Page images


volumes, the form of which, however unsuited to our The Karroo beds similarly contain boulders of the bookshelves, probably recalls to the Government rocks that preceded them, including the granite that printers the blue-books of the old home-country. No rose beneath the Waterberg series. These boulders time has been lost, moreover, in the prosecution of occur in the Glacial beds at the base of the system, researches which furnish something worthy to record, corresponding with the Dwyka conglomerate of

Cape Colony. These beds were laid down in a region already traversed by large streams, and it is very interesting to note that the modern Elands River, Bronkhorst Spruit, and Wilge River have cleared the Glacial beds out of the ancient channels, and have followed in the course of valleys that were long fossilised and lost to view.

As in Cape Colony, the Lower Karroo beds lie on handsomely glaci ated surfaces. Dr. Molengraaff directed attention to these 1838, and Mr. Mellor has described

new and admirable in stances (Fig. 2). The uniform direc tion of the striæ from one exposure to another points to an ice-sheet, and not to local glaciers. The fact that the movement was from north to south, speaking in general terms, both in the Transvaal and in Cape Colony, only adds zest to the search for an explanation of this old

Glacial epoch in the southern Fig. 1.–Waterberg sandstones near Balmoral, containing fragments of Pretoria quartzite.

hemisphere. It is satisfactory to find that Dr. Molengraaff now con

cludes that even in the Vryheid and the results have here been illustrated on an ex- district the ice-movement was from N.W. to SE, cellent and liberal scale. Topographic work has been i.e., contrary to his previous suggestion. undertaken where existing surveys are deficient, and Mr. A. L. Hall found in the area allotted to him an it seems probable that the geologists will run ahead, interesting series of igneous rocks, including a norite for some years to come, of the accurate mapping of which, near Onderstepoort, has given rise to considerthe country. The beds dealt with are, firstly, the able masses of magnetite by a process of segregation. Pretoria series of quartzites and shales, which must have a high antiquity; secondly, the Waterberg sandstones and grits, which are now for the first time proved to be distinctly unconformable on the Pretoria series; and thirdly, the Karroo system, or rather systems, which opened under Glacial conditions, and were laid down on the denuded surface of the folded Waterberg series.

The two earlier series are thus clearly pre-Carboniferous. The Pretoria series is in places enormously swollen by the intrusion of diabase, which has worked its way along the bedding-planes with remarkable regularity. Where it breaks across the beds, it becomes slightly modified and charged with fragments from the quartzites. The Waterberg series near Balmoral has been invaded laccolitically by a granite, which is correlated with the red granite of the northern Transvaal.

On its upper surface, which follows the planes of stratification of the overlying beds, Fig. 2.-Glaciated surface (Permo-Carboniferous glaciation), north of D Juglas Colliery, neas it passes into a platy rock of the compact quartz-porphyry type.

Mr. E. T. Mellor regards the Waterberg series, with It is not so clear, however, that similar internal proits coarse breccias and conglomerates, as deposited in cesses, taking place during cooling, will account for waters swayed by powerful currents, torrents from the the passage of the norite into red granite, described as land being responsible for the earlier beds. Frag- occurring near the farm of Doornpoort. The facts ments of the Pretoria quartzites are found in these, noted, particularly the mottling of the granite near it affording additional proof of the unconformity (Fig. 1). margin, where it contains augite and decomposed



" for

hornblende, seem to point rather to the formation of are mounted. He gives as an instance how the train a composite rock along an intrusive junction.

of the peacock, commonly called its “ tail,” is often Messrs. Kynaston and Hall conclude this important placed as if it arose from the hinder end of the body, report with an account of what they style “ diamond- while in reality when erect it stands in front of the iferous” pipes and alluvial deposits. It is suggested wings, as shown in the accompanying illustration rethat the diamond-bearing vents were connected with produced from Mr. Pycraft's paper. the great uplift that followed the close of the Karroo “Would it not be well,” remarks Dr. Bather very period in South Africa.

aptly in his excellent presidential address at the AberSome of Mr. Mellor's results, now detailed in the deen conference of the Museums' Association, official memoir, were communicated earlier in 1904 to each of us Museum curators occasionally to ask himself the Geological Society of South Africa, and have been the question: What exactly is the object of my incorporated in Dr. Molengraaff's “ Geology of the Museum?” While laying stress on inspiration as one Transvaal.” This handy work, the publisher of of the principal functions of a museum, by which Dr. which is not named, now replaces the well known Bather understands the selection and display of paper in the Bulletin de la Société géologique de material so as to attract members of the general public, France for 1901. It is accompanied by a coloured sketch map on the scale of 1: 300,000.



