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to the reception committee, proposed by Mr. E. Windsor Richards and seconded by the secretary, Mr. Bennett H. Brough. The meeting was attended by more than 300 members and an attractive programme of visits to metallurgical works in various parts of America was arranged.
THE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL
CONGRESS AT ST. LOUIS.
Electrical Congress at St. Louis appeared in our issue uf October 27, we have received the subjoined report to the congress of the chamber of Government delegates referred Ho un p. 6zy.
It will be noticed that the resolutions ask for the appointment by Governments of one international commission, at first of a temporary character, but which, it is hoped, may terone permanent, to deal with electric units.
At the meeting on September 16 the following resolutions were unanimously adopted :
“ That the delegates report the resolution of the chamber as to electrical units to their respective Governments, and that they be invited to communicate with Dr. S. W. Stratton (Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.) and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (National Physical Laboratory, Bushy House, Teddington, Middlesex, England) as to the results of their report, or as to other questions arising out of the resolution."
“That the delegates report the resolution of the chamber as to the international standardisation to their respective technical societies, with the request that the societies take such action as they may deem best to give effect to the resolution, and that the delegates be requested to communicate the result of such action to Colonel R. E. B. Crompton, Chelmsford, England, and to the president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, New York City.”
Report of the Chamber of Delegates. At the meeting on September 13, after discussion in the THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. Chamber, two subcommittees were appointed to deal with the questions of international electromagnetic units and of TE
HE narrative of the National Antarctic Expedition, reinternational standardisation respectively.
lated by Captain Scott to an audience of about seven
thousand people at the Albert Hall on Monday, was the first At the meeting on September 15 the following report of ite committee on international electromagnetic units was
account of the work of the expedition given to the Royal accepted and unanimously adopted :
Geographical Society since the Discovery returned home.
Captain Scott made a general statement of the work of the Committee on International Electromagnetic Units. expedition, referring particularly to the various sledging The subcommittee appointed September 13 begs leave to journeys-nine of which were made in the first season and uggest that the chamber of delegates should adopt the six in the second season-for exploration to the south, west, following report :
and east; but his remarks were chiefly of the nature of Ir appears from papers laid before the International descriptions of a magnificent collection of photographs of Electrical Congress and from the discussion that there are scenes and incidents in the areas visited. These pictures considerable discrepancies between the laws relating to themselves constitute a unique record of Antarctic conditions, electric units, or their interpretations, in the various and with the results of meteorological, magnetic, hydroinntries represented, which, in the opinion of the chamber, graphic, biological, and geological observations make the require consideration with a view to securing practical expedition most notable in the history of polar exploration. uniformity.
An exhibition of the photographs taken by Lieut. Skelton, Other questions bearing on nomenclature and the deter- water colour sketches and coloured drawings by Dr. E. A. nisation of units and standards have also been raised, on Wilson, and other objects of interest connected with the vinch, in the opinion of the chamber, it is desirable to have voyage of the Discovery, is now open at the Bruton Galleries, uuternational agreement.
13 Bruton Street, Bond Street, W. The chamber of delegates considers that these and similar At the end of the lecture the chairman, Sir Clements questions could best be dealt with by an international com- Markham, K.C.B., on behalf of the Royal Geographical mission representing the Governments concerned. Such a Society, presented a gold medal to Captain Scott and silver commission might in the first instance be appointed by those medals to the officers and men. The gold medal of the countries in which legislation on electric units has been Geographical Society of Philadelphia for 1904 was presented adopted, and consist of (say) two members from each country. to Captain Scott by the United States Ambassador in the
Provision should be made for securing the adhesion of name of that society. The medal bears on one side a other countries prepared to adopt the conclusions of the medallion of Dr. Elisha Kane, their own discoverer, in whose commission.
honour the society was organised, and on the reverse this The chamber of delegates approves such a plan, and re- | inscription :-“ For eminent geographical research. Per quests its members to bring this report before their respective mare et terram. The Philadelphia Geographical Society. trovernments.
