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THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1904.
or the still living representatives of a disappearing species of plant or animal, is universally regarded as
a Naturdenkmal; but in other cases, according to the VATURDENKMÅLER.
country and locality, we find certain exceptions, for Die Gefährdung der Naturdenkmäler und Vorschläge the rocks are among the greatest rarities, and must,
example, in north Germany the traces of glaciers on zu ihrer Erhaltung. By H. Conwentz. Pp. xii +
therefore, be regarded as Naturdenkmäler. But on the 207. (Berlin : Borntraeger, 1904.) Price 2 marks.
coast of Scandinavia their occurrence in places is so EADERS may naturally ask, “What is a Natur
frequent that there they are no longer Naturdenkmäler. denkmal?" and, since the word is a
In like manner the Cornel (Cornus Suecica) occurs in paratively new one to the German vocabulary, necessi- a few localities in north-west Germany, and in the tating its elucidation by the author even for German
east it is only found in one place, hence here it is a Teaders, it may not be out of place if we explain its
Naturdenkmal; but in north Russia, Finland, Sweden, meaning, as near as possible, in his own words. The
&c., its occurrence is frequent over large areas, hence usual meaning of “ Denkmal” to the German mind
there it is no longer a Naturdenkmal. Similar suggests a monument or memorial to commemorate
examples may be given for many other plants and some famous personage or victory (for example,
birds. From the foregoing it will be seen that a Gæthe-Denkmal, Sieges-Denkmal). But in addition
number of different factors determine whether to this the title is often applied to outstanding works natural object can be reckoned a Naturdenkmal or not, in science, literature, music, &c. Further, the remains and a decision can only be come to by taking the of ancient buildings or works of art of whatever kind surrounding conditions in each case into account. which have a historical, technical, or educative value,
The dangers which threaten those natural curiosities are spoken of as Bau- and Kunst-Denkmäler. Also and rarities are many, and the author devotes almost the term is applied to prehistoric remains, such as lake-one-half of the above memorial to an enumeration of dwellings, burying mounds, urns, tools and weapons many cases where, through ignorance, indifference, or ol stone or metal; however, the author points out that
natural causes, many unique Naturdenkmäler have all those Denkmäler are of artificial origin, that is, the
been considerably damaged, if not entirely destroyed. result of man's work and ingenuity. The term Natur- As an example of the damage which may be done denkmal has a wider application, and includes certain through ignorance or indifference, the author points results of nature's handiwork, for example, the
out the way in which the most beautiful parts of the elaborately carved stone obelisk is a Denkmal of recent forests, within reachable distance from Berlin, are times, and the rough stone-block, erected by the hand often rendered anything but attractive by the traces of man to commemorate the dead, forms a prehistoric which trippers and picnic parties so commonly leave Denkmal; while the Glacial boulder, carried from afar behind them. Frequently, also, the most beautiful in a former epoch and deposited on the plain by natural spots are, disfigured by unsuitable and unattractive forces, forms a Denkmal of nature, or as the artificially buildings, principally for the accommodation of built up cairn and rampart wall of a former age may visitors. The author also complains that many of the form prehistoric Denkmäler, so the hill and mountain most picturesque hill-tops are disfigured by monuments range, formed without man's intervention, are Denk- and towers which are entirely out of harmony with måler of nature.
their beautiful, natural surroundings. Then, again, Also the whole natural landscape, with its various the landscape is subjected to considerable disfiguration soil tormations, with its water courses and lakes, with by the many devices employed by the advertising agent. its special plant and animal communities, as well as Those in high authority are themselves not always single rare species and individuals of the original flora free from blame. In one of the German Federated and fauna, represent “ Naturdenkmäler.” Although States it was at one time proposed that, in order to only virgin lands, together with their plants and preserve the banks and channels of the water-courses, animals undisturbed by man, should come within the all trees and shrubs should be removed from the sides strict sense of the term, still we must here and there of brooks and streams. This movement was, howallow a certain latitude in its application, because un- ever, happily frustrated, otherwise not only the disturbed localities are scarcely to be found in many æsthetic features of the landscape would have been of the modern cultured States. For example, any entirely destroyed, but also many plant and animal striking feature in the landscape, even if it is a communities would also have disappeared. deserted valley or village, must not be struck off the The author then brings a long list of charges against list.
