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graphically the variations of the principal magnetic and ice by the work done in its descent. This work is converted meteorological elements and of earth movements, in addition into heat in overcoming friction, viscosity, and similar reto a self-registering “ Beckley” rain gauge and other auto- sistånces, just as in Joule's classical experiments. A matic apparatus. The tables, containing hourly and mean further increase in the internal melting during the winter values, have been carefully prepared on the Greenwich is probably due to the pressure produced by the winter pattern, and are, therefore, quite clear and convenient for reference. Mr. Claxton prints the results of an interesting investigation of the degree of accuracy of self-registering

A SPECIAL report of the seventy-sixth meeting of the maximum and minimum thermometers. He finds that maxi

German Association of Naturalists and Physicians is conmum thermometers read higher in a horizontal position than

tained in the number of the Physikalische Zeitschrift for

October when inclined to the horizon; the excess may amount to

The meeting was held at Breslau from 1° F. Also, that the indications of spirit minimum thermo- September 18 to 24. and the physical papers include the meters are untrustworthy, owing chiefly to evaporation of

following :-E. Hoppe, constitution of magnets; H. Hartl, the spirit. They should be used in conjunction with an

lecture apparatus; C. Pulfrich, coast surveying, &c.; P. ordinary mercurial thermometer.

Müller, vacuum apparatus; C. Dieterici, energy of water and

its vapour; W. Scheffer, stereoscopic problems; A. Köhler, A PAPER on Britain's place in foreign markets is con

photomicrography by ultra-violet light; J. Stark, mercury tributed to the Economic Journal for September by Prof.

lamps of quartz glass; O. Lummer and P. Weiss, n-rays; A. W. Flux. The author has had considerable difficulty

W. Nernst, chemical equilibria at high temperatures; in drawing up statistics owing to the great discrepancies L. Grunmach, properties of emanium and liquid nitrous which he finds in the returns from different countries. He,

oxide; A. Wehnelt, negative ions from incandescent metallic however, considers that the market for British goods in

oxides ; O. Lummer, resolution of fine spectrum lines; Germany, France, and the United States, though narrowed

W. Schmidt, models of wave motion ; H. T. Simon, a phaseby the tariff policy of the third, is still of great importance,

meter ; M. Reinganum, molecular volumes of halogen salts; and is expansive in some degree except in the case of the

L. Graetz, radiations from hydrogen peroxide; J. RosenUnited States. In all three cases, however, the trade done

thal, Sprengel pumps; W. Stern, tone-variators; K. by other countries as a whole has grown faster than their

Schreber, explosion motors, also force, weight and mass; trade with us.

G. Bredig and F. Epstein, kinetics of adiabatic reactions ;

and E. Meyer, combustion engines. In addition a dis. During March, 1903, several excursions were made

cussion took place on mathematical and scientific teaching to the Phlegræan fields of Naples by Dr. G. de Lorenzo and

in the higher schools, including addresses by K. Fricke, Sir Archibald Geikie. At the suggestion of the latter the

F. Klein, F. Merkel, and G. Leubuscher. In the general former has now published a short history of volcanic activity meetings papers were read on the Ice age by Messrs. in this region (Rendiconto Naples Academy, May to July).

Brückner, Meyer and Partsch, on the Antarctic expedition Dr. de Lorenzo divides the volcanic formations into three by Prof. Gazert, and on biological mechanics by Prof. periods, the first being represented by the pipernoid tufa

Roux. of the Campagna and by conglomerate and breccia at Cuma,

The scientific methods which have characterised Japanese Camaldoli and Procida, the second by the yellow tufa of Posilipo, Nisida, Pozzuoli, Capodimonte, &c., and the

operations in the Far East are not the only results of the

well developed system of education which the last thirtytrachitic masses of the Vomero, and the third period by the

five years has seen established in Japan. Some fifty years eruptions of the Solfatara, Monte Nuovo, the Lago d'Agnano

ago Japan was a hermit nation more than five centuries and similar formations.

behind the times, to-day she constitutes a new and important

factor in the problem of the distribution of the world's In the Rendiconto of the Naples Academy for March and

commerce. The story of the foreign commerce of Japan April, Prof. Orazio Rebuffat describes some interesting and

since the restoration of imperial authority in 1868 is told simple experiments with radium salts. When a glass rod was rubbed with wool in the common way for producing

by Mr. Yukimasa Hattori in Nos. 9 and 10 of series xxii.