Incorporated 1803. Awarded to Captain Scott in the year k is hoped that if the recommendation of the chamber of 1904. delegates be adopted by the Governments represented, the As the scientific work of the expedition will be described commission may eventually become a permanent one.
at subsequent meetings of the Royal Geographical Society, The following report was also received and unanimously
Captain Scott only made incidental reference to it, and
added little to what has already appeared in these columns adopted from the committee on international standard
(vol. Ixix., p. 543, April 7). The following brief summary
of the lecture is, however, of interest in showing some of Committee of the Chamber of Delegates on International the incidents and inquiries of the expedition.
Standardisation, The committee of the chamber of delegates on the tandardisation of machinery begs to report as follows :
The Antarctic area was divided into four quadrants, of Thar steps should be taken to secure the cooperation of which the Ross quadrant was allotted to the British exthe technical societies of the world by the appointment of
pedition. It was there that Sir James Ross in 1840 disa representative commission to consider the question of the covered the sea that bore his name. But Sir James Ross standanfisation of the nomenclature and ratings of electrical
was in a sailing ship, and only saw things dimly and in apparatus and machinery.
the distance. The geographical problem was therefore in If the above recommendation meets the approval of the brief to find out what lay to the east, to the west and number of delegates, it is suggested by your committee to the south of what Ross had seen. In addition to the that much of the work could be accomplished by corre- geographical problem, there were many scientific ones conindence in the first instance, and by the appointment of nected with a region so little known. The principal of • general secretary to preserve the records and crystallise these was magnetism, and the course taken by the Discovery the points of disagreement, if any, which may arise between was especially adapted for a magnetic survey. the methods in vogue in the different countries interested. Accompanied by two other members of the expedition,
It is hoped that if the recommendation of the chamber of Captain Scott left the ship for a southern journey early in delegates be adopted, the commission may eventually become a permanent one.
November, 1902, and on December 29 arrived at a point in
latitude 80° 17', when they were obliged to retrace their
steps. Finally, the party returned safely to the ship, and so named was certainly small, and possibly less than fifty. found that the Morning relief ship had arrived in McMurdo Not only were the two highest mountains of all without Sound. Mr. Armitage made a journey to the westward with a name but many of the most conspicuous peaks througha large party. After one or two failures he found a good out the whole length of the Himalayas were nameless. route to the main ice cap over the surface of a glacier of The few peaks that serve as landmarks to travellers on great length. He gradually rose in altitude until he arrived frequented thoroughfares have probably always had names, on the inland plateau at a height of 8900 feet, and was and the few that mark the sources of sacred rivers and thus the first to penetrate into the interior of Victoria Land. indicate to weary pilgrims on distant plains the positions
The expedition had hoped to accompany the Morning of the shrines that are their goals have for ages been home, and it was not until the end of February, 1903, that recognised by names. this was seen to be impossible, because of the condition of the It is questionable whether some of the Hindu names now ice. They expected the ice in the bay in which they lay attaching to peaks were not given in the first instance by to break up, but unfortunately it got so late that there was British surveyors; in the earlier days of the survey names only one thing for the Morning to do, and that was to return. were accepted from villagers more readily, perhaps, than She got home with a good deal of difficulty, but the Dis- would now be done. Even the celebrated name of covery was forced to remain a second winter.