OUR MUSEUMS.? THE object of the asso

ciation, of which the manifold spheres of activity are chronicled in the Museums' Journal, is the promotion of the better and more systematic working of museums. That museums are destined to play a very important function in the future education of our race every curator is fully convinced. Yet anyone perusing the pages of the Museums' Journal will be struck by the apparent want of unanimity among those into whose charge such institutions have been placed as to the best methods to be adopted in conveying to the public the educational advantages offered. A learned German museum official thought that if artistic skill were more cultivated the public would show increased appreciation for museums.

He insists that the greater the knowledge of drawing Fig. 1.--Side view of the Peacock in display showing that, when erect, the train stands in front of the wings, and in a community, the

not bebinitbein. From the Museums' Journal. greater the value of a museum as an educational institution for a i he does not, however, touch upon the really vital point nation. Dr. Hecht, a French museum authority, to the museum curator—how can we best induce the advocates placing among natural history specimens a community to enter the doors of our institutions? number of attractive and pleasing exhibits so as to The scope of museums is extended from year to year, lead the mind of the visitor to larger ideas, and to and everything is done to widen the sphere of their show him by well chosen illustrations in how many usefulness. A museum is no longer a place for exways animal life is connected with human civilisation. hibition only, but a place for research and investiAnother gentleman argues that the doctrine of evolu- gation, and for the encouragement of those who desire tion should be the key-note of museum work, while to devote their time to such. Yet no one like the Mr. Pycraft directs attention to a real defect in many museum curator is more impressed with the fact that, of our museums in the manner in which our animals in spite of all his efforts to make his collections appeal "Geology of the Transvaal.” By Dr. G. A. F. Molengraaff. Translated

to the public, in spite of his heartfelt desire to teach J. H. Ronaldson, M.E. With Additions and Alterations by the Author. both old and young, he only succeeds in attracting Pp. viii +90 (Edinburgh and Johannesburg. 1904.)

within the walls of the institution a comparatively The Museums' Journal. Edited by E. Howarth. Vol. iii. (July, 1991 to June, 1904). Pp. x+436 and 73-142. (London: Dulau and Co.,

small percentage of the community. What is really 14) Frice 135, pet,

wanted, it seems to us, is that schools and museums

[ocr errors]

should work hand in hand to aid one another in the The investigation brought out in a striking manner supreme object of education. A beginning in that the different effects of atmospheric absorption in the direction has been made in the United States and in solar spectrum, and put one on a firmer footing as some towns in England, where the young are taught regards the variations due to atmospheric influences. in the lecture theatre and are then conducted by the After the publication of these results, McClean teacher to the section of the museum dealing with the turned his attention again to terrestrial spectra, and subject of the discourse. In this way the young are made a minute study of the comparative photographic familiarised with the objects and uses of museums, to spectra of the sun and metals. The first results were which they will surely more readily return in after life, connected with the spectra of the gold and iron groups and in the development of which they will take a keener of metals. These spectra were collated by means interest than they do at present.