of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and electric sparks the author found that if the experiment

Political Science, copies of which have reached us. Mr. was performed in a medium containing a radium salt a

Hattori considers his subject under three headings : the luminous glow followed the wool, and when the finger was

volume of trade, the character of Japan's commerce, and brought near the excited glass a glow was again seen.

the geographical distribution of trade. Two remarks By taking a vacuum tube and opening connection with a

towards the end of his paper will show the conclusions small tube containing a salt of radium, and then rubbing to which Mr. Hattori has come. Japan must rely on the outside of the glass tube with wool, a brilliant glow

industrial development rather than on agriculture, and must seen within. By means of this experiment Prof.

try to excel in the quality of the goods produced rather Rebuffat considers it possible to demonstrate the production

than in quantity." “ Japan possesses all the advantages of emanations from radium preparations of very feeble

necessary to make her a great manufacturing country. Her activity.

people possess exceptional skill, and labour is relatively

cheap : coal is abundant, and the raw material is easily DR. R. VON LENDENFELD, of Prague, has published in obtainable either at home or in the neighbouring countries." Globus, lxxxv., 24, a discussion of the melting of glaciers in

Those readers who have followed the steps in Japan's dewinter. The author considers that the earth's interior heat velopment since 1868 will be prepared to agree with Mr. is incapable of accounting for any considerable part of the

Hattori that his country is but " at the very beginning of phenomenon; indeed, he only attributes about 3 per cent.

beginnings ” of what will yet be seen. to 6 per cent. of the result to this cause. Another cause which may account for a further i per cent. is the slow A second edition of Mr. Drinkwater Butt's “Practical conduction of the summer heat to the interior. The main Retouching " has been published by Messrs. Iliffe and Sons cause of the melting is attributed to the heating of the Ltd., at is, net.


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MESSRS. MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD., have in the press an portance of the valuable experimental results he obtained
English translation of Dr. Cohnheim's “ Chemistry of the in measuring the old and new bands on his large dispersion
Proteids," prepared with the author's sanction from the photographs.
second edition of that work by Dr. Gustav Mann, of the

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CAPE OBSERVATORY.-In the report physiological laboratory at Oxford, and author of " Physio- of the Cape Observatory for 1903 Sir David Gill records logical Histology."

several important additions to and modifications of the inDr, Cohnheim's book, which, in its

strumental equipment. second edition, has been entirely re-modelled, deals with all The work of the new transit circle has been greatly facilirecent advances made in analysing and synthetising proteids. tated, and the results improved by the adaptation of a Several special features have been introduced into the English Repsold automatic transitting device to the instrument. translation, and some of the chapters have been re-written.

The line-of-sight spectroscope which is used in connection

with the Victoria telescope has been re-modelled, and an Ax English edition of Prof. Weismann's “ Evolution extremely delicate thermostatic arrangement has been fitted Theory," which has been translated, with the author's co

so that the temperature of the prism box can be maintained operation, from the second German edition (1904) by Prof.

constant, within 10°05 F., during a three or four hours'

exposure. J. Arthur Thomson, of Aberdeen University, and his wife,

in the astrophysical department several stellar spectra will be published in volumes by Mr. Edward Arnold have been completely reduced in the region 1 4200 to ^ 4580, toward the end of this month.

and those of Canopus and Sirius have been discussed in conTo commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the

nection with the corresponding terrestrial origins of their

lines. The results of the line-of-sight work have been made founding of the firm of Burroughs, Wellcome and Co., Mr. more trustworthy by measuring only those lines which, on Henry S. Wellcome is arranging an exhibition of historical traversing either the thin or the thick ends of the prisms, objects in connection with the history of medicine, chemistry,

show no relative displacement, and a Phænicis has been pharmacy, and the allied sciences, the object being to illus

shown to have very large radial velocity. In December trate the art and science of healing in all ages. The date

this star was apparently receding from us at the rate of

105 km. per second. of the opening of the exhibition is not yet fixed.