Dhawlagiri, as attaching to a particular peak, is not Captain Scott next made a sledging, expedition in altogether free from suspicion. The story of the conwesterly direction, reaching his “furthest
troversy over Mount Everest shows how easy it is to find point on November 30, 1903. The party had reached the native names that have no existence in fact, and how hard top of a mountain range some 7000 feet above the sea-level it is to identify the precise peak even when a native name when a blizzard came on and prevented further movement is current. for six days. The party then set out westward, rising When 10,000 snow-peaks have to be fixed, and when but another 1500 feet, and for another week advanced over a 50 of these have names, some system of classification has huge plain that extended as far as the eye could reach. The to be devised. The case is analogous to that of the stars; temperature was forty degrees below zero, and the lips, a few of the brighter stars have names of their own, nostrils, and cheeks of the party were blistered by the the remainder classified by constellations, and incessant wind from the west. The rarefied air, too, had a are designated by letters or numbers. The snow-peaks great effect in reducing staying power. On this expedition of the Himalayas are classified by areas, and are designated they reached a very interesting spot--that at which the by Roman numerals or by letters with numbers attached; compass pointed south instead of north. They had reached thus the highest mountain in the world is known in the for the first time the line of no variation lying between the official records as Peak XV, and the second highest is South Pole and the south magnetic pole.
recorded as Peak K,, both having been nameless at the By the middle of December, 1903, all the sledging parties time of their discovery. were ordered to be back, in order that an attempt might be The height of Peak XV, now better known as Mount made to free the Discovery from the ice by sawing out a Everest, is 29,002 feet, and that of K, is 28,250 feet. channel. The attempt to clear a channel had to be
Sixty years ago Dhawlagiri, in Nepal, was considered the abandoned, but on January 15 the Morning and the Terra highest mountain in the world ; Dhawlagiri is 26,795 feet Nova were sighted. They brought word that unless the high, and has since been found to be surpassed in height Discovery could be freed it must be abandoned, and to by six Himalayan peaks; of these K, is in Kashmir, and obviate this hard necessity blasting operations were under- the other five, Everest (29,002), Kangchenjunga I (28,140), taken. But by the end of January the ice began to break Kangchenjunga II (27,803), Makalu (27,790), and Peak up of its own accord, and by the middle of February there T4 (27,000) are in or near Nepal. was a clear channel for the Discovery, which was then free The Discovery of Mount Everest.' In 1848 trigonoto start on its return voyage.
metrical surveyors commenced to build a line of survey
stations along the plains of Oudh and Bengal from west to MOUNT EVEREST: THE STORY OF A east, and to determine the positions of these stations in LONG CONTROVERSY.
latitude and longitude by means of triangles observed with
large theodolites. THE highest mountain in the world is situated in a
Sir George Everest had intended country from which Europeans have with few excep- originally to carry the series along the mountains, but tions been jealously excluded ; and the recent visit to the
abandoned his design in consequence of the refusal of the capital of Nepal of an experienced British surveyor,
Nepalese Governinent to allow the operations to enter their
territories. equipped with instruments and with full permission to use
Consequently, after crossing the hills of them, is an event of no small interest in the annals of Kumaon, the stations were brought down into the plains Himalayan geography. It is clear from Captain Wood's
near Bareilly, from which point they were carried for 800 report that this event has been brought about by the personal
miles through the deadly tracts which fringe the Himalayas. intervention of Lord Curzon.
At almost every station the snowy range of Nepal was Surveyors have penetrated the Himalayas east and west
visible, and the northern horizon appeared broken by of Nepal into Sikkim and Kumaon, and have from these
numbers of peaks. Just as some. stars appear brighter to points of view been enabled to observe a few of the Nepalese sky-line appear loftier than others.
the eye than others, so do some snow-peaks against the peaks; but from flanking stations the ranges of mountains
The superior magniare seen “ end on," and the nearer peaks shut out the
tude of certain stars may be due either to their greater more distant from view. The knowledge that we possess
diameter or their lesser distance, and the superior elevation of the heights and positions of the peaks of the Nepalese
of certain peaks may be due either to their greater height Himalayas has consequently been obtained from observ
or their lesser distance. The most refined observations ations taken with theodolites at stations situated in the
with the most perfect of instruments, if taken from a plains of Bengal and Oudh.