R. F. S. of their common air lines with the iron spectrum,

and so by means of the iron lines with the solar

spectrum.' In the gold group he found many lines DR. FRANK McCLEAN, F.R.S.

due to these metals which up to that time had not been N Dr. Frank McClean astronomy has not only lost observed, and he also remarked some curious coinci

one of her most devoted and painstaking fol- dences that existed between the air lines in the metallic lowers, but a generous benefactor that can ill be spectra and lines in the solar spectrum. That he had spared, especially in this country. His death came as a

in his mind the eventual spectroscopic study of the surprise to most of his friends, for, although it was

heavenly bodies is shown even in his brief accounts known that his increasing years were beginning to of these experiments, for in one case he writes, “the tell on his general activity, it was thought that there spectra of the metals appear to me to be fairly within was still much work left in him. Unfortunately,

the scope of astronomy, as our knowledge of them however, this was not to be, for, at the latter end of forms the basis of any knowledge we possess of the his usual trip on the Continent, he was taken ill at composition of the heavenly bodies." Brussels, and very shortly afterwards passed away on

At the end of 1891 he published another set of comNovember 8 at the age of sixty-seven, surrounded by parative spectra of the sun and metals... The two members of his family.

series consisted of six sections, corresponding to six Dr. McClean was the son of the late distinguished sections of Angstrom's chart; they were as follows :engineer, Mr. J. R. McClean, F.R.S., and was born Section i. contained the spectra of the sun, iron, in 1837. After the completion of his education at platinum, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium, Westminster, the College, Glasgow, and Trinity ruthenium, gold, and silver. The last eight conCollege, Cambridge, of which he was a scholar, stitute the platinum group of metals. graduating in 1859 as a wrangler, he took up the

Section ii. contained the spectra of the sun, iron, profession of his father, and became apprenticed in manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, aluminium, the same year to Sir John Hawkshaw; three years and copper. These seven metals constitute the iron later he was taken into partnership in the firm of copper group. Messrs. McClean and Stileman.

Throughout McClean's scientific career his greatest Up to the year 1870 his energy was directed to work was undoubtedly the spectroscopic survey of engineering matters, but retiring from his profession, every star brighter than 3 magnitudes scattered he devoted the remaining years of his life to spectro- | throughout the whole celestial sphere. scopic researches in connection with the sun and stars. Such a programme seemed large for one man to The success which rewarded his endeavours is best tackle single-handed, but McClean was equal to the shown by the numerous important papers which he occasion, and succeeded not only in accomplishing it, communicated to the Royal Society and Royal but in discussing and publishing the results. Astronomical Society, and by the fact that the council For the northern stars the photographs were secured of the latter society awarded him, in 1899, the gold at his home, Rusthall House, Tunbridge Wells. medal, their highest honour for astronomical research. The instrument employed was a photographic teleThe crowning work, which he fortunately completed, scope having an object glass of twelve inches diameter, and with which his name will always be associated, and carrying an objective prism of the same aperture, was the conception and carrying out of the great with a refracting angle of 20°. spectroscopic survey of the brighter stars over the

To secure the southern stars McClean worked at the whole celestial sphere.

Cape of Good Hope from May to November, 1897: He commenced his spectroscopic work with several He took with him the prism he had already used for important researches, all of which were carried out the northern work, and fixed it in front of the object with zeal, patience, and thoroughness; these were glass of the well-known Cape astrographic instrument, naturally closely allied, in fact preliminary steps, to which had been placed at his disposal by Sir David the great work to which he later devoted his energies. Gill. Both series of photographs were thus secured The first of these dealt with the photography of with practically identical instruments, the advantage metallic spectra by means of an induction spark, after of which it is difficult to overestimate. which he turned his attention to the nearest star, the Space does not permit, nor is it here necessary, to sun, and made an elaborate series of comparative enumerate at any length the results of such a far. photographs of the spectra at high and low altitudes. reaching research, which were so ably discussed, and An account of this, accompanied by a beautiful atlas received such high praise. Mention, however, may be of plates, was submitted in 1890 to the Royal Astro- made of the originality he displayed in referring the nomical Society. The high sun spectrum was taken stars to galactic latitude and longitude, instead of emas far as possible when the sun's altitude was more than ploying the usual system of right ascension and de45°, and the low sun when it was under 71°, so that clination. The celestial sphere he divided into four the depth of atmosphere traversed was in the pro- equal areas by drawing a circle at a radius of 60° portion of one to five respectively. For securing these from each galactic pole. By means of a great circle photographs he employed a fixed heliostat to reflect passing through the galactic poles, he cut the sphere the solar light into a telescope fixed parallel to the into two halves, so that each of the four areas was polar axis, in conjunction with a spectroscope in which again equally divided. This apparently simple porwas used a large Rowland plane grating.

tioning of the heavens was amply rewarded.