A large amount of routine work in connection with the The Cambridge University Press will publish very shortly

maintenance of an efficient time service and the completion

of the Cape zone for the astrographic chart was accomplished in the Cambridge Biological Series “Morphology and during the year. Important operations were also carried Anthropology." by Mr. W. L. H. Duckworth. The volume out in connection with the geodetic survey of South Africa, will present a summary of the anatomical evidence bearing whilst the Government survey of the Transvaal and the on the problem of man's place in nature. The Cambridge Orange River Colony and the topographic survey of South

Africa University Press has also in preparation “Studies from the

have been planned, the former having been

commenced. Anthropological Laboratory in the University of Cam


Some very interesting experimental results, obtained with Tue November number of the Popular Science Monthly the idea of determining as definitely as possible the points is devoted entirely to the St. Louis Congress of Arts and at which, under various conditions, the primary is replaced Science. The representative administrative board, it will

by the secondary spectrum in gases, are published by Mr.

P. G. Nutting in No. 2, vol. xx., of the Astrophysical be remembered, adopted the plan proposed by Prof. Münster- Journal. berg, of Harvard University, to hold one congress of the The general method was to determine what current arts and sciences which should attempt to promote and capacity caused the above named change when either the demonstrate the unity of science. An appreciation of the wave-length, the pressure, the nature of the gas, the inwork of this international congress, interspersed with

ductance or the resistance was altered, and this was called

the “ critical capacity. portraits of representative men of science from various parts

Among other results the experiments showed that this of the world, is contributed by Mr. W. H. Davis, of Lehigh critical capacity is a function of the wave-length, and that L'niversity, one of the secretaries. A selection from the it increases slightly as the pressure decreases down to about adaresses given at the congress completes an interesting i mm. of air, when it suddenly becomes infinite. All the number of the magazine.

elements tested have the same critical capacity for the same wave-length and pressure, although the critical point is more

marked in some elements than in others. The introduction OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

of inductance always relatively weakens the secondary and

strengthens the primary spectrum, although no amount of Excke's COMET (1904 b).-A telegram from Prof. Max inductance will completely annul the effects of capacity. Wull to the Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3975) states Resistance acts similarly to inductance. The critical

on October 28 the ephemeris published by M. capacity of any vapour in a mixture of vapours was shown Kaminsky in No. 3973 of that journal needed corrections of to be the same as when no other gases were present. +118. -24, and, further, that the magnitude of the comet was 12 5.

Visual observations have not, as yet, been fruitful. Prof. NEW BUILDINGS OF THE UNIVERSITY E. Millosevich vainly sought for this object on September 15


The George Holt Physics Laboratory. BAXD SERIES.-Referring a note on the results obtained THE

HE George Holt Physics Laboratory, which was deby Mr. O. C. Lester concerning the oxygen bands in the clared open by Lord Kelvin on November 12, will be solar spectrum, which appeared in these columns on valued by the University of Liverpool as a magnificent October 20, Prof. Deslandres directs attention to the fact addition to its fabric, as well as a memorial to one of the that a modification of his first formula (viz. N=a+bno), wisest and most generous supporters of that college from equivalent to that now proposed by Mr. Lester, was pub- which the university has been developed. lished by him in his original (Comptes rendus, August, 1886) The laboratory covers an area of 9600 square feet, and and succeeding memoirs on this subject.

has an average height of 55 feet. The architects arr Mr. Lester's statement that the first law requires the Messrs. Willink and Thicknesse, of Liverpool, with wl: modification which he proposes is obviously justified, but he there is associated Prof. F. M. Simpson, now of Univé ! appears to have omitted to study the original memoirs, and College, London. The external walls, which are very i to have accepted the epitomised and generally known results stantial, are built in best common brick with broad course, as being complete. This does not, however, lessen the im- of red brick and dressings of Store

The base

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ment floors are asphalte on a bed of concrete resting on experimental purposes to all points of two vertical walls the continuous rock which is the foundation of the whole which extend to the full height of the tower, about 75 feet. building. All the upper floors are fire-proof; they consist In another part of the laboratory access over a horizontal of a bed of concrete which encases a lattice-work of steel distance, about 90 feet, nearly equal to the whole length girders, and supports a layer of coke breeze, upon which of the building, is secured. tongued and grooved pitch-pine boards are stuck down with The rooms are heated by low pressure hot water, and bitumen and nailed. The resulting surface is bor oise- are ventilated by an exhaust fan in the roof. They are less and steady, and the whole building is made very rigid adequately supplied with gas, with sinks to which hot and by the girders employed.

