was born at Catania in 1832. problems in connection with this branch of technology have At the age of twenty he produced his first paper on certain been incorporated in the book. The volume provides volcanic minerals from Patagonia, and from then onwards evidence that manufacturers are coming to realise that subpublished papers almost continuously' for fifty years. The stantial advantages in their work follow an acquaintance geological history of Sicily was almost made by him. He with results arrived at by the man of science. The six was professor of geology and mineralogy at Palermo, a chapters into which the book is divided deal with smokeless member of the Accademia dei Lincei and of many other powders and the methods of testing them, with patterns on academies of different countries, one of the “ Forty” of the distribution of pellets on the target, with cartridge the Italian Society of Science, a Senator, and Knight of the shooting, and aiming at moving objects. Order of Savoy. Prof. Giustiniano Nicolucci was born in the island of Liri, and graduated in medicine at Naples in 1843. C'nder Stefano delle Chiaje he developed a taste for

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. biological science, and in 1842 published his first paper on APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE VELOCITY OF THE Earth's the structure and functions of the human cerebral nerves.

ROTATION.-Prof. A. Föppl, of the Munich Technical High During the political disturbances he left his country, and

School, has devised a new gyroscopic apparatus for measurthree years later returned to practise medicine. The various

ing the angular velocity of the earth's rotation.

As shown in the accompanying figure, the apparatus contypes of humanity with which he came in contact in his sists of a large top carrying at each end of a horizontal profession attracted his attention to the study of anthropology, which he continued to his last day. His researches dealt with both historic and prehistoric anthropology, his favourite theme being the prehistoric anthropology of Italy, and especially of southern Italy.

A new and revised edition of “ Object Lessons in Elementary Science," by Mr. Vincent T. Murché, has been published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., in two parts at 25. each.

THE “ London University Guide and University Correspondence College Calendar " for 1905 contains in a convenient form the kind of information required by a private student desirous of taking a degree at the University of London.

Nr. HEMMING's book entitled “ Billiards Mathematically Treated" has reached a second edition, which has just been published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd. In appendix iii, of the new edition Mr. Hemming institutes a costiparison of strokes played through and fine, and of the Cargin of error in each case.

Messrs. WHITTAKER AND Co. have published a third edition of " The Optics of Photography and Photographic Lenses," by the late Mr. J. Traill Taylor. The short chapter on lasses of Jena glass which was included in the last issue of the book has been omitted, and one on anastigmatic i ees, written by Mr. P. F. Everitt, inserted in its place. Ax authorised translation, by Dr. M. Ernst, of the presi- spindle an iron wheel 50 cm. (19.7 inches) in diameter and

30 kilograms (66.1 Ib.) in weight. This spindle is the axle dential address delivered by Mr. Balfour at the Cambridge of a small electro-motor which is capable of turning the merting of the British Association has been published by wheels 2400 revolutions per minute. The whole framework Herr J. M. Barth, Leipzig, under the title “ Unsere heutige is suspended by three fine, strong steel wires to the ceiling Weltansschauung." Dr. Ernst has rendered the address

of the room in which the experiment is performed, and a

cross piece immediately under the centre of the axle dips into fluent German, and has added a few short descriptive

into a bath of oil, thereby deadening the subsidiary interTetes-mainly of a biographical character—which will be

fering oscillations. The angle through which the whole of interest to readers unfamiliar with the names of Newton, apparatus turns about its vertical axis is read off, on the Cavendish, Stokes, Maxwell, Kelvin, Rayleigh, and other two scales shown in the figure, to about the tenth of a Latural philosophers to which reference is made. In the degree. Erie note, on the foundation and objects of the British

To perform the experiment the current is disconnected

from the motor, and the latter run as a generator for a Ausciation, the list of sections should have included the

short period, when a reading of a voltmeter placed in circuit stron of educational science.

enables the angular velocity of the revolving wheels to be

| found. Knowing this, one deduces the moments of inertia THE “ Notes on Shooting, with Instructions Concerning of the turning masses, and then by an equation which takes the l'se of Nitro-Powders," written by “ An Expert,” and for its arguments the combined moment, the constant published by Messrs. Curtis's and Harvey, Ltd., has reached angular velocity of the wheels, the torsion of the trifilar

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suspension, &c., one may calculate from the observed read

IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. ings, taken from the scales each minute of the quarter or half an hour that the wheels continue to revolve at a con

THE opening meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute was stant rate, the angular velocity of the earth's rotation.

held on October 24 in New York under the presidency For this quantity Prof. Föppl has obtained a value within of Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Addresses of welcome were de2 per cent. of that obtained from astronomical phenomena, livered by the Mayor, by Mr. John Fritz, chairman of the and hopes, with the assistance of M. O. Schlick, the maker reception committee, and by Mr. James Gayley, president of the apparatus, to obtain a still more accordant value by of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. On behalf further modifying and perfecting his device (Revue générale of the council Sir James Kitson presented to Mr. Carnegie des Sciences, No. 19, October 15).

the Bessemer gold medal in recognition of his great services THE Perseid SHOWER.—Mr. A. King sends an account of to the iron and steel industries of the world. On October 26 his observations of Perseid meteors during July and August. a selection of papers was read and discussed. The observations were divided into two periods, namely, The first and most important read was that by Mr. James (1) July 12 to 18 inclusive at Sheffield, (2) August 3 to 18 Gayley (New York) on the application of dry air blast to inclusive at Leicester.