Also a natural forest growth which, by self- tourists and visitors, showing how in many places speding, has followed the destruction of the original characteristic plants of the coast and mountains have forest by man, must also be reckoned a Naturdenkmal. been almost entirely rooted out. The so-called sports
On the other hand, artificially planted trees, such as man, too, is responsible for the wanton destruction of are found in many villages, avenues, and parks, no many song-birds in certain parts of the Continent, matter how interesting they may be, cannot be re- especially Italy. The author further mentions the garded in the strict sense of the term as Naturdenk- extremely regrettable manner in which the reindeer, mäler. In many cases the local conditions must be now confined to Spitsbergen, Nova Zembla, Greenland, taken into account in reckoning any natural pheno Siberia, &c., is systematically hunted and wantonly menon as a Denkmal, for example, a part of the forest destroyed in the name of sport. Two cases are which has remained unexploited by man (virgin forest) mentioned where well educated people in high positions organised expeditions to the native haunts of description of selected types of furnace arrangement, the reindeer, where in one or two days more than 100 stokers, &c., illustrated by good diagrams, makes the head were killed, and the greater number of them whole a useful compilation. It cannot be claimed that allowed to lie and rot on the ground. The author any addition has been made to our general knowledge further gives a long list of birds which are threatened of the subject, for the importance of proper air supply, with extinction unless something is done for their pre- perfect mixing of the gases and air for combustion, servation. The dangers to which Naturdenkmäler are the maintenance of a sufficiently high temperature for exposed through the drainage and reclamation of lands, unchecked combustion, and other points have long been utilisation of water-power, stone-quarries, exploitation recognised in books dealing with boiler management. of moors for peat, &c., also the dangers of scientific Smoke, in fact, is possibly not so much the result of forestry, leading to the disappearance of all the virgin ignorance as of conservatism and false economy. forest, the uprooting of certain plants for commercial The book contains many statements in reference to purposes, trapping of birds for cages, and collecting water-tube boilers which few who have had practical by ornithologists, are too numerous to mention in knowledge of their working will altogether agree with. detail.
Thus “ when moderately worked, some degree of Around the ever-increasing centres of industry in safety, or at least a danger much less than attached to Germany the pollution of air and water is becoming the discarded Howard boiler.” Surely the rapid adopgreater every day, with the result that plant and tion of boilers of this type in the large electric lightanimal communities, as well as the whole natural land- ing and power stations, engineering works, &c., is a scape, are undergoing a rapid and radical change, , sufficient answer to this. which is necessarily accompanied by the disappearance After a reference to the development and satisfactory of rare and valuable Naturdenkmäler. The proposals working of water-tube boilers with anthracite coals put forward by the author for their preservation occupy in America, the authors refer to the same boilers being the larger part of the book. Generally speaking, they erected in this country to burn bituminous coal, and fall into three groups, viz. :-making a record of the being set exactly as in America, the results have various Naturdenkmäler for the different States been hopelesly bad, and the present smoke of London throughout the Empire; providing for their protection is due to this boiler more than anything else” (p. 19). in the various places; and making them generally It cannot be denied that the total sum paid in fines known. In carrying out these proposals, it is for permitting smoke from steam plant of this type necessary that the Government should take an active has been fairly large, but does the total number of part by the passing of certain laws and allowing the water-tube boilers in London, many of them giving active cooperation of different officials in the various grand results, bear any large proportion to boilers of departments. Also communities, societies, and private the old pattern, in spite of the rapid adoption of the individuals are called upon to lend their aid. The former in recent years? The statement we print in various details in this proposed organisation for the italics is far too sweeping and altogether unjustified. protection of nature's “monuments " seem quite
As the authors point out, in many cases boilers, reasonable and eminently practical, but with laudable presumably those in which the tubes are more nearly modesty the author does not insist that they should horizontal than vertical, were often set too near the be accepted in their entirety. He puts them forward fire, so that combustion was checked by the chilling more as a working basis, the details of which may be action of the tubes; but this certainly does not apply subject to alteration from time to time as experience to another type of water-tube boiler in use where the and trial should suggest. He is, however, confident tubes are more nearly vertical than horizontal, for here that the time will come when the “ monuments ” of ample combustion space is provided. Several excellent nature will receive the same care and reverence as that furnace arrangements are described and illustrated which has for long been bestowed upon the monu- which provide for the maintenance of a high temperaments of early art and civilisation.
ture until combustion is complete with these boilers, including the excellent one due to Mr. Miller.
Engineers, however, do not seem very favourably disPRINCIPLES OF FUEL COMBUSTION.
posed to much firebrick in the furnace, for it is not Smoke Prevention and Fuel Economy. By Wm. H. easy to ensure its standing the high temperature for
Booth and John B. C. Kershaw. Pp. 194. any length of time, and water-tube boiler makers rather (London : Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1904.) fight shy of such arrangements owing to the excessive Price 6s, net.
heating of the lower tiers of tubes. N preface the authors state object to Closely connected question the
principles of fuel combustion,” more especially in re practically fell into disuse until the advent of the waterlation to the smoke question and the economic use tube boiler resuscitated it, and yet we find the state. of fuel. They express their belief in the possibility of ment" it (the chain grate) must fail under the straight burning bituminous coal perfectly, and that black ascending flow of the usual setting of the water-tube smoke is merely so much evidence of improper design. boiler." Everything turns on the usual setting. “ Both on humanitarian and economic grounds its sup- There must be a number of unusual settings about, or pression is called for.”
it is not easy to understand why this grate has been The general principles are clearly stated, and a brief so extensively adopted for these boilers. Certain it is