cold water are led, with electric power from the corporation In the basement there is a large workshop, fully fitted mains, and with wires from a switch-board in the basement with machine tools, store-rooms, a room containing a liquid to which the accumulators are connected. The wiring is air plant, a furnace room, an accumulator room, a room run in wood casing on the surface of the walls; all pipes for the custody and comparison of standards, and a number are fully exposed, and, wherever a floor or wall is pierced, of research rooms in which extra steadiness, complete an opening is left through which further permanent or darkness, or constancy of temperature can be respectively temporary connections can be made as required. secured.

The apparatus and preparation rooms have galleries round On the ground floor, close to the entrance hall and cloak- them, so that their whole wall-space is rendered available rooms, are the doors of the large lecture theatre, a smaller for cupboards and drawers. Special devices have been class-room, and a large laboratory for elementary students. adopted for the ready darkening of the lecture theatre, and This floor also contains the preparation room, the apparatus for the provision of rigid points of attachment above the

whole length of the lecture table. The counter-shafting in the workshop is supported so as to be entirely independent of the rest of the building, and thus silence and freedom from vibration are secured.

The erection of the laboratory was rendered possible by the munificence of a small body of donors, Mrs. and Miss Holt, Sir John Brunner, the late Sir Henry Tate, the executors of the late Rev. J. H. Thom, Mr. Alfred Booth, Mr. Holbrook Gaskell, Mr. J. W. Hughes and Mr. John Rankin, who together subscribed the sum of 23,600l., which by the addition of interest has increased to 25,90ol. The cost of the building, with furniture and fittings, is 21,600l. A sum of 12001. has already been spent upon machinery and new apparatus, and thus about 3000l. is available for the completion and maintenance of its equipment.

It is hoped that the general scheme according to which the laboratory is arranged will prove favourable to simplicity and economy of administration, and will allow teaching and research to Aourish side by side, not hampering but supporting each other.

New Medical Buildings of the University of Liverpool. The new medical buildings opened at Liverpool on November 12 go far to complete the university school of medicine in that city in a thoroughly efficient and modern manner. They provide accommodation chiefly for the subjects of anatomy, surgery, and materia medica, the school of dental surgery and the school offices, and forensic medicine. There are four full floors to the building, and the ground plan is of an L shape. One limb of the L-shaped figure joins the fine Thompson-Yates laboratories opened six years ago for physiology and pathology. The other limb forms a wing ending freely towards the north. In the angle of junction of the two portions of the building are placed large theatres, one on the ground floor for surgery, the other upstairs for human anatomy. The pitch of the benching is steep, and the lighting is extremely good from a series of long windows following the curve of the rounded anglm

of the building. In the wing, lighted by windows east and Fig. I - The George Holt Physics Laboratory, Liverpool.

west, is a spacious museum for anatomical preparations.

Above this is a large room for dissection, especially well room, and a sitting-room, office, and private laboratory for lighted from the east. An excellent theatre for operative the professor.

surgery forms a feature of the surgical equipment. The first floor is set apart for the teaching of senior In addition to the theatres, museum, and dissecting room students. It contains two large students' laboratories, four are rooms for a library, and for smaller classes than those smaller rooms suitable for optical and acoustical experi- the theatres are intended to accommodate. In the front ments, a students' workshop, a library, and two sitting- portion of the building is the medical faculty meeting rooms for demonstrators.

room for transacting the business of the faculty and of The second floor consists almost entirely of research rooms its various committees, also for meetings of the veterinary of various sizes. Of these some are designed for special board which manages the newly started university school purposes, such as spectroscopy, but the majority are planned of veterinary medicine. Next to the medical faculty meetso as to be adaptable to as great a variety of needs as ing room is the spacious room providing an office for the possible.