single station only, will furnish no clue as to whether a From maps of small areas we are able to estimate that
mountain-peak is conspicuous on account of its magnitude
or on account of its nearness. the number of peaks existing in Himalayan regions, including Kashmir and Bhutan, probably exceeds 40,000, and
As the surveyors moved across Bengal from west to that of these more than 10,000 are always clothed with
east they witnessed changes in the apparent positions of snow. Such estimates, rough as they are, suffice to show
the peaks; the analogy of the stars no longer serves us, as that the problem which confronted the Indian Survey when owing to the great distances of the latter they appear to it first undertook the determination of the positions and
preserve their relative positions in the sky; but the case of heights of the peaks of the Himalayas was not a simple one.
mountain-peaks may be compared to what a traveller It is difficult now to discover how many of the 10,000
witnesses when he journeys by rail through a forest of snow-peaks were known to the natives of India by name
pines—the nearer tree-trunks continually appear to pass before the British commenced their survey. The number
between his eye and the more distant ones. As the surveyor 1 Report on the Identification and Nomenclature of Himalayan Peaks.
moves across the plains parallel to the mountains he sees By Capt. H. Wood, R.E., with a preface by Colonel Core, C.S.I., R.E., 1 In order to appreciate the distance from which Mount Everest is visible, late Surveyor General of India. (Published by Order of Co.onel F. B. we have only to consider that is it stood in Snowdon's place, it would be Longe, R. É , Surveyor General of India, 1964.)
seen from Land's End to Edinburgh and from Kent to Connaught.
innumerable peaks, many snow-clad, many bare, always Sir Andrew Waugh had always adhered to the rule of seemingly changing their places and forms.
assigning to every geographical object its true local or It is a mistaken idea that particular peaks can be native name; but here was a mountain, the highest in the identified from different points of view by their characteristic world, without any local or native name that he was able shapes. Such a course may sometimes be possible from to discover. He determined, therefore, to name the great near stations, but at distances greater than forty miles the snow-peak after Sir George Everest, his former chief, the form of a peak is its cross-section in outline against the celebrated Indian geodesist. The
of “ Mount sky, and this changes as one moves round it. The same Everest has since become a household word, and no peak is often found noted in the field records of the survey objection to it has ever been raised by natives of the country. by a different letter or number at each station from which The Devadhunga Controversy.-When Sir Andrew it was observed. Colonel Sir Andrew Waugh, of the Waugh announced that the peak was to be named Everest, Bengal Engineers, who was Surveyor-General of India Mr. Hodgson, who had been political officer in Nepal for from 1843 to 1861, realised from the outset the difficulties many years, intimated to the Royal Geographical and of identification. His orders were that every visible peak, Royal Asiatic Societies that Sir Andrew Waugh had been great and small, was to be observed from every observing mistaken, and that the mountain had a local name, viz. station, but that the identification of peaks, with the ex- Devadhunga. Sir Roderick Murchison, the president of ception of the unmistakable few possessing native names, the Royal Geographical Society, approved Waugh's action, must be left to computers. In accordance with these orders but the Royal Asiatic Society supported Hodgson and rethe true direction of every visible peak and the angular pudiated the name of Everest. Seeing that the Survey elevation of every summit above the horizon were deter- officers had been debarred from entering Nepal, Mr. Hodgmined from every observing station.
son was amply justified in raising the question he did; The identification of the peaks as observed from different but he had made no scientific measurements, and it is stations was then effected as follows:
known now beyond dispute that he was mistaken in his Ist Step.-The stations of observation were carefully pro- identification of Everest. He apparently assumed that the jected on a map, and from each were drawn lines represent- great peak, which he saw standing in the direction of ing the directions of all peaks observed from it.