In discussing the relation of special type stars to Astronomical Society, the British Association, the the Galaxy, one of the chief facts that made itself at Institution of Civil Engineers, Greenwich Observaonce apparent was that “Helium” stars were not tory, Solar Physics Observatory, and the Cambridge indiscriminately scattered over the heavens like the University Observatory. solar or other type stars, but were more thickly con

W. J. S. L. centrated in the two zones north and south of the galactic equator. In addition, among many other outcomes of this survey was the discovery of oxygen in the spectrum of B Crucis, and in the helium stars

NOTES. generally.

THE seventieth birthday of Prof. G. H. Quincke, the The energy and stamina displayed by McClean in doyen of German physicists, will be celebrated at Heidelall his work will be best understood when it is men- berg on Saturday next, November 19.

Prof. Quincke's tioned that he employed no assistants. In his labora- laboratory formed the subject of a contribution to our series tory he was the sole operator, and in the observatory of scientific centres in Nature of April 24, 1902, and his at night every manipulation was accomplished by his own hands. To quote the words of the president of portrait was reproduced in the article

. Reference was then the Royal Astronomical Society when presenting him

made to the admirable manner in which the laboratories with the gold medal, “.... it was his eye that

at Heidelberg are arranged, and the many ingenious devices measured the lines, and his was the pen that worked to be found in them, as well as to some of the investigations out the calculations. Need I add more to prove that carried on. It is therefore unnecessary to attempt to what Mr. McClean's hand had found to do he did with describe again the results of Prof. Quincke's unall his might?"

interrupted work in physical research for nearly half a Turning now from this very brief and incomplete century. Among Prof. Quincke's many pupils have been summary of McClean's scientific work, reference must Prof. Lenard (Kiel), Prof. Braun (Strassburg), Prof. W. be made to his generosity in presenting munificent König (Greifswald), Profs. Elster and Geitel (Wolfenbüttel), gifts for the advancement of astronomy. Being a the late Prof. Willard Gibbs, Prof. Michelson, Dr. J. T. worker himself, he was in a position to know in what Bottomley, F.R.S., Dr. J. McCrae (Glasgow), &c.; a comdirection monetary aid could be best employed. As plete list would include many other English and American the founder of the Isaac Newton studentships at Cambridge University, requiring an endowment of

students. To celebrate the occasion of Prof. Quincke's 15,000l., he rendered a service to astronomical science seventieth birthday, a committee, with Prof. Kohlrausch which it would be hard to overestimate, and the (Berlin) as president and Dr. R. H. Weber (Heidelberg) results that will accrue from it will, we hope, be a as secretary, has arranged for the presentation of a large fitting memorial to his name.

and handsome album containing the autograph photographs Not content with providing in this way the means of many of the leading physicists of all nationalities and of by which the study of astronomy will be encouraged, Prof. Quincke's former pupils. A convincing testimony of he presented the Cape Observatory, ten years ago, the high value set on Prof. Quincke's work in this country with a large telescope, fittings, and dome, with all the

is supplied not only by the lists of universities and learned latest improvements, to accomplish work which otherwise would have been delayed possibly for many years.

societies which have conferred their honours on him, but also He saw at once the field that was open and the ad by the fact that among the English physicists and personal vance that was possible if the southern heavens were

friends who have contributed photographs are Lord Kelvin, surveyed by a prismatic camera of large dimensions, Lord Rayleigh, Sir W. Huggins, Sir W. Ramsay, Sir and he took this opportunity to supply the necessary

H. E. Roscoe, Sir N. Lockyer, Sir W. H. Preece, Prof. means.

J. J. Thomson, Sir A. Rücker, Prof. J. Larmor, Prof. J. A. The fact that Sir David Gill in his recent report for Ewing, Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir O. Lodge, Prof. J. H. Poynthe year 1903 writes, “The Zeiss prism is a very ting, Prof. G. Carey Foster, Prof. A. Schuster, Dr. W. N. periect and transparent piece of glass, and I have no Shaw, Prof. J. Perry, Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. J. G. doubt that its performance will do credit to the fame MacGregor, Prof. J. T. Joly, Prof. G. H. Darwin, Prof. of its makers. The observatory is indebted to Mr.