Dean of the faculty. No effort or expense has been spared A photographic dark room is provided on each floor ; that in making the construction at once durable, well lighted in connection with the preparation room is adapted for the within, and handsome from the exterior. Admirable lightmaking of lantern slides and enlargements. There is also ing has been secured throughout, even to the basement a small observatory on the roof, containing a four-inch rooms, which are particularly good, so as to provide a equatorial telescope.

much needed reading room for students. The erection was An electrically driven lift, working in the centre of a begun three years ago, and part of the building has already tower, is available for the conveyance of heavy apparatus been in occupation for more than a year. The architects from floor to floor. It can also be used to give access for are Messrs. Waterhouse, of London, who have designed

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most of the older buildings of the university. The group of Mendeléeff passes next to the so-called " rare elements. medical school buildings now in use have cost altogether Leaving .aside historical details concerning them, he reabout 80,000l., including, with the building opened on

marks that it is the more necessary to dwell upon them Saturday, the Thompson-Yates laboratory and the Johnston as they complete to a great extent our knowledge of the laboratory. The Chancellor of the university, Lord Derby, periodic law. “ Our information about them, he conformally inaugurated the new buildings on the same after- tinues, can also, in our opinion, contribute towards noon as Lord Kelvin opened the new university laboratory explaining the relations between the phenomena and the for physics. With these fresh additions to its accommo- substances in nature; because for the understanding of a dation and teaching equipment, and with the fine new multitude of natural phenomena it is necessary to resort laboratories for zoology and for electrical engineering now to the conception of the so-called luminiferous ether, rapidly nearing completion, the University of Liverpool will which by all means must be considered as a ponderable rank among the best provided university institutions in the substance, and consequently must have its place in the country.

system of elements, inasmuch as it reminds us of the properties of helium, argon, and other similar elements. The

conception of the ether was resorted to at the outset exPROF. MENDELÉEFF ON THE CHEMICAL clusively for explaining the phenomena of light, which, as ELEMENTS.

is known, can be best understood as the result of vibrations

of the ether. However, later on, ether, considered as being THE last half-volume (eightieth) of the new Russian distributed throughout the universe, was resorted to in order “ Encyclopædic Dictionary contains a remarkable

to explain, not only electrical phenomena, but also gravitapaper by Prof. Mendeléeff on the chemical elements, of tion itself. In consequence of that, a very great importance which the following is a slightly abridged translation. has to be attributed to the ether; and as it cannot be conTogether with the articles on matter and on the periodic sidered as anything but ponderable matter, we are bound law, which Mendeléeff contributed to previous issues of

to apply to it all the conceptions which we apply to matter the same dictionary, and a paper, An Attempt at

in general, including also the chemical relations. But as, Chemical Comprehension of the World's Ether,” published

at the same time, we are bound to admit that this matter in a Russian review, this article represents the fundamental

is not only distributed throughout stellar space (in physical and chemical conceptions of the great chemist

order to explain the light which reaches us from the stars), as they now appear in connection with the discoveries of

but also penetrates all other substances; and as also we

must admit that the ether has no capacity of entering into Hurran thought," he begins,“ has always endeavoured

chemical reactions, or of undergoing any sort of chemical 10 simplify the immense variety of phenomena and sub- condensation, therefore the above mentioned elements, stances in nature by admitting, if not the full unity of the helium and argon, which are characterised precisely by the fundamental elements (Democritus, Epicurus),

at least

absence of that property of entering into chemical reactions the Asistence of a limited number of elements capable of with other substances, show in this respect a certain po ducing all the variety of substances. In antiquity this similarity with the ether.?”. Eendency often resulted even in confusing the phenomena Referring further to radium, Mendeléeff remarks that with the substances (earth, water, air, and


there can be no doubt as to its being a separate element, Since the time of Lavoisier such a confusion has become extremely rare in nature. As to the emanation of helium certainly impossible : the substances are sharply separated by radium, and the presence of the helium spectrum in the from the phenomena which are associated with them.