the manufacture of iron. The variable moisture in the The total time spent in watching was twenty-one hours. atmosphere has long been recognised as a barrier to further Considerably more than 200 shooting stars were seen, of progress in blast furnace practice. The problem of extractwhich nearly 130 were Perseids ; 152 meteors were noted, ing the moisture has been solved by Mr. Gayley by the about 80 being Perseids. The maximum of the shower adoption of refrigeration by means of anhydrous ammonia. seems to have occurred on August 11, or in the daylight A plant was put in operation at the Isabella furnaces of hours of the morning of August 12. By August 14 the the Carnegie Steel Company at Pittsburg on August 11, strength of the shower had much decreased, but on the and remarkable results have been obtained. Prior to its following night there was a recrudescence of Perseid activity, adoption, the furnace from August i to August 11 produced for within the first fifteen minutes of a watch from roh. on an average 358 tons of pig iron daily with a coke conto uh. two beautiful Perseid fireballs, both nearly equalling sumption of 2147 1b. Using dry air blast from August 25 Jupiter in brilliance, appeared, and altogether the hourly to September 9 the daily production of pig iron averaged rate of Perseids was higher than on August 14. Mr. King

with a coke consumption of 1726 lb. Similar considers that the display was scarcely so strong as of late advantages would doubtless be effected in the Bessemer conyears, but still was a fairly rich one. The following posi- verter, in the open-hearth steel process, in copper smelting, tions were obtained :-August 6, a 38, 8 +56) (10 meteors); and in other processes where air in large quantities is used. August 11, a 45), S +57) (35 meteors); August 12, The next paper read was on the influence of carbon and a 46, 8 +57 (13 meteors); August 14, a 503, 8 + 58} (phosphorus on the strength of iron and steel, by Mr. H. H. meteors).

Campbell, of Steelton, Pennsylvania. The movement of the radiant is thus well shown. In The paper by Mr. C. V. Bellamy, Director of Public conclusion, Mr. King says :-“ All the brilliant Perseids Works, Lagos, was of great ethnological interest. He de. had pear-shaped heads. Of 47 Perseids the colours of which scribed the process of iron manufacture in the hinterland of were recorded 31 were yellow, a few of these having a the British colony of Lagos, within twenty days oí greenish tinge. The tints of the streaks usually eluded London, where the methods the same those observation, but the streak of a bright Perseid which practised by the earliest workers in the metal.

The appeared on August 13 was muddy."

smelting works are near Oyo, the capital of the Yoruba

country, and it is only recently that they have been visited THE DUMB-BELL NEBULA.-From a special study of the

by a white man for the first time. Analyses given by Mr. various forms of nebulæ which he has photographed with the Meudon reflector, M. Louis Rabourdin has arrived at the metal is a pig iron partially decarburised by an oxidising

F. W. Harbord, in an appendix to the paper, show that the conclusion that the dumb-bell nebula may be correctly

flux. classified as elliptical, and that the ring nebula in Lyra phorus, its purity accounting for its good qualities.

It is really a puddled steel, low in sulphur and phosshould also be placed in the same category. On comparing a number of photographs of these two

Mr. J. M. Gledhill read a paper describing the develop

ment and rise of high-speed tool steel. Since the initiation objects he found that they have the same elliptical form, and that the stars enclosed in each are, generally speaking,

of high-speed cutting at the Bethlehem Steel Works, great similarly arranged. Consequently, he believes them to be

developments have been made, and results in cutting powers

far beyond expectation have been attained. An analysis of objects which started with the same primal form, but

one of the best qualities of rapid steels produced by Sir have arrived at different stages in the order of their

W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Ltd., showed 0-55 evolution. Several other well known objects are placed by him in

per cent. of carbon, 3.5 per cent, of chromium, and 13.5 per

cent. of tungsten. the same class, and he suggests that the nebulæ generally

The results of different analysts when operating on the may be of two general types only, viz. elliptical and spiral

same sample of iron or steel are far from concordant, and (Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France, October, 1903).

attempts have been made at various times to investigate

the causes of difference. A further attempt has now been Harvard College OBSERVATORY.-In a small brochure made to ascertain the most trustworthy methods for the published by the Harvard College authorities (Cambridge, determination of carbon and phosphorus in steel by a comMass., 1904) the establishment, growth, and work of the mittee consisting of Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., Baron H. college observatory is briefly recorded. The various stations von Jüptner (Austria), Mr. A. A. Blair (Philadelphia), and and the instruments located in each are named and de- Mr. Gunnar Dillner (Stockholm), who presented an interim scribed, and the work already performed, the publications of report covering fifty-two printed pages. the observatory, and the officers employed are mentioned A paper on acid open-hearth manipulation was submitted in chronological order. Two reproductions of photographs by Mr. A. McWilliam and Mr. W. H. Hatfield (Sheffield), in show the stations at Cambridge and Arequipa respectively. which experimental results were recorded proving that, at

In a second similar publication Prof. E. C. Pickering out- about the temperatures occurring in Siemens steel-making lines the second part of his “ Plan for the Endowment of practice, the chemical composition of the slag, particularly Astronomical Research,” in which he suggests several | with regard to its acidity, is the factor which determines methods of usefully spending the money he is seeking to whether the percentage of silicon in the molten steel shall raise for this purpose. Among other things he discusses increase or decrease. solar eclipse expeditions, and states that the English method Mr. E. Demenge (Paris) submitted a paper on the of organisation by means of a central permanent eclipse utilisation of exhaust steam, from engines acting intercommittee is one which might be usefully copied in other mittently, by means of regenerative steam accumulators and countries, where much money has been “wasted " by send- of low-pressure turbines of the Rateau type. The process ing out a number of mutually independent expeditions, often has been applied with conspicuous success at the Donetz in charge of incompetent persons, to attempt to obtain Steel Works in Russia, at the Poensgen Steel Works at results which are but seldom adequately discussed or Düsseldorf, and at several French collieries. published.

The meeting concluded with the customary votes of thanks

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