Everest, and which was so conspicuous from Katmandu, and Step.- When direction-lines from three or where he resided, was the highest peak in Nepal ;' but stations met in one point, it was tentatively assumed that Nepal covers a large area, and Mount Everest is more than the same peak had been observed on the three or more a hundred miles from Katmandu. Either Mr. Hodgson was occasions.
unaware of the real distance of Mount Everest, or he failed 3rd Step.-By trigonometrical formulæ the distance of to realise that even the highest mountain on earth will look this assumed peak from each of the observing stations was small at so great a distance. It is probable that Mr. then calculated, and from these distances independent values Hodgson never even saw Mount Everest; it is certain that of the latitude and longitude of the peak were obtained ; if if he did so he was unaware that he was looking at it. the several values were accordant the identification was All subsequent information goes to show that there is proceeded with.
no peak in Nepal called Devadhunga. Mr. Hodgson's 4th Step.–From the observed angle of elevation and from sincerity has never been doubted, and it is believed now the calculated distance of the peak from each station the that the name Devadhunga is a mythological term for the height of the peak was deduced; a separate value for the whole snowy range. height of the peak was thus obtained from each observing The Gaurisankar Controversy.-In 1854 three brothers, station. If the several values of height were accordant the Hermann, Adolphe, and Robert de Schlagintweit, undertook Identification was finally accepted.
a scientific mission to India and Central Asia at the instance Numerous peaks were found to have been observed only of the King of Prussia, and with the concurrence of Lord once or twice, and could not be identified ; many others Dalhousie and the court of directors. Their labours lasted failed to satisfy all the tests, and had to be rejected.
until 1857, by which date they had succeeded in taking About 1852 the chief computer of the office at Calcutta numerous astronomical, hypsometric, magnetic, and meteorinformed Sir Andrew Waugh that a peak designated XV ological observations; they had also made geological, had been found to be higher than any other hitherto botanical, and zoological collections for the India House measured in the world. This peak was discovered by the Museum; and they had explored the high mountains of India computers to have been observed from six different stations ; and Tibet, and had constructed many panoramic drawings
no occasion had the observer suspected that he was view- of the snow-peaks of the Himalayas. Their mission uning through his telescope the highest point of the earth. fortunately ended in the death of the second brother,
The following table shows the several values of height Adolphe, who was killed at Kashgar. that were obtained for Mount Everest :
In 1855 Hermann de Schlagintweit visited a hill in Nepal
named Kaulia, near Katmandu, and from it took observTHE OBSERVED HEIGHT OF MOUNT EVEREST.
ations to the snow-peaks. He saw the mountain called Extracted from the Records of the Great Trigonometrical Devadhunga by Hodgson, and he identified it as Mount Survey of India.
Everest; he, however, repudiated Hodgson's name of Devadhunga, and certified that the local native name for the peak was Gaurisankar.
Continental geographers, 'accepting Schlagintweit's views, Obwerving
have continued to this day to call the highest mountain in
the world Gaurisankar; the Indian Survey, however, were elevation
unable to reconcile Schlagintweit's results with their own, and have declined to follow him.
The diagram in Fig. i illustrates the tour of Hermann de Schlagintweit, who visited the two stations of Kaulia
and Falut, which are 175 miles apart. From Kaulia he Feet Miles Jand
saw a high peak to the north-east which the natives called 53 33'35289916
Gaurisankar, and which he identified as Everest. From Mirapur 245 108-376 Dec. 5, 6, 1849
12 2 11 16'66 290053 Falut he saw a high peak to the north-west, which he also
identified as Everest. Junipati 255' 108 362 Dec. 8, 9, 1849
4 '212 9'31 290018
There is no doubt now that Schlagintweit was misled in Lattia. 235 108.861 Dec. 12, 1649
4 12 11 25 52 289986
his identification of Mount Everest. It is the common misHarpar .. 219 111'523' Dec. 17, 18, 1849
8 2 6 24'98 29026'1
fortune of all pioneers that posterity chiefly concerns itself
with their mistakes. Indian geography owes much to Pleai 328 113761 Jan. 17, 1850
2 16 61 28990'4
Hermann de Schlagintweit, but she is more mindful now of his errors than of her debts. The mistakes of Schlagint
Height above mean
Mr. J. O. Nicolson
weit have formed the basis of controversy, and will continue Journal that “the object of Captain Wood's visit to Nepal to be remembered until controversy ceases.