spectrum of radium, he explains these facts by the occlusion Of course, there may be partial returns to the old

of helium in a compound of radium, and considers that viet. However," Mendeléeff continues," the solidity“ nothing gives us reason to think that radium should be of the now prevailing conception as to the profound transformed into helium.' Notwithstanding the difference existing between substances and phenomena is tremely small quantities of radium occurring in nature, the result of such a mass of coordinated knowledge that Madame Curie has succeeded in obtaining a compound of it cannot be shattered in the least even if a small portion of it, and in establishing its kinship with barium, as also in the men of science return to the “ dynamism" of old which

finding its atomic weight to be near 224, which permits us Endeavoured to represent matter also as one of the forms of to complete the periodic system of elements by placing scenomena. Consequently we are bound now to recognise radium in the second group, in the 12th row, in which we tnr substances (the inasses) and the phenomena (the move- have already thorium and uranium, the ores of which are mats) as two quite separate, independent categories, such possessed of radio-activity.? a space and time, the substance of which our thought As to argon and its congeners-neon, krypton, and h18 not yet penetrated, but without which it cannot work. Tous, for example, we

xenon--these simple gases, discovered by Ramsay, differ are far yet from understanding from all the known elements in that, up till now, the cause of gravitation, but with its aid we understand rant phenomena, even though up till now

withstanding the most varied attempts, they could not

it is not Wita -vident whether attraction acts through the aid of

be brought into combination with any other substance, or

with each other. This gives them a separate place, quite on intervening medium or represents a fundamental force distinct from all other known elements in the periodic whi h acts at a distance. Progress in the understanding system, and induces us to complete the system by a new 17! cature depends, therefore, not upon our reducing everyting to one final conception--to one principle of all

separate group, the group zero, which precedes group i.,

the representatives of which are hydrogen, lithium, sodium, Latitu ipirs '- but in reducing the great variety of substances and so on. -"yphenomena which act upon our senses to a small number “ The placing of these elements in a new group is Rob preognised fundamental conceptions, even though these fully supported by the atomic weights which are deduced 170° be disconnected. One of such conceptions is that of for these gases on the basis of their densities, if we admit the recognised chemical elements.

that the molecule of each of them contains but one atom. “The simplest way of conceiving matter in this case is tu kursider it as the result of combinations of elements

1 "About this resemblance between argon and helium and the substance ki h themselves are matter; and the phenomena as the

of the world's ether I have already written in a separate article entitled

"An Attempt at a Chemical Comprehension of the Ether,' in the review ponovits of movements which are the property of these Messenger and Library of Self Education, in the first four numbers of • ests or their aggregations. It was from this point

This article was translaved into German in the Prometheus of 1903 *11* that the conceptions were elaborated as to the

by M. Tsbulok, and into English bv M. Kamenskiy under the title 'A

Chemical Conception of the Ether' (Longmans, Green and Co., London, contion, not only beiween phenomena and substances,

1904). I must, however, remark that the German translation is a complete Hoje also between simple bodies and elements; because the one, but that the editors of ihe English translation have omitted the intro. ption of a simple body implies the idea of an im

ductory general philosophical remarks about the fundamental distinction

between substances (masses), forces (energy), and spirit. This omission vity of transforming certain bodies into other bodies, deprives the article of the realistic meaning which I intended to give it

the conception of a chemical element is merely deter- by introducing ether into the system of elements." 304 be the desire of diminishing the number of sub

? "Some later researches lead us to believe that the atomic weight of radium *** hich are required for explaining the great variety

is slightly above the figure found by Madame Curie. but it seems to me that

it still remains doubtful whether the conclusion of Madame Curie has to te latter."

be altered."




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Thus, helium must be placed before lithium, and argon ception of the chemical elements is connected in the most before potassium, as is seen from the table, into which intimate way with the generally received teachings of radium has also been introduced. In this table there are, Galileo and Newton about the mass and the ponderability in the group zero, two unknown elements, x and y, which of matter, as also with the teaching of Lavoisier concernhave been introduced for two reasons : first, because in the ing the indestructibility of matter, the conception of the corona of the sun, above the region of incandescent ether originates exclusively from the study of phenomena hydrogen, there has been noticed an element which has an and the need of reducing them tu simpler conceptions. independent spectrum, and therefore is named coronium; Amongst such conceptions we held for a long time and although it is yet unknown (helium was also first the conception of imponderable substances (such characterised by Crookes as an element, on account of the phlogiston, luminous matter, the substance of the positive independence of its spectrum), it must have a density, and and negative electricity, heat, &c.), but gradually this consequently an atomic weight, both smaller than those of has disappeared, and now we can say with certainty that hydrogen (in the table, this element is marked as y); and the luminiferous ether, if it be real, is ponderable, although secondly, because there is no reason to believe that the it cannot be weighed, just as air cannot be weighed in air, system of elements is limited in the direction of the lightest or water in water. We cannot exclude the ether from ones by hydrogen. The presence of the elements x and y any space; it is everywhere and penetrates everything, owing in the group zero makes us think that the elements which to its extreme lightness and the rapidity of motion of its correspond to these positions in the system will be dis- molecules. Therefore such conceptions as that of the ether tinguished by the absence, in a high degree, of the capacity remain abstract, or conceptions of the inte like the one of chemical combination—a property which belongs also,