W. G. Adams, Prof. W. M. Hicks, Prof. H. Stroud, Prof. McClean for this splendid gift, as also for the costly A. P. Chattock, Prof. A. S. Herschel, and many others. alterations to the spectroscope,” shows that McClean's original gift has been greatly increased. As the in- THE American Consul at Bermuda describes in a United auguration of the “Victoria" telescope forms an States Consular Report the steps which have been taken to epoch in the history of the Cape Observatory, may the establish there a biological station which will be to North results obtained with it play a like rôle in the advance- America what the Naples station is to Europe. For several ment of stellar spectroscopy for the southern hemi

years American naturalists have carried on investigations sphere.

McClean was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of the natural history of the Bermudas and the surrounding in 1895; the university of Glasgow conferred on him sea, and have made efforts to establish a biological station the honorary degree of LL.D., while, as previously in these islands. Upon the advice of the Royal Society, our mentioned, he obtained the gold medal of the Royal Government has given its assent to the project. The Astronomical Society.

Colonial Government has expressed its willingness to purIn 1865 he married Ellen, the daughter of Mr. John chase the land and erect the building, and grants toward Greg, of Escowbeck, Lancaster, who now mourns equipment and support of tables have been made by the with her three sons and two daughters his loss. They Royal Society and the Carnegie Institution. Harvard Uniare not, however, alone in their grief, for his death is versity and New York University, in connection with the deeply felt by a large circle of friends, among whom Bermuda Natural History Society, have already commenced are many astronomical colleagues who will miss his work in a temporary laboratory close to what will be the familiar face. The funeral, which took place on Friday last, was permanent quarters of the station, and the United States attended by representatives from many societies and Government has been asked to give generous support to the institutions, among which may be mentioned the station. America has already founded a tropical botanical Cambridge University, the Royal Society, the Royal laboratory in buildings of the Government of Jamaica at Cinchona, and has now secured a biological station, so that In a letter to the Speaker of November 5, Mr. J. A. Reid it appears as if the Americans are rapidly getting the control urges that educationists should consider the desirability of of the scientific interests of our western tropical possessions. teaching children the principles of evolution in schools. In While we cannot but admire the interest shown in the considering how the subject might be taught, Prof. W. K. establishment of these stations by universities and colleges Clifford remarked in 1878 : “ The teacher, knowing what in the United States, it is impossible not to regret the apathy is to come in the end, may so select the portions of various with which our home and colonial Governments regard subjects which he teaches at an earlier stage that they shall such matters. Surely it is the duty of the State to encourage supply in a later stage a means of understanding and the pursuit and cultivation of natural knowledge through- estimating the evidence on some question of evolution." out the Empire, and to realise the richness of its possessions in material for scientific study as well as in precious

The inaugural meeting of the Association of Economic minerals. It is a reproach to our nation that a biological

Biologists was held at Burlington House on Tuesday, station has not been established by us in the Bermudas;

November 8. Mr. F. V. Theobald occupied the chair, and for now, instead of American investigators carrying on their

in the course of his introductory remarks he detailed the work in a British station, we have to face the fact that,

steps taken by Mr. Walter E. Collinge to found the associthough the station will be on British soil, it will belong to

ation. He hoped that the association would welcome all the United States, and our own countrymen will be guests

investigators in economic biology, whether agricultural, in it. So far as the interests of science are concerned,

medical, or commercial. The relationship between biology probably this does not matter; for, as Mr. Balfour wrote a

and agriculture was apparent to all, but only recently had few days ago to the translator of his British Association

the importance of its relationships with medicine and comaddress, community of aim “ binds together the scientific

merce been realised. Membership of the association will men throughout the world into one international brother

be confined to workers in economic biology. The following hood.” But it should be evident to some of our ministers,

officers have been elected for 1904-5:-president, Mr. Fred at least to Mr. Balfour, who has often expressed sympathy