was to ascertain whether the mountain known as Mount In 1883 Colonel Tanner visited Falut, and found that Everest is visible from the heights in the neighbourhood Everest was barely visible from there, being almost shut of Katmandu, and forms part of the range known in out from view, and entirely surpassed in appearance by Central Nepal as Gaurisankar. But this statement is Makalu (height 27,790 feet), a lower though nearer peak; incorrect. The object of Captain Wood's visit to Nepal was it was Makalu that Schlagintweit mistook for Everest, and to ascertain whether the peak known to the Nepalese as it was Makalu that he drew as Everest, both in his Gaurisankar was identical or not with the peak known panorama of the snows from Falut, and in his picture, to us as Mount Everest, and this main issue ought to be which is preserved at the India Office.
kept in view. It is also inaccurate to speak of a range in In 1903 Captain Wood visited Kaulia by order of Lord Central Nepal known as Gaurisankar : there is no range Curzon ; he found that Gaurisankar and Everest were so known ; Gaurisankar is a double peak.
(2) A side issue on which some argument has been exEverest
pended is whether Mount Everest is visible from Kaulia O Makalu
This point may be of interest to individuals, but
it has no scientific importance; and I am surprised to see OGaurisankar
it asserted, as though some geographical issue were
involved, that the Survey officers have generally held the Kaulia
view that Everest was not visible from Kaulia.
o Falut O Katmands
In a paper published in 1886, the late General Walker, R.E., gave some calculations of azimuth and elevation to show that the two peaks of Gaurisankar and Everest could
not be identical; after proving his point in a convincing Schlagintweit's tour in Nepal
way, he added the following general remark :— ** Obviously
therefore Gaurisankar, the easternmost point of SchlagintHeights in feet.
Distance from Mount Everest weit's panorama of the snowy range, cannot have been in miles.
Everest, and the great pinnacle must have lain hidden away Everest
from his view by intervening mountain masses."; Makalu
to Makalu Gaurisankar ... 23,440 to Gaurisankar
If we wish to discover whether a place A is visible from
85 a place B, we have but two courses open to us : we can Kaulia
make calculations from contoured maps of the country, or we can send an observer to B to ascertain if A can be
If there are no maps, the second course alone is
open. different peaks thirty-six miles apart, and that Everest, far
Mount Everest is 109 miles from Kaulia; the intervening from being conspicuous, was almost obscured from view by intervening ranges. Captain Wood also discovered that an space is taken up by mountains and valleys, ridges and
hollows, spurs and basins; this complicated area is unimposing peak of the snowy range, a peak long known in the records of the survey as Peak XX, height 23,440 feet,
surveyed, and questions of visibility are not mathematically
arguable. was the famous Gaurisankar of the Nepalese.
How came it, then, that an expert like General Walker A comparison of the drawings of Schlagintweit and
expressed the opinion that Everest was not visible from Wood tells us that the same peak was shown by the
Kaulia ? General Walker was, of course, merely judging Nepalese to both observers as Gaurisankar. Schlagintweit
from Hermann Schlagintweit's recorded evidence. At was therefore right in giving the name of Gaurisankar to
Kaulia Schlagintweit made a careful drawing to scale of the great peak that is so conspicuous from Kaulia and
the snowy and nearer ranges; in Fig. 2 is given a copy Katmandu, but he has been proved to have been wrong in
of his drawing of Gaurisankar. three particulars, namely, (1) in his identification of Everest
Schlagintweit wrote against the peak Gaurisankar on from Kaulia, (2) in his identification of Everest from Falut,
his drawing the words " Gaurisankar or Everest," but (3) in assuming that he had observed the same peak from Kaulia as he had done from Falut.
It is interesting to consider the magnitudes of the mistakes he made :—from Kaulia the direction of Gaurisankar differs from the true direction of Everest by two segrees; from Falut the direction of Makalu differs from the true direction of Everest by forty-two minutes.