as has been already pointed

Group zero Group I. Group 11. Group III. Group IV. Group V. Group VI. Group VII, out, to helium, argon, and their analogues.

“ The same property must be attributed to

H=1'008 the substance of the ether, which must possess, moreover,

He=40 Li=7'03 Be=9'1

B=uo C=12'0 N=14'04 O=16'0 F=190 extremely low density, and consequently a very

Group VIII. great rapidity of motion 3 Ne=199 Na=23'05 Mg=24'1 Al=27'0 Si=28 4 P=31'0

of its molecules, in
order to have the possi-

Ar=38 K=39*1
Ca=40'1 Sc=44'1 | Ti=48'1 V=51'4 Cr=52'1 Mn=55'0

Fe=559 Co=59 bility of escaping from

(Cu) the spheres of attraction, not only from the

Cu=63-6 | Zn=65'4 | Ga=70'0 Ge=72'3 As=75'o Se=79 Br=7995 atmosphere of the earth, but also from Kr=818 Rb=854 Sr=8746 Y=89'0 | Zr=90°6 Nb=94'o 'Mo=96'o

Ru=1017 Rh=100 the atmospheres of our

Pd=100*5 (Ag) sun and other suns the masses of which

Ag=1079 Cd=1124 In=1140 Sn=1190 Sb=1200 Te=127
greater than that of
The researches
Xe=128 | CszI32 9| Ba=137 4 La=139 | Ce=Io

(-) concerning the double

prove that the

of the stars which we know do not exceed the mass of our


Os=191 sun more than thirty


Ir=193 Ta=183

P=1940 (Au) two times, while in other cases they are

Au=197'2 Hg=2000 TI=204'1 Pb=2069 Bi=208 equal to it; therefore, if we attribute to the ether the properties of


U=239 gases, we must admit, on the basis of the kinetic theory of gases, that its specific gravity must be very which also leads us to the very teaching about a limited much smaller than the specific gravity of hydrogen. In number of chemical elements out of which all substances in order that the ether may escape from the sphere of attrac- nature are composed." tion of stars the mass of which is fifty times greater than the mass of the sun, it must, while it chemically resembles

WELSH CONFERENCE ON THE TRAINING argon and helium, have an atomic weight not more than

OF TEACHERS. 0 000 000 000 053 (and a density, in relation to hydrogen, half as large, as I have proved in the above mentioned article TI HE Welsh National Conference on the Training of on ether). The very small value of this figure already Teachers was held in Shrewsbury on November 10 explains why there is little hope of isolating the substance and 11, and although no special reference was made to of the ether in the near future, as it also explains why it science teaching, still the subject of education is now in a penetrates all substances, and why it is condensed in a small fair way to be considered a science, since it has been in. degree, or collects in a physicomechanical way, round ponder- cluded as a section of the British Association. able substances-being mostly condensed round such The conference was convened by the Central Welsh immense masses as that of the sun or of stars.

Board and the University of Wales, and in addition to In conclusion, Mendeléeff indicates that while the con- these bodies, representatives attended from every county

education authority in Wales, from every type of educational 1 "It is worth noting ibat all the incandescent, self-luminous celestial

institution, from the National Executive of Welsh Councils bodies are immense as regards their masses, in comparison with the cooler

and from all the associations of masters and mistresses, bodies like the earth or the moon ; perhaps this depends upon the dis Upwards of 200 delegates attended in all, most of whom tribution of the ether, which is condensed precisely round such very big

remained throughout all four sessions. masses as the sun and the stars. It is also worth noticing that the atomic weights of radium, as also of thorium and uranium, are very great in

At the first session, which was devoted to " The Special comparison with those of the other elements."

Aspect of the Problem of Training Presented in Wales,"






stars masses

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