V. Theobald ; vice-president, Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S.; with scientific progress, that it cannot be to the advantage

council, Prof. G. S. Boulger, Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. of the State for another nation to accept responsibilities

Geo. H. Carpenter, Dr. Francis Marshall, Mr. Robert Newwhich belong to us. Mr. Balfour is gratified at the success

stead, Major Ronald Ross, F.R.S., Mr. Fraser Storey, Mr. of the translation of his address into German, but apparently

Cecil Warburton; hon. treasurer, Mr. Herbert Stone ; hon. he does not consider that the interest shown in scientific

secretary, Mr. Walter E. Collinge. The next meeting will matters in Germany is due to the active and practical part

be held at Birmingham in April, 1905. played by the State in helping scientific education and re- On December 4, 1804, Joseph Lebon, who is considered search. What we want here and in all parts of the Empire in France as the inventor of lighting-gas, was found is more practical help of the kind given by the United States murdered by an unknown hand in the Champs-Elysees, near and Germany to save us from the future regret of lost the site where is now the Grand Palais. In memory of this opportunities.

sad tragedy, and to pay due honour to the celebrated inReuter's Agency states that a long report has been re

ventor, the Compagnie Parisienne du Gaz has given a ceived from the members of the expedition of the Liverpool

certain quantity of gas, free of charge, to the Aëro Club and

Société française aërienne. Ascents will accordingly be School of Tropical Medicine now investigating sleeping sick

made on December 4 by members of these two societies. ness in the Congo. Complete observations have been made on the spread and distribution of sleeping sickness along

On December 5 an exhibition will be held in the Grand the Congo River for a distance of nearly 1000 miles between

Palais by the Automobile Club. Stanley Pool and Stanley Falls. From Leopoldville to At a meeting of the Société astronomique de France held Bumba cases of sleeping sickness were present in every town in Paris on November 2, M. Lippmann being in the chair, visited, and a large percentage of the population harboured the Comte de la Baume-Pluvinel gave an address on the trypanosomes. From Basoko to the falls only imported forthcoming total eclipse of the sun on August 30, 1905. cases were met. with, with two exceptions, and trypano- He mentioned the intentions of American astronomers to somes were not found among the general population. send expeditions to Labrador, Spain, and Upper Egypt. Observation seems to show that enlarged cervical glands are After the address the society decided to appoint a committee an early sign of the disease, recognisable before trypano- for determining the part which France should take in somes make their appearance in the general circulation, and observing the eclipse. It is fairly certain that the principal in a little fluid withdrawn from a gland with a hypodermic work of this committee will be concerned with observations needle trypanosomes may be detected. Tsetse flies were in Algeria and Tunis, through which the line of totality incessantly present up to Basoko, the species being Glossina

passes. This eclipse was also commented upon at the last palpalis, after which they became infrequent, their distri- meeting of the St. Petersburg Scientific Aëronautic Conbution thus corresponding with that of sleeping sickness.

gress, officially held in the rooms of the Imperial Academy Mr. W. H. PICKERING, late chief of the inspecting staff

of Sciences under the chairmanship of the Grand Duke for the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire mining districts, has

Constantin Constantinovitch, president of the academy. been appointed Chief Inspector of Mines in India.

Colonel Vives y Vich has announced that he will make

an aëronautical ascent from Burgos on this occasion, for Dr. Catto has been awarded the Craggs prize of the the purpose of ascertaining the part the clouds may possibly London School of Tropical Medicine for his discovery of a play in the apparent brightness and shade of the corona. new schistosomum parasite of man. The Craggs prize, of In addition, the international committee of ballons-sondes the value of gol., was founded some years ago by Sir John has decided that atmospheric observations shall be made at Craggs, and is awarded annually in October to that student

the great altitudes of the various observatories connected of the London School who is considered to have carried out with the institution during August 29, 30, and 31 for the best piece of research work, or made an important dis- ascertaining the changes the eclipse may introduce in the covery, in tropical medicine during the preceding year. prevailing winds and temperatures at different altitudes.

« PreviousContinue »