From Kaulia the elevation of Gaurisankar differs from the true elevation of Everest by twenty-four minutes; from Falut the elevation of Makalu differs from the true elevation of Everest by fifteen minutes. The
two peaks Gaurisankar and Makalu, which Schlagintweit thought were the same, are forty-seven miles apart.
The supposed identity of Everest and Gaurisankar has rested only on Schlagintweit's evidence. It is true that successive British Residents at Katmandu have continued to regard Gaurisankar as Everest,' but their ideas have been based on the Schlagintweit tradition. It is also true that
Schlagintweit's drawing of Gaurisankar in a recent number of the Geographical Journal? the photographs of Dr. Boeck have been preferred as evidence to the observations of the Indian Survey; unfortunately Dr. Boeck made a mistake of thirty-two degrees in direction in his attempt at identifying Mount Everest," and this initial
General Walker showed by calculations that if Everest had slip led him to twist the whole area of Nepal round through
been really visible it would have been seen by Schlaginta third of a right-angle.
weit as a low peak near the spot marked H. As Side Issues of the Controversy.-It is difficult to avoid
Schlagintweit showed no low peak at this spot, General the thought that this long controversy has of recent years
Walker concluded that it had been obscured from his view been degenerating into a barren dispute over side issues.
by one or another of the many unsurveyed intervening (1) It has, for instance, been stated in the Geographical
i Geograpkical Journal, January, 1904, p. 89. 1 “In the Himalayas," by Waddell, 1899, p. 346.
2 Geographical Journal, March, 1903, and January, 1904. 2 Geographical Journal, March, 1903.
3 Proceedings R.G.S., vol. viii., 1886, where it will be seen that 3 Colonel Gore's preface to Captain Wood's Report, 1904.
Schlagintweit described Everest as the easternmost point of his panorama.
When Captain Wood visited Kaulia in 1903. he was unable to discover the place from which Schlagintweit had made his drawing; he selected another spot, and made a careful drawing to scale of the snowy and nearer ranges. In Fig. 3 is given a copy of his drawing of Gaurisankar.
On the advice of the Prime Minister of Nepal, Captain Wood recorded on his drawing against the lower peak of the Gaurisankar double the name Gauri, and against its loftier companion the name Sankar.
If we compare Wood's drawing with Schlagintweit's, we see that the nearer range B appears higher in Schlagintweit's picture than in Wood's. This same peculiarity is visible throughout the panoramas of the two observers; the Dear ranges appear in Schlagintweit's drawing higher always with regard to the distant ranges than they do in Wood's. The inference is that Schlagintweit drew his panorama from a considerably lower point than Wood did ; this may account for the fact that Schlagintweit shows no signs of Everest.
Again, in Schlagintweit's drawing the near range K cuts of laterally more of the snowy range than it does in Wood's, and obscures the shoulder of Gaurisankar just at the point where Everest should have been visible. In Wood's drawing Mount Everest appears as
a low peak at the spot where General Walker calculated that it would appear.
The omission of Everest from Schlagintweit's panorama led General Walker to believe that it was not visible from
are named Badrinath I, Badrinath II, &c. ; but these peaks are slight prominences crowning the snow-clad pyramid of Badrinath, like turrets on a castle. Everest and Gaurisankar are separated by a wide interval and a deep valley, and are not spires of a single pile.
The extent to which we are justified in giving the same name to different peaks is, however, not altogether a question of intervening distance and depth ; geographical significance has also to be considered. The peaks of the Badrinath cluster have a common, but no individual, significance; they are notable only as the several pinnacles of the sacred pile of Badrinath, and can therefore be classified without disadvantage under one general apellation. But the case of Gaurisankar and Everest is different : the former is remarkable in Nepal for the preeminence of its grandeur; the latter, screened from the gaze of man, is known only as the highest point of the earth. Would it not, then, be a mistake to include under one name two mountains the claims of which to celebrity are so different?
Before we blindly follow Alpine precedents in the settlement of Himalayan problems, we must consider well whether the conditions are identical. “It is no exaggeration to say," writes a great Himalayan authority, that along the entire range of the Himalayas valleys are to be found among the higher mountains, into which the whole Alps might be cast, without producing any result that would be discernible at a distance of ten or fifteen miles." I
The Discovery of a Supposed Tibetan Name.-Colonel Waddell's book, Among the Himalayas,” gives a good description of the Nepalese mountains with many interesting profiles; the author's investigations have enabled him to authenticate a Tibetan name for a high peak which he believes to be Mount Everest. This name is Jamokangkar, sometimes spelt Chamokankar.
Now let us suppose for one moment that it will be proved by future evidence—not at present forthcoming—that the mountain called Jamokangkar by Tibetans is identical with our Mount Everest. What then? Will it be incumbent upon us to abandon the name of Everest and to adopt that of Jamokangkar? I think not.
When the Gaurisankar controversy opened, the name of Everest was an interloper upon the map of Asia ; but its trespass has long since been condoned. Time and usage have secured for it a right not less sacred than the rig of origin ; for what, after all, is the right of origin but that conferred by time and usage? To displace now this name from its lofty position in geography would seem to many of us an outrage.
It will, I think, be lamentable if former advocates of the name Gaurisankar, seeing that their cause is doomed, continue the struggle under this new flag of Jamokangkar. Already, to our regret, has Mr. Freshfield, a life-long defender of the claims of Gaurisankar, declared in favour of the Tibetan name.
The old dispute has been settled ; the names Gaurisankar and Everest have been proved to belong to different peaks ; and it is to be hoped that Continental geographers, who have hitherto attached the name of Gaurisankar to the famous peak that we call Everest, will, in the interests of scientific harmony, now accept the name that has always been accepted by India. But before we can look for Continental acquiescence we must endeavour to show agreement at home. Few Continental geographers see the official reports of the Indian Government; the majority draw their conclusions from articles in our geographical Press.
In March, 1903, Mr. Freshfield, the late secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, wrote in the Geographical Journal as follows :-“ The reason, for which the surveyors argued so strenuously forty-five years ago, that the 29,002 feet peak cannot be the Gaurisankar of Nepal was, of course, that their chief's proceeding in giving the mountain an English name was excused, or justified, at the time by the assertion that it had no local or native name.” The
surveyors whose motives Mr. Freshfield has impugned were formed into a committee forty-five years
1 See the article on Himálaya by General Sir R. Strachey, R.E., in 'Encyclop. Brit.," 9th edition. 2 Published 1899. 3 Geographical Journal, March, 1904, p. 363.
Wood's drawing of Gaurisankar
Schlagintweit's station at Kaulia. Whether it was visible or not was, I am sure, in General Walker's opinion not a question of moment.
13) Now that Gaurisankar and Everest have been proved in be different peaks, a suggestion has been put forward' that they belong after all to the same group " of peaks, and that " according to Alpine usage and precedent there is nothing to prevent the name Gaurisankar being applied to the loftiest peak of the group.
It is clear from this passage that the author is desirous of getting rid of the name of Everest, but it is not clear how his object is to be attained, whether by cransferring the name Gaurisankar from the one peak to the other, or by giving the name Gaurisankar to both peaks. To displace the native name from the mountain which the oatives know, and to attach it to a remote peak which they do not know, would be a course that would not commend itself to anyone interested in the preservation of local geographical names. To give the same name to both peaks would be to introduce a needless confusion.
Gaurisankar and Mount Everest, we are here told, belong to the same group; but what is a group? Controversialists give to the term different meanings to suit their own respirements. It is true that in some instances the same name has been given to different Himalayan peaks ; Kangchenjunga I and Kangchenjunga II are the official designations of the two pinnacles which cap the lofty mass of Kangchenjunga; the eight peaks of a cluster in Kumaon
I Geographical Journal, March, 1904, p